Tatiana Yu Fufina, Lyudmila G Vasilieva
Photosynthetic reaction center (RC) of the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is one of the most well-studied transmembrane pigment-protein complexes. It is a relatively stable protein with established conditions for its isolation from membranes, purification, and storage. However, it has been shown that some amino acid substitutions can affect stability of the RC, which results in a decrease of the RCs yield during its isolation and purification, disturbs spectral properties of the RCs during storage, and can lead to sample heterogeneity...
April 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Alexander S Shashkov, Elena M Tul'skaya, Natalia V Potekhina, Andrey S Dmitrenok, Sofia N Senchenkova, Vlad A Zaychikov, Lubov V Dorofeeva, Lyudmila I Evtushenko
Rathayibacter sp. VKM Ac-2759 (family Microbacteriaceae, class Actinobacteria) contains two glycopolymers in the cell wall. The main chain of rhamnan, glycopolymer 1, is built from the repeating tetrasaccharide units carrying terminal arabinofuranose residues at the non-reducing end, →3)-α-[α-D-Araf-(1→2)]-D-Rhap-(1→2)-α-D-Rhap-(1→3)-α-D-Rhap-(1→2)-α-D-Rhap-(1→. Similar to other described Rathayibacter species, rhamnose in the neutral glycopolymer of the VKM Ac-2759 strain is present in the D-configuration...
April 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Oleg I Pisarenko, Irina M Studneva, Larisa I Serebryakova, Alexandr A Timoshin, Galina G Konovalova, Vadim Z Lankin, Alla K Tihaze, Oksana M Veselova, Igor V Dobrokhotov, Roman O Lyubimov, Mariya V Sidorova, Marina E Palkeeva, Alexandr S Molokoedov
Antioxidant properties of rat galanin GWTLNSAGYLLGPHAIDNHRSFSDKHGLT-NH2 (Gal), N-terminal fragment of galanin (2-15 aa) WTLNSAGYLLGPHA (G1), and its modified analogue WTLNSAGYLLGPβAH (G2) were studied in vivo in the rat model of regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion and in vitro in the process of Cu2+-induced free radical oxidation of human blood plasma low-density lipoproteins. Intravenous administration of G1, G2, and Gal to rats after ischemia induction reduced the infarction size and activities of the necrosis markers, creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase, in blood plasma at the end of reperfusion...
April 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Yury A Denisenko, Olga G Korotkova, Ivan N Zorov, Alexandra M Rozhkova, Margarita V Semenova, Alexandr G Elcheninov, Ilya V Kublanov, Arkady P Sinitsyn
Heterologous endo-xanthanase (EX) from the thermophilic planktomycete Thermogutta terrifontis strain was obtained using Penicillium verruculosum 537 (ΔniaD) expression system with the cellobiohydrolase 1 gene promoter. Homogeneous EX with a molecular weight of 23.7 kDa (pI 6.5) was isolated using liquid chromatography methods. This xanthan degrading enzyme also possesses the enzymatic activity towards CM-cellulose, β-glucan, curdlan, lichenan, laminarin, galactomannan, xyloglucan but not towards p-nitrophenyl derivatives of β-D-glucose, mannose and cellobiose...
April 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Burcu Baba, Mursel Caliskan, Gulbahar Boyuk, Aysun Hacisevki
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is very sensitive to the nutritional and energy states of the cells. Disruption of ER homeostasis leads to the accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the ER lumen, which is defined as ER stress. ER stress triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR). It is suggested that chronic ER stress is associated with obesity and leptin resistance. We investigated the role of ER stress and the effect of the ER stress inhibitor phenylbutyric acid (PBA) of ER stress, in obesity, as well as their impact on leptin signaling...
April 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Nina A Kraskovskaya, Ilya B Bezprozvanny
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative, dominantly inherited genetic disease caused by expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin gene. At the cellular level, HD is characterized by the accumulation of mutant huntingtin protein in brain cells, resulting in the development of the HD phenotype, which includes mental disorders, decreased cognitive abilities, and progressive motor impairments in the form of chorea. Despite numerous studies, no unambigous connection between the accumulation of mutant protein and selective death of striatal neurons has yet been established...
