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American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702330/running-away-during-adolescence-and-future-homelessness-the-amplifying-role-of-mental-health
#1
Amanda Williams, Zachary Giano, Michael Merten
Previous research indicates a positive link between youth runaway episodes and the likelihood of homelessness in later adolescence and early adulthood. An adolescent's decision to run away from home often accompanies depressive symptomology compared with stably housed youth. The present study used a large, nationally representative sample of 8,560 youth to identify links among runaway behavior, changes in depressive symptomology during the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood, and homelessness...
January 31, 2019: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702329/alcohol-initiation-among-recently-immigrated-hispanic-adolescents-roles-of-acculturation-and-sociocultural-stress
#2
Alan Meca, Byron L Zamboanga, P Priscilla Lui, Seth J Schwartz, Elma I Lorenzo-Blanco, Melinda A Gonzales-Backen, Miguel Ángel Cano, José Szapocznik, Daniel W Soto, Jennifer B Unger, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Richie Kubilus, Juan A Villamar, Karina M Lizzi
There is a growing recognition for the need for research to explore the unique and interactive effects of acculturation and sociocultural stress on alcohol initiation. Building on this research agenda, the current study sought to explore the independent and interactive effects of acculturation (i.e., heritage and U.S. cultural practices and identification) and sociocultural stress (i.e., perceived discrimination, perceived context of reception, and bicultural stress) on alcohol initiation among recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents...
January 31, 2019: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702328/discrimination-and-mental-health-in-adult-transracial-adoptees-can-parents-foster-preparedness
#3
Candice Presseau, Cirleen DeBlaere, Linh P Luu
In response to the growing trend of White parents adopting children from different racial backgrounds, and heeding the call for more research on adoption-related issues, the present study examined the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and mental health of 206 adult transracial adoptees adopted by White parents. In addition, the study examined adoptive parent racial socialization as a buffering variable in the perceived discrimination-mental health link. We hypothesized that racial discrimination experiences would be related to greater psychological distress and poorer psychological well-being...
January 31, 2019: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702327/acculturative-stress-and-alcohol-use-among-latinx-recruited-from-a-primary-care-clinic-moderations-by-emotion-dysregulation
#4
Daniel J Paulus, Ruben Rodriguez-Cano, Monica Garza, Melissa Ochoa-Perez, Chad Lemaire, Jafar Bakhshaie, Andres G Viana, Michael J Zvolensky
Among Latinx in the United States, alcohol is the most widely abused substance and is associated with a range of negative consequences. Acculturative stress is one factor that is relevant regarding Latinx substance use although more work is needed in this area. In theory, those with more adaptive emotion regulation capabilities may be better able to buffer against the adverse effects of acculturative stress on alcohol use because the person has more and better strategies to deal with life stress. Thus, the current study sought to examine the moderating role of dysregulation in the association of acculturative stress and alcohol use among Latinx in primary care...
January 31, 2019: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702326/distinct-classes-of-alcohol-use-and-related-problems-among-asian-american-young-adults
#5
Derek K Iwamoto, Thomas P Le, Jennifer Brady, Aylin Kaya
There is little understanding and minimal research identifying distinct subgroups of drinkers among ethnic minority populations, particularly Asian Americans, although growing evidence suggests that high-risk groups of Asian American drinkers exist. Sociocultural factors, including ethnic background and nativity status can be theoretically important factors that might be associated with these distinct groups. Additionally, well-established correlates of alcohol use, such as drinking to cope, Greek membership, and alcohol expectancies might also be associated with these distinct groups...
January 31, 2019: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30688482/examination-of-the-indirect-effect-of-alcohol-expectancies-on-ethnic-identity-and-adolescent-drinking-outcomes
#6
Devin E Banks, Rahissa D Winningham, Wei Wu, Tamika C B Zapolski
Although overall rates of alcohol use tend to be lower among racial/ethnic minority youth compared to White youth, consequences associated with use tend to be more severe. Identifying factors that prevent alcohol use is crucial to reducing its impact among minority adolescents. One such factor is ethnic identity, which involves gaining clarity about one's ethnic background and regard toward one's ethnic group. Strong ethnic identity has been found to work through antidrug beliefs to decrease minority youth's substance use...
