Zohar Lederman
INTRODUCTION: loneliness is prevalent worldwide. It is also associated with an increased risk for depression, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, stroke and early death. As such, loneliness is a major public health issue. This paper summarizes the salient points clinicians should know and encourages clinicians to assume an active part in the identification, mitigation and prevention of loneliness. SOURCES OF DATA: white papers, academic publications. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: loneliness is a distressful subjective experience, which does not always correlate with social isolation...
February 7, 2023: British Medical Bulletin
Eleanor Y Lim, James Whitehorn, Lucy Rivett
INTRODUCTION: In May 2022, the World Health Organisation declared a multi-country monkeypox outbreak in non-endemic countries following cases reported from 12 member states that were not endemic for monkeypox virus. SOURCES OF DATA: Pubmed search. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: The virology, epidemiology, transmission, incubation and aspects of infection control are described. Clinical features of previous and current outbreaks are described, with growing observations that the current outbreak presents with clinical features distinct from previous outbreaks...
February 6, 2023: British Medical Bulletin
Merle Spriggs
INTRODUCTION: The concept of consent in the pediatric setting is complex and confusing. Clinicians and researchers want to know whose consent they should obtain, when a child can provide independent consent and how that is determined. The aim of this article is to establish what produces the justification to proceed with medical or research interventions involving children and the role of consent in that. I clarify concepts such as consent, assent, capacity and competence. SOURCE OF DATA: Literature review...
February 1, 2023: British Medical Bulletin
Filippo Migliorini, Gianluca Vecchio, Riccardo Giorgino, Jörg Eschweiler, Frank Hildebrand, Nicola Maffulli
INTRODUCTION: Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that act primarily in posttranscriptional gene silencing, and are attracting increasing interest in musculoskeletal conditions. SOURCE OF DATA: Current scientific literature published in PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase and Web of Science databases. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Recently, the potential of miRNAs as biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment of meniscal injuries has been postulated...
January 29, 2023: British Medical Bulletin
Anna Roach, Sophie Cullinan, Roz Shafran, Isobel Heyman, Sophie Bennett
INTRODUCTION: Many children fail to receive the mental health treatments they need, despite strong evidence demonstrating efficacy of brief and low-intensity psychological interventions. This review identifies the barriers and facilitators to their implementation. SOURCES OF DATA: PsycInfo, EMBASE and Medline were searched and a systematic approach to data extraction using Normalization Process Theory highlighted key mechanisms and contextual factors. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Ten interventions from 9 papers, including 371 young people, were included...
January 28, 2023: British Medical Bulletin
Jon Minton, Lucinda Hiam, Martin McKee, Danny Dorling
INTRODUCTION OR BACKGROUND: Life expectancy is an important summary measure of population health. In the absence of a significant event like war or disease outbreak, trends should, and historically have, increase over time, albeit with some fluctuations. SOURCES OF DATA: Data were extracted from the human mortality database for life expectancy at birth and age 65 years from 1980 to the latest available year for England & Wales, Scotland (Great Britain), France, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands and Germany...
December 25, 2022: British Medical Bulletin
Peter Murphy, Sebastian Hinde, Helen Fulbright, Louise Padgett, Gerry Richardson
INTRODUCTION: Economic evaluation has an important role to play in the demonstration of value for money of early childhood public health interventions; however, concerns have been raised regarding their consistent application and relevance to commissioners. This systematic review of the literature therefore aims to collate the breadth of the existing economic evaluation evidence of these interventions and to identify the approaches adopted in the assessment of value. SOURCE OF DATA: Recently published literature in Medline, EMBASE, EconLit, Health Management Information Consortium, Cochrane CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Health Technology Assessment, NHS EED and Web of Science...
December 19, 2022: British Medical Bulletin
Raju Ahluwalia, Grace Yip, Martinus Richter, Nicola Maffulli
INTRODUCTION: Lisfranc injuries, not as rare as previously reported, range from ligamentous to complex fracture-dislocations. Anatomical studies have identified a complex of discrete structures, and defined the anatomical characteristics of the Lisfranc joint. SOURCES OF DATA: A narrative evidence-based review encompassed and analyzed published systematic reviews. Outcomes included clinical and surgical decision-making, including clinical-presentation, diagnosis, pathological-assessment, surgical-management techniques and indications, post-surgical care and comparative outcomes...
December 12, 2022: British Medical Bulletin
Mei Yen Liew, Lewis A Dingle, Abi Semple, Philippa A Rust
INTRODUCTION: This systematic review aims to compare the rate and time to return to sport or work following surgical interventions for isolated scapholunate ligament (SLL) injury. SOURCES OF DATA: A PRISMA-compliant systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, AMED, CINAHL Plus and SPORTDiscus was performed using keywords 'scapholunate', 'scapholunate ligament', 'scaphoid lunate', 'sport', 'sport injury', 'athlete', 'athletic performance', 'elite', 'return to sport', 'training', 'work', 'activity', 'return to activity'...
December 1, 2022: British Medical Bulletin
Filippo Migliorini, Francesco Oliva, Joerg Eschweiler, Ernesto Torsiello, Frank Hildebrand, Nicola Maffulli
INTRODUCTION: Patients whose rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can be managed conservatively or undergo reconstruction surgery. SOURCE OF DATA: Current scientific literature published in Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Several studies published by July 2022 compare surgical and conservative management following ACL rupture. The latest evidence suggests that surgical management may expose patients to an increased risk of early-onset knee osteoarthritis (OA)...
