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Journal of Radiation Research

Masahiro Kawahara, Hidemasa Kawamura, Yoshiki Kubota, Hiroyuki Katoh, Nobuteru Kubo, Hirofumi Shimada, Kota Torikai, Masami Torikoshi, Tatsuaki Kanai, Takashi Nakano
It is important to confirm the dose distribution and its biophysiological response in patients subjected to carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) by using medical imaging methods. In this study, the correlation between the signal intensity changes of muscles observed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after CIRT and planned dose distribution was evaluated. Seven patients were arbitrarily selected from among localized prostate cancer patients on whom CIRT was performed in our facilities in 2010. All subjects received the same dose of CIRT, namely, 57...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Radiation Research
Yuichiro Tsurugai, Atsuya Takeda, Naoko Sanuki, Takahisa Eriguchi, Yousuke Aoki, Yohei Oku, Takeshi Akiba, Akitomo Sugawara, Etsuo Kunieda
We retrospectively investigated outcomes, including pulmonary toxicities, of stereotactic body radiation therapy using RapidArc and a risk-adapted 60% isodose plan for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer patients. We evaluated patients staged as cT1a-2bN0M0 between 2011 and 2017 and treated with a total dose of 40-60 Gy in five fractions to the 60% isodose line of the maximum dose encompassing the planning target volume with curative intent. Comorbidities and age were rated using an age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (AACCI)...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Radiation Research
Atsushi Kawashima, Fumiaki Isohashi, Seiji Mabuchi, Kenjiro Sawada, Yutaka Ueda, Eiji Kobayashi, Yuri Matsumoto, Keisuke Otani, Keisuke Tamari, Yuji Seo, Osamu Suzuki, Iori Sumida, Takuji Tomimatsu, Tadashi Kimura, Kazuhiko Ogawa
Outcomes for patients with Stage IB1-IVA cervical cancer treated with computed tomography (CT)-based image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) were examined in this study. A total of 84 patients were analyzed between March 2012 and June 2015. Whole-pelvic radiotherapy with a central shield was performed for each patient, and the total pelvic sidewall dose was 50 Gy. IGBT was delivered in 2-4 fractions. The initial prescription dose (6.8 Gy) was delivered at Point A, and the dose distribution was modified manually by graphical optimization...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Radiation Research
Satoshi Tanabe, Haruna Takahashi, Hirotake Saito, Atsushi Ohta, Toshimichi Nakano, Ryuta Sasamoto, Miki Shioi, Satoru Utsunomiya, Eisuke Abe, Motoki Kaidu, Hidefumi Aoyama
There are no quantitative selection criteria for identifying high-grade glioma (HGG) patients who are suited for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This study aimed to develop selection criteria that can be used for the selection of the optimal treatment modality in HGG. We analyzed 20 patients with HGG treated by 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). First, VMAT plans were created for each patient retrospectively. For each plan, the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for normal brain was calculated...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Radiation Research
Mamoru Kato, Koichi Chida, Masaaki Nakamura, Hideto Toyoshima, Ken Terata, Yoshihisa Abe
In a previous study, we reported on a novel (prototype) real-time patient dosimeter with non-toxic phosphor sensors. In this study, we developed new types of sensors that were smaller than in the previous prototype, and clarified the clinical feasibility of our newly proposed dosimeter. Patient dose measurements obtained with the newly proposed real-time dosimeter were compared with measurements obtained using a calibrated radiophotoluminescence glass reference dosimeter (RPLD). The reference dosimeters were set at almost the same positions as the new real-time dosimeter sensors...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Radiation Research
Kwan Ngok Yu
Radiation-induced rescue effect (RIRE) refers to the phenomenon in which detrimental effects in targeted irradiated cells are reduced upon receiving feedback signals from partnered non-irradiated bystander cells, or from the medium previously conditioning these partnered non-irradiated bystander cells. For convenience, in the current review we define two types of RIRE: (i) Type 1 RIRE (reduced detrimental effects in targeted cells upon receiving feedback signals from bystander cells) and (ii) Type 2 RIRE (exacerbated detrimental effects in targeted cells upon receiving feedback signals from bystander cells)...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Radiation Research
Ming Tsuey Chew, David A Bradley, Masao Suzuki, Naruhiro Matsufuji, Takeshi Murakami, Bleddyn Jones, Andrew Nisbet
The effects of the charged ion species 4He, 12C and 20Ne on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) T98G, U87 and LN18 cell lines were compared with the effects of 200 kVp X-rays (1.7 keV/μm). These cell lines have different genetic profiles. Individual GBM relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was estimated in two ways: the RBE10 at 10% survival fraction and the RBE2Gy after 2 Gy doses. The linear quadratic model radiosensitivity parameters α and β and the α/β ratio of each ion type were determined as a function of LET...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Radiation Research
Zhongyuan Yin, Guanghai Yang, Sisi Deng, Qiong Wang
The purpose of this study was to set up a beagle dog model, for radiation-induced lung injury, that would be able to supply fresh lung tissues in the different injury phases for research into oxidative stress levels and mitochondrial gene expression. Blood serum and tissues were collected via CT-guided core needle biopsies from dogs in the various phases of the radiation response over a 40-week period. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and manganese superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD) protein expression in radiation-induced lung injury were determined by in situ immunocytochemistry; malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reductase activity in the peripheral blood were also tested; in addition, the copy number of the mitochondrial DNA and the level of function of the respiratory chain in the lung tissues were assessed...