January 28, 2019: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676055/community-participation-factors-and-poor-neurocognitive-functioning-among-persons-with-schizophrenia
#7
Elizabeth C Thomas, Gretchen Snethen, Mark S Salzer
Poor neurocognitive functioning among individuals with schizophrenia is typically conceptualized as resulting from a disease process. The objective of this article is to further expand understanding of poor neurocognition beyond pathogenesis toward a perspective that also incorporates community participation factors. This article focuses on three such factors-sedentary behavior, loneliness, and poverty-that have been demonstrated to be related to neurocognition and are highly prevalent among individuals with schizophrenia...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676054/puff-puff-drink-the-association-between-blunt-and-alcohol-use-among-african-american-adolescents-and-young-adults
#8
LaTrice Montgomery, Tamika Zapolski, Devin E Banks, Alfonso Floyd
Although African Americans report lower levels of alcohol use relative to their White counterparts, they experience higher rates of alcohol-related problems (e.g., alcohol dependence). One understudied connection between alcohol use and dependence is the dual use of illicit drugs, especially marijuana use. It is speculated that blunt use in combination with alcohol will have more adverse alcohol-related consequences among African Americans than alcohol use alone or alcohol and nonblunt marijuana use. The current study uses pooled data from the 2011-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health to examine the odds of alcohol dependence based on alcohol and marijuana typology in comparison to alcohol only users...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676053/similarities-and-differences-in-general-drinking-game-behavior-game-specific-behavior-and-peer-influence-factors-across-race-ethnicity
#9
Rhiana Wegner, Ashlin R K Roy, Amanda DaCova, Kaitlyn R Gorman
Research on college student drinking game (DG) behavior indicates that White students play DGs more often than students from other races/ethnicities. Among DG players, the risk for negative outcomes is the same. We examined DG-specific (e.g., motor skills, gambling games) behaviors and peer influence factors across race/ethnicity in order to elucidate commonalities among risk factors. Men (N = 248; 18-30 years; 77% college students) who played DGs and lived in the Boston metro area completed our online survey...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676052/correlates-and-predictors-of-alcohol-consumption-and-negative-consequences-of-alcohol-use-among-latino-migrant-farmworkers-in-nebraska
#10
Athena K Ramos, Natalia Trinidad, Antonia Correa, Gustavo Carlo
Alcohol is a significant issue among the Latino farmworker population. This study used cross-sectional data from the Nebraska Migrant Farmworker Health Study, 2016 (N = 241) to (1) describe drinking behavior, (2) evaluate associations between alcohol consumption and negative consequences from alcohol use and various social and demographic variables, and (3) assess contextual and interpersonal predictors of alcohol consumption and negative consequences from alcohol use. Descriptive, bivariate statistics and hierarchical multiple regression were used...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676051/neighbors-as-distal-support-for-individuals-with-serious-mental-illnesses
#11
Liat S Kriegel, Greg Townley, Eugene Brusilovskiy, Mark S Salzer
Social networks are regarded as an asset to community integration. While family and friends provide important sources of support, familiar strangers like neighbors can facilitate support through anonymous, but meaningful interactions. Among individuals with serious mental illnesses (SMI), these interactions can help to compensate for increased social isolation and smaller networks of peers. This study explores whether neighbors can play a unique role in decreasing loneliness and bolstering a sense of community for individuals with SMI...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676050/posttraumatic-growth-in-low-income-black-mothers-who-survived-hurricane-katrina
#12
Emily E Manove, Sarah R Lowe, Jessica Bonumwezi, Justin Preston, Mary C Waters, Jean E Rhodes
This mixed-methods study aimed to gain knowledge of the lived experience of posttraumatic growth (PTG) in 32 low-income Black mothers whose New Orleans' homes were damaged or destroyed by Hurricane Katrina, and half of whom had relocated indefinitely to Houston. Data from in-depth interviews with participants were examined in conjunction with quantitative scores on the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996). Participants were interviewed face-to-face on a range of postdisaster experiences, including positive changes, in 2009...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676049/linking-parents-self-stigma-to-the-adjustment-of-children-with-disabilities
#13
Xiaomin Li, Chun Bun Lam, Kevin Kien Hoa Chung, Cynthia Leung
This study examined the association of parental self-stigma with child adjustment, and whether parenting self-efficacy and parenting distress mediated the association. Cross-sectional data were collected from 186 families living with kindergarten children identified to have disabilities in Hong Kong, China (mean age = 61.62 months; 76% of them were boys). Using questionnaires, 173 mothers and 112 fathers reported their own self-stigma, parenting self-efficacy, and parenting distress, as well as their children's prosocial behaviors and externalizing and internalizing behaviors...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30652890/veterans-assignment-to-single-site-versus-scattered-site-permanent-supportive-housing
#14
Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Dorota Szymkowiak, Meagan C Cusack, Erika L Austin, Jesse K Vazzano, Stefan G Kertesz, Sonya Gabrielian
To address homelessness among Veterans, a growing proportion of permanent supportive housing units supported by the U.S. Departments of Housing and Urban Development and Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) program are allocated to programs where multiple Veterans with a history of homelessness live in a particular building, referred to as single-site housing. This mixed-methods study-including administrative data from Veterans who moved into HUD-VASH housing and qualitative data from focus groups with services providers at 10 single-site programs-describes the characteristics and needs of Veterans who moved into single-site HUD-VASH programs, the rationale for developing single-site HUD-VASH programs, and the services provided in single-site programs that are responsive to Veterans' needs...