November 21, 2022: British Medical Bulletin
Angela G E M de Boer, Astrid de Wind, Pieter Coenen, Fenna van Ommen, Michiel A Greidanus, Amber D Zegers, Saskia F A Duijts, Sietske J Tamminga
INTRODUCTION: The number of cancer survivors in a working age is rising. An awareness of factors associated with adverse work outcomes, and of supportive interventions, is needed. SOURCES OF DATA: A narrative review of research obtained via several databases, including Medline and PsycINFO, was conducted. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: A range of factors is associated with adverse work outcomes such as prolonged sick leave, delayed return to work, disability pension and unemployment in cancer survivors...
November 12, 2022: British Medical Bulletin
Davide Bruno Albertoni, Silvia Gianola, Silvia Bargeri, Ilda Hoxhaj, Alice Munari, Nicola Maffulli, Greta Castellini
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) affect hip range of motion (ROM). SOURCES OF DATA: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis searching six electronic databases from inception to March 21, 2022. We included studies assessing hip ROM in FAIS, FAI morphology without symptoms (FAIm), and healthy controls. Mean differences between groups were measured in ROM degrees with 95% confidence interval (CI). AREAS OF AGREEMENT: A total of 17 studies (1702 hips) were included...
November 11, 2022: British Medical Bulletin
S H Chong, L A Burn, T K M Cheng, I S Warr, J C Kenyon
BACKGROUND: Multiple vaccine platforms against COVID-19 have been developed and found safe and efficacious at a record speed. Although most are effective, they vary in their ease of production and distribution, their potential speed of modification against new variants, and their durability of protection and safety in certain target groups. SOURCES OF DATA: Our discussion is based on published reports of clinical trials and analyses from national and global health agencies...
November 5, 2022: British Medical Bulletin
Rocco Aicale, Nicola Poeta, Eugenio Savarese, Giulio Bernardini, Francesco Oliva, Nicola Maffulli
INTRODUCTION: Rotator cuff tears (RCT) are a common cause of shoulder pain and disability, with massive RCT accounting for 10-40% of all rotator cuff tears. SOURCES OF DATA: A systematic search of PubMed and Scopus electronic databases was performed up to August 2022, and a total of 17 scientific articles were included in the present PRISMA compliant systematic review. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Understanding the geometric patterns in RCT is essential to achieve appropriate repositioning of the injured tendons in their anatomic location...
October 15, 2022: British Medical Bulletin
Roman Roy, Benedict McDonaugh, Kevin O'Gallagher
BACKGROUND: There is evidence for a bi-directional relationship between COVID-19 and the cardiovascular (CV) system. SOURCE OF DATA: Published literature. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Pre-existing heart failure (HF) increases the risk of mortality with COVID-19. CV complications are recognized, including increased rates of acute coronary syndromes, HF, arrhythmia and myocarditis. Drugs targeting the angiotensin system are safe and may provide prognostic benefit...
September 24, 2022: British Medical Bulletin
Filippo Migliorini, Giorgia Colarossi, Jörg Eschweiler, Francesco Oliva, Arne Driessen, Nicola Maffulli
INTRODUCTION: Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis (CIO) is the most common type of secondary osteoporosis, leading to fractures, and increased morbidity and mortality. SOURCE OF DATA: Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Prolonged glucocorticoids administration leads to secondary osteoporosis. AREAS OF CONTROVERSY: The optimal management for CIO is controversial. GROWING POINTS: The present study compared bone mineral density, fractures and adverse events in patients undergoing treatment with risedronate, alendronate, zoledronate, denosumab or etidronate for CIO...
September 22, 2022: British Medical Bulletin
J W Cherrie, M P C Cherrie
BACKGROUND: Workplace exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) causes malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. The evidence for beneficial effects of solar UV exposure in reducing the risks for other cancers is increasing. The intensity of UV radiation at the Earth's surface is dependent on latitude, but even in northern European countries exposure can be high enough for outdoor work to cause skin cancer. GROWING POINTS: Awareness of the health risks and benefits of occupational solar UV exposure is poor...
August 17, 2022: British Medical Bulletin
Grigorios Panagiotou, Peter N Taylor, D Aled Rees, Onyebuchi E Okosieme
BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy is associated with adverse offspring outcomes and recent birth-cohort studies suggest that even mild degrees of thyroid dysfunction may be linked with a range of late cognitive and behavioural effects in childhood and adolescence. SOURCES OF DATA: This review summarizes recent literature of observational studies and critically appraises randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antenatal thyroid screening and Levothyroxine intervention...
July 23, 2022: British Medical Bulletin
Ana Worthington, Ilora Finlay, Claud Regnard
BACKGROUND: 'Assisted dying' is practiced in some European countries and US states. Legislation suggests that there exists an easily prescribed drug which consistently brings about death quickly and painlessly. Evidence from jurisdictions where 'assisted dying' is practiced, however, reveals that hastening patient death is not so simple. SOURCES OF DATA: This report is a collation of assisted suicide and euthanasia drug protocols published by the Canadian Association of MAiD Assessors and Providers and the Royal Dutch Medical Association, annual data reports from the USA and Canada and relevant academic publications pertaining to methods of 'assisted dying' in the USA, Belgium, Canada and Switzerland...
July 9, 2022: British Medical Bulletin
Giuseppe Gargano, Francesco Oliva, Antonio Oliviero, Nicola Maffulli
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has unclear pathogenesis, but the molecules that feed its inflammatory state are known. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are useful to identify molecular targets and evaluate the efficacy of specific drugs, and can themselves be used for therapeutic purposes. SOURCES OF DATA: A systematic search of different databases to March 2022 was performed to define the role of siRNAs in RA therapy. Twenty suitable studies were identified...
July 9, 2022: British Medical Bulletin
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