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British Medical Bulletin

Greg Robertson, Kok Kiong Ang, Nicola Maffulli, Claire K Simpson, Philippa A Rust
INTRODUCTION: This review aims to provide information on return rates and times to return to sport following surgical management of triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) tears. SOURCES OF DATA: A systematic search of CINAHAL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Medline, PEDro, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed using the keywords 'triangular', 'fibro-cartilage', 'complex', 'tear', 'distal radio-ulnar joint', 'athletes', 'sports', 'non-operative', 'conservative', 'operative' and 'return to sport'...
April 3, 2019: British Medical Bulletin
Domenico Rocco Bisaccia, Rocco Aicale, Domiziano Tarantino, Giuseppe M Peretti, Nicola Maffulli
INTRODUCTION: The present systematic review investigates the biological and chemical mechanisms that affect the health and structure of tendons following the use of fluoroquinolones (FQs). SOURCES OF DATA: A total of 12 articles were included, organized, and reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Five mechanisms were identified: arrest of proliferation through a decreased activity of cyclin B, CDK-1, CHK-1, and increased PK-1; decrease tenocytes migration through decreased phosphorylation of FAK; decrease type I collagen metabolism through increased MMP-2; chelate effect on ions that influence epigenetics and several enzymes; fluoroquinolones-induced ROS (radical oxygen species) production in mitochondria...
February 27, 2019: British Medical Bulletin
Paul W Johnstone, Marcus K Eder, Autilia Newton, Neil Bentley, Ian Rufus
BACKGROUND: West African governments, the WHO and wider international community were caught unprepared for the world's largest Ebola outbreak of 2014-16. This was an unprecedented challenge to local services and international agencies, since the emergency required high-tech molecular diagnostic services operated by specialist staff and a coordinated emergency response in addition to humanitarian support, which was not available at the beginning of the outbreak. Public Health England (PHE), as a new national public health agency was well placed to provide support for these needs...
February 26, 2019: British Medical Bulletin
Anna Smajdor
Introduction: Artificial gametes (AGs) are cells that have been 'reprogrammed' to function as sperm or eggs. Such cells may in the future enable people who cannot produce gametes, to have genetically-related offspring. In this paper, I consider the prospect of AGs in the context of declining birthrates and postponed parenthood across the Western world. Sources of data: The data quoted in this paper is gathered from a range of sources, encompassing both scientific, demographic and philosophical work...
February 7, 2019: British Medical Bulletin
S G Attar, V J Poustie, S W Smye, J M Beety, D B Hawcutt, S Littlewood, L Oni, M Pirmohamed, M W Beresford
Introduction or background: Stratified medicine is an important area of research across all clinical specialties, with far reaching impact in many spheres. Despite recently formulated global policy and research programmes, major challenges for delivering stratified medicine studies persist. Across the globe, clinical research infrastructures have been setup to facilitate high quality clinical research. Sources of data: This article reviews the literature and summarizes views collated from a workshop held by the UK Pharmacogenetics and Stratified Medicine Network and the NIHR Clinical Research Network in November 2016...
February 7, 2019: British Medical Bulletin
E Y Y Chan, A Y T Man, H C Y Lam
Introduction: Disaster epidemiological studies indicate that Asia has the highest frequency of natural disasters. Rural communities are heavily impacted by natural disasters and have different healthcare needs to urban ones. Referencing Asian countries, this paper's objective is to provide an overview of health impacts and the current evidence for designing programmes and policies related to rural health emergency and disaster risk management (health-EDRM). Sources of data: This paper uses published English-only reports and papers retrieved from PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, Medline and PsycINFO on rural disaster and emergency responses and relief, health impact and disease patterns in Asia (January 2000-January 2018)...
February 7, 2019: British Medical Bulletin
Rocco Papalia, Guglielmo Torre, Nicola Maffulli, Vincenzo Denaro
Background: Femoral neck fractures account for <1% of the fractures in children, and are produced by high energy trauma. The most commonly accepted treatment for such fractures is gentle manual anatomical reduction and internal fixation, yielding a healing rate between 80% and 90%. Sources of data: Electronic search through major web databases (Medline, Cochrane and Google Scholar). All types of article were eligible for inclusion, except for reviews, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and case reports...
February 7, 2019: British Medical Bulletin
Gail Kinman
Introduction: Presenteeism is defined as continuing to attend work during illness. As a growing health concern, awareness of the factors that encourage presenteeism and the risks of this behaviour is needed. Sources of data: A narrative review of research obtained via several databases, including Medline and Psycinfo, was conducted. Areas of agreement: A range of contextual and individual factors is associated with presenteeism. Workers in some sectors, such as healthcare, appear to be at greater risk...
January 11, 2019: British Medical Bulletin
Sarah J Jones
Introduction: Roads facilitate trade, development and communication, as well as spread illness and disease, but since mass car use began, the disbenefits, including injuries, pollution and physical inactivity have been significantly magnified. Electric cars are now being seen by many as the solution to the problems associated with internal combustion engine cars. Sources of data: This article reviews existing literature to determine the extent to which a switch to electrification can solve many of the problems that cars have wrought...