January 17, 2019: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30628806/the-father-s-role-in-risk-and-resilience-among-mexican-american-adolescents
#15
Jaimie L O'Gara, Esther J Calzada, Su Yeong Kim
Research suggests fathers are important to adolescent well-being, yet there is limited information regarding how fathering is associated with adolescent risk and resilience in Mexican American families. This cross-sectional study utilized a structural equation model to examine whether parent-child alienation mediated the relations between parental displays of warmth and hostility and the outcomes of adolescent resilience and delinquency in Mexican American families (N = 272). Results indicated that adolescent-perceived alienation from parents was a significant predictor of both resilience and delinquency...
January 10, 2019: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30628805/racial-ethnic-differences-in-alcohol-use-trajectories-among-adolescents-involved-in-child-welfare
#16
Cindy Y Huang, Christian M Connell
This study examined racial/ethnic differences in growth trajectories of alcohol use for a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents in the child welfare system (CWS), and how individual, family, and child welfare (i.e., proximal) factors predicted alcohol use trajectories for these adolescents. The study included 1,080 Hispanic, African American, and White adolescents aged 11 to 14 years old (at baseline) from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being dataset, which is a nationally representative sample of U...
January 10, 2019: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30596443/the-intersection-of-interpersonal-violence-and-housing-instability-perspectives-from-women-veterans
#17
Benjamin Yu, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Gala True, Meagan Cusack, Anneliese Sorrentino, Manik Chhabra, Melissa E Dichter
Women veterans in the United States face a disproportionate risk of housing instability (HI) and interpersonal violence (IV), largely perpetrated by intimate partners or involving nonpartner sexual violence, compared to both male veterans and nonveteran women. To explore the ways in which IV and HI intersect in the experiences of women veterans, we analyzed transcripts of in-depth qualitative interviews with 20 women veterans who had screened positive for HI at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Three broad themes emerged related to the intersection of IV (specifically intimate partner violence or nonpartner sexual violence) and HI among women veterans: (1) HI can be precipitated by and increase vulnerability to IV, (2) experiences of IV impact women's definitions of housing safety and security, and (3) IV can pose a barrier to accessing housing services and other support systems...
December 31, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30589347/predictors-of-employment-outcomes-in-a-comprehensive-service-program-for-individuals-experiencing-chronic-homelessness
#18
Molly Brown, Martina Mihelicova, Kelly Collins, Allison Ponce
This study examined predictors of employment service referral and employment outcomes among individuals experiencing chronic homelessness participating in a comprehensive service program emphasizing housing placement and economic independence. The sample included all participants enrolled in the program. Participants self-determined whether to be referred for employment services. Outcomes included (a) whether participants were referred for employment services offered by the program ( N = 275); and (b) whether employment was attained among the subsample of participants referred for employment services ( N = 135)...
December 27, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30589346/consequences-of-the-exposure-to-abuse-in-the-family-of-origin-among-victims-of-intimate-partner-violence-in-nicaragua
#19
Esther Rivas, Enrique Bonilla, José Juan Vázquez
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has serious consequences for women, and their vulnerability is increased if their experiences related to abuse occurred at an early age. This study examines the risk of experiencing stressful life events (SLE) during the lives of Nicaraguan victims of IPV in situations of extreme poverty according to their exposure to episodes of violence in their family of origin. In the study participated 136 women victims of IPV living in the marginal areas of the city of León (Nicaragua)...
December 27, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30589345/mapping-and-conceptualizing-recovery-capital-of-recovered-gamblers
#20
Belle Gavriel-Fried, Niva Lev-El
Recovery capital (RC) is an emerging conceptual framework in the addiction field that pinpoints the internal and external (i.e., human, community, cultural, social, financial) resources individuals can draw on throughout the recovery process. The concept of RC was developed and applied primarily to individuals who have recovered from substance addiction. The aim of this study was to extend the RC conceptual framework to gambling disorder (GD)-which is classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed...
December 27, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
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