December 26, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Yasushi Nakai, Nobumichi Tanaka, Isao Asakawa, Satoshi Anai, Makito Miyake, Shunta Hori, Yosuke Morizawa, Yoshihiro Tatsumi, Masatoshi Hasegawa, Tomomi Fujii, Kiyohide Fujimoto
The purpose of this study was to evaluate quality of life (QOL) in prostate cancer patients treated with 125I brachytherapy (BT), 125I brachytherapy combined with 3D conformal radiation therapy (BT+3D-CRT), or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We evaluated disease-related QOL in patients who underwent BT, BT+3D-CRT, or IMRT, using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaire before treatment and at 3 and 24 months post-treatment. Multivariate analyses were conducted to determine factors associated with a minimum important difference (MID) in urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormone domain scores at 3 and 24 months post-treatment...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Shimpei Anami, Hiroshi Doi, Kiyoshi Nakamatsu, Takuya Uehara, Yutaro Wada, Kohei Fukuda, Masahiro Inada, Kazuki Ishikawa, Shuichi Kanamori, Yasumasa Nishimura
This study aimed to identify factors that predict prognosis after radiotherapy for brain metastases (BMs) from small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). This study retrospectively evaluated 48 consecutive patients who underwent whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for BMs from SCLC between February 2008 and December 2017. WBRT was delivered at a median dose of 30 Gy (range: 30-40 Gy) in 10 fractions (range: 10-16 fractions). Clinical factors were tested for associations with overall survival after WBRT. The median survival and 1-year overall survival rate after WBRT treatment were 232 days and 34...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Shinya Takemoto, Yuta Shibamoto, Chikao Sugie, Yoshihiko Manabe, Takeshi Yanagi, Hiromitsu Iwata, Taro Murai, Satoshi Ishikura
We evaluated long-term outcomes of three protocols of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for localized prostate cancer. Between 2005 and 2014, 348 patients were treated with 5-field IMRT. The first 74 patients were treated with a daily fraction of 2.0 Gy to 74 Gy (low-risk prostate cancer) or 78 Gy (intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer); then 101 patients were treated with 2.1-Gy daily fractions to 73.5 or 77.7 Gy. More recently, 173 patients were treated with 2.2-Gy fractions to 72.6 or 74...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Gyu Sang Yoo, Dongryul Oh, Hongryull Pyo, Yong Chan Ahn, Jae Myung Noh, Hee Chul Park, Do Hoon Lim
We performed a retrospective analysis to evaluate treatment outcomes and the risk of fatal hemorrhage by tumor regression when definitive concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) was delivered to patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) invading adjacent great vessels on radiological findings. We selected 37 unresectable NSCLC patients with adjacent great vessel invasion (GVI) by carefully reviewing each patient's images. The criteria of definite GVI were as follows: irregular indentation at the tumor-vessel contact border, slit-like narrowing of adjacent great vessels by the tumor, presence of intra-luminal mass formation, tumors contacting >5 cm of adjacent great vessel and obliteration of the intervening fat plane between tumor and adjacent great vessel, and/or tumors contacting more than half of the circumference of the aortic wall...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Daisuke Iizuka, Shunsuke Izumi, Fumio Suzuki, Kenji Kamiya
Microarrays containing 45 different lectins were analyzed to identify global changes in the glycosylation of serum glycoproteins from mice exposed to whole-body γ-radiation. The results showed that radiation exposure increased and decreased the relative amounts of α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialic acids, respectively. The expression of α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialyltransferase genes in the liver was analyzed to determine whether changes in their expression were responsible for the sialic acid changes. The increase in α-2,3-sialic acid correlated with St3gal5 upregulation after radiation exposure; however, a decrease in St6gal1 expression was not observed...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Kyoichi Kaira, Akihiro Ono, Yosuke Kamide, Noriaki Sunaga, Yasuhiko Koga, Jun-Ichi Saitoh, Katsuyuki Shirai, Takeshi Ebara, Takeshi Hisada, Tamotsu Ishizuka
The aim of our study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended dose of pemetrexed with concurrent thoracic radiation therapy for elderly patients with previously untreated locally advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pemetrexed was administered intravenously on Days 1, 22, 43, 64, 85 and 106. The initial doses of pemetrexed were planned as follows: Level 1 (400 mg/m2) and Level 2 (500 mg/m2). Concurrent thoracic radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy fractions five times weekly, to a total of 60 Gy...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Makoto Ihara, Kiyoto Ashizawa, Kazuko Shichijo, Takashi Kudo