January 7, 2019: British Medical Bulletin
Zaki K Hassan-Smith, Sherwin Criseno, Neil J L Gittoes
Introduction: The presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has shifted from a disease characterized by renal and skeletal complications to a mild or asymptomatic condition. Modern imaging allows localization of a surgical target in the majority of cases. Sources of data: Data were collected from literature searches of online databases including PUBMED, MEDLINE and Cochrane. A narrative review was performed. Areas of agreement: Parathyroidectomy is the only therapy with curative potential with good outcomes and low risk of complications in experienced hands...
December 20, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Charlotte C Heuvelings, Sabine Bélard, Mary A Familusi, Rene Spijker, Martin P Grobusch, Heather J Zar
Background: Chest ultrasound is an emerging imaging modality, for several paediatric pulmonary diseases. Sources of data: MEDLINE and EMBASE (1946-47 to 10 March 2017) were searched to collect evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of chest ultrasound, compared to other imaging modalities, for the diagnosis of paediatric pulmonary diseases. Areas of agreement: Eighteen pneumonia studies, comprising 2031 children, were included for meta-analysis; the summary estimate sensitivity was 95...
December 17, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Samantha K Brooks, G James Rubin, Neil Greenberg
Background: Many people who experience a disaster will do so as part of an occupational group, either by chance or due to the nature of their role. Sources of data: This review is based on literature published in scientific journals. Areas of agreement: There are many social and occupational factors, which affect post-disaster mental health. In particular, effective social support-both during and post-disaster-appears to enhance psychological resilience...
December 13, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Pawel Zalewski, Joanna Slomko, Monika Zawadka-Kunikowska
Introduction: The majority of chronic diseases are accompanied by symptoms of more or less pronounced dysautonomia, which frequently and noticeably deteriorate the quality of patients' life. Sources of data: Pubmed. Areas of agreement: Functional disorders in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) require very precise diagnostics; frequently involving several specialists and a number of diagnostic tests. Areas of controversy: Dysautonomia symptoms are of a very discrete nature and may develop much earlier than symptoms specific for a given chronic disease, significantly influencing the treatment process itself...
December 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
César Palacios-González
Background: The first live birth following the use of a new reproductive technique, maternal spindle transfer (MST), which is a mitochondrial replacement technique (MRT), was accomplished by dividing the execution of the MST procedure between two countries, the USA and Mexico. This was done in order to avoid US legal restrictions on this technique. Sources of data: Academic articles, news articles, documents obtained through freedom of information requests, laws, regulations and national reports...
November 16, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Victoria Chico
Background: On the May 25, 2018 the General Data Protection Regulation (hereafter the GDPR or the Regulation) came into force, replacing the Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC (upon which the Data Protection Act 1998 is based), and imposing new responsibilities on organizations which process the data of European Union citizens. Sources of data: This piece examines the impact of the Regulation on health research. Areas of agreement: The Regulation seeks to harmonize data privacy laws across Europe, to protect and empower all EU citizen's data privacy and to reshape the way that organizations approach data privacy (See the GDPR portal at: https://www...
November 16, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Yao Lu, Ruifang Chen, Jingjing Cai, Zhijun Huang, Hong Yuan
Introduction or background: Poorly-controlled hypertension in the first trimester significantly increases maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The majority of guidelines and clinical trials focus on the management and treatments for hypertension during pregnancy and breast-feeding, while limited evidence could be applied to the management for hypertension before pregnancy. In this review, we summarized the existing guidelines and treatments of pre-pregnancy treatment of hypertension...
October 29, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Simon J Crabb, James Douglas
Introduction: Bladder cancer carries a high healthcare burden and a poor prognosis once distant metastatic spread has occurred. Sources of data: We utilised a PubMed/MEDLINE literature search using the terms bladder cancer, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, intra-vesical therapy, surgery and radiotherapy, and current clinical management guidelines (Association of Cancer Physicians, British Association of Urological Surgeons, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, European Association of Urology)...
October 29, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Luca Chiapperino
Background: Epigenetics is a burgeoning field of contemporary biosciences, which has attracted a lot of interest both in biomedical and in social sciences. Sources of data: Unsystematic literature analysis and retrospective mapping of highly cited work (source: Web of Science core collection) in the social sciences and humanities engaging with epigenetics. Areas of agreement: Epigenetics poses no new ethical issue over and above those discussed in relation to genetics...
October 17, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Asim Afaq, Jamshed Bomanji
Introduction: There is an unmet clinical need for early, accurate imaging of recurrent prostate cancer to improve patient outcomes. Staging, by conventional bone scintigraphy and CT have become outdated. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging in this setting has developed rapidly, with widespread International adoption in line with evidence-based guidelines in this group of patients. Sources of data: A PubMed search of English language articles was performed using following keywords: PSMA, PET/CT, biochemical recurrence, prostate cancer...
September 29, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Matti Häyry
Background: Scientists have cloned animals since the late 19th century, but the crucial step for ethics was the cloning of the first mammal by somatic cell nuclear transfer in 1997. This suggested that scientists could also clone, and possibly enhance, human beings. Sources of data: This survey examines ethical literature on cloning since the 1960s. Areas of agreement: The one ethical area of agreement in this issue is that we should not try to create new human beings by somatic cell nuclear transfer now...
September 10, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
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