The prognosis and treatment of thyroid cancer depends on the type and stage of the disease. Radiosensitivity differs among cancer cells owing to their varying capacity for repair after irradiation. Radioactive iodine can be used to destroy thyroid cancer cells. However, patient prognosis and improvement after irradiation varies. Therefore, predictive measures are important for avoiding unnecessary exposure to radiation. We describe a new method for predicting the effects of radiation in individual cases of thyroid cancer based on the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity level in cancer cells...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Yoshihiko Hagiwara, Takahiro Oike, Atsuko Niimi, Motohiro Yamauchi, Hiro Sato, Siripan Limsirichaikul, Kathryn D Held, Takashi Nakano, Atsushi Shibata
Photons, such as X- or γ-rays, induce DNA damage (distributed throughout the nucleus) as a result of low-density energy deposition. In contrast, particle irradiation with high linear energy transfer (LET) deposits high-density energy along the particle track. High-LET heavy-ion irradiation generates a greater number and more complex critical chromosomal aberrations, such as dicentrics and translocations, compared with X-ray or γ irradiation. In addition, the formation of >1000 bp deletions, which is rarely observed after X-ray irradiation, has been identified following high-LET heavy-ion irradiation...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Norihiro Aibe, Kumiko Karasawa, Masahiko Aoki, Keiko Akahane, Yasuhiro Ogawa, Etsuyo Ogo, Shuichi Kanamori, Jiro Kawamori, Anneyuko I Saito, Kenshiro Shiraishi, Hiroshi Sekine, Seiji Tachiiri, Michio Yoshimura, Chikako Yamauchi
The Breast Cancer Group of the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey on the clinical practice of postoperative radiotherapy for breast-conserving treatment for breast cancer. This questionnaire consisted of 18 questions pertaining to the annual number of treated patients, planning method, contouring structure, field design, dose-fractionated regimen, application of hypofractionated radiotherapy, boost irradiation, radiotherapy for synchronously bilateral breast cancer, and accelerated partial breast irradiation...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Xiaoyan Chen, Chunjuan Fang
This study was designed to investigate the effect of salidroside (SAL) on bone marrow haematopoiesis in a mouse model of myelosuppressed anemia. After the mouse model was established by 60Co γ irradiation and cyclophosphamide, pancytopenia and a sharp reduction in bone marrow stromal cells and bone marrow haematopoietic stem cells (lineage-Sca1+c-kit+) were observed. This was greatly alleviated by SAL (25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg) in a dose-dependent manner (50% effective dose value of 35.7 mg/kg and 61...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Ming Tsuey Chew, Andrew Nisbet, Masao Suzuki, Naruhiro Matsufuji, Takeshi Murakami, Bleddyn Jones, David A Bradley
Glioblastoma (GBM), a Grade IV brain tumour, is a well-known radioresistant cancer. To investigate one of the causes of radioresistance, we studied the capacity for potential lethal damage repair (PLDR) of three altered strains of GBM: T98G, U87 and LN18, irradiated with various ions and various levels of linear energy transfer (LET). The GBM cells were exposed to 12C and 28Si ion beams with LETs of 55, 100 and 200 keV/μm, and with X-ray beams of 1.7 keV/μm. Mono-energetic 12C ions and 28Si ions were generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at the National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba, Japan...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Ning Wu, Zhipeng Zhao, Dongmei Han, Guanghui Cheng, Hongfu Zhao
The present study aimed to compare the dosages of target regions and organs at risk (OARs) in 3D intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) and conventional 2D ICBT for Chinese patients with cervical carcinoma. ICBT was performed in a total of 66 patients with Stage IB to IVA cervical carcinoma who had not received surgery but who had received whole-pelvic external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Plans for the 3D-ICBT and the conventional 2D-ICBT were individually designed for every patient. The dosages differences between the target regions and the OARs in patients with each of the various stages of cervical carcinoma were compared between the two ICBT plans...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
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