April 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Artem B Isaev, Olga S Musharova, Konstantin V Severinov
Bacteriophages or phages are viruses that infect bacterial cells (for the scope of this review we will also consider viruses that infect Archaea). The constant threat of phage infection is a major force that shapes evolution of microbial genomes. To withstand infection, bacteria had evolved numerous strategies to avoid recognition by phages or to directly interfere with phage propagation inside the cell. Classical molecular biology and genetic engineering had been deeply intertwined with the study of phages and host defenses...
April 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Gregory A Shilovsky, Tatyana S Putyatina, Galina V Morgunova, Alexander V Seliverstov, Vasily V Ashapkin, Elena V Sorokina, Alexander V Markov, Vladimir P Skulachev
This review discusses genetic and molecular pathways that link circadian timing with metabolism, resulting in the emergence of positive and negative regulatory feedback loops. The Nrf2 pathway is believed to be a component of the anti-aging program responsible for the healthspan and longevity. Nrf2 enables stress adaptation by activating cell antioxidant defense and other metabolic processes via control of expression of over 200 target genes in response to various types of stress. The GSK3 system represents a "regulating valve" that controls fine oscillations in the Nrf2 level, unlike Keap1, which prevents significant changes in the Nrf2 content in the absence of oxidative stress and which is inactivated by the oxidative stress...
April 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Asghar Ghasemi, Asghar Mohammadi, Soudabeh Fallah
MicroRNA-219-1 (miR-219-1) acts as a tumor suppressor in a variety of cancers but, the regulatory epigenetic mechanism involved in its gene expression level has not been studied. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and bisulfite genomic sequencing technology, promoter methylation level of miR-219-1 and gene expression levels of miR-219-5p and miR-219-1-3p were determined respectively, in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (n = 31), their adjacent normal tissues (n = 31), and GBM U87 cell line...
April 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Tatyana I Rokitskaya, Nina Maliar, Kirill V Kovalev, Oleksandr Volkov, Valentin I Gordeliy, Yuri N Antonenko
The studies of the functional properties of retinal-containing proteins often include experiments in model membrane systems, e.g., measurements of electric current through planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) with proteoliposomes adsorbed on one of the membrane surfaces. However, the possibilities of this method have not been fully explored yet. We demonstrated that the voltage dependence of stationary photocurrents for two light-sensitive proteins, bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2), in the presence of protonophore had very different characteristics...
April 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Alisa O Mikhaylina, Ekaterina Y Nikonova, Olga S Kostareva, Wolfgang Piendl, Matthias Erlacher, Svetlana V Tishchenko
Ribosomal protein L1 is a conserved two-domain protein that is involved in formation of the L1 stalk of the large ribosomal subunit. When there are no free binding sites available on the ribosomal 23S RNA, the protein binds to the specific site on the mRNA of its own operon (L11 operon in bacteria and L1 operon in archaea) preventing translation. Here we show that the regulatory properties of the r-protein L1 and its domain I are conserved in the thermophilic bacteria Thermus and Thermotoga and in the halophilic archaeon Haloarcula marismortui...
April 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Adel Abdel-Moneim
The novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been a major public health emergency worldwide with over 118.27-million confirmed COVID-19 cases and 2.62-million deaths recorded, as of March 12, 2021. Although this disease primarily targets lungs, damages in other organs, such as heart, kidney, liver, and testis, may occur. Testis is the cornerstone of male reproduction, while reproductive health is the most valuable resource for continuity of the human race...
April 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Andrey V Letarov, Vladislav V Babenko, Eugene E Kulikov
The imbalance of the renin-angiotensin system is currently considered as a potentially important factor of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease. It has been shown previously in the murine model, that the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on the cell surface is downregulated in response to the infection by SARS-CoV virus or recombinant spike protein (S protein) alone. In the case of natural infection, circulation of the S protein in a soluble form is unlikely. However, in SARS-CoV-2, a large fraction of S protein trimers is pre-processed during virion morphogenesis due to the presence of furin protease cleavage site between the S1 and S2 subunits...
March 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Galina S Baturina, Lubov E Katkova, Irina G Palchikova, Nataliya G Kolosova, Evgeniy I Solenov, Igor A Iskakov
Diseases of the cornea are a frequent cause of blindness worldwide. Keratoplasty is an efficient method for treating severely damaged cornea. The functional competence of corneal endothelial cells is crucial for successful grafting, which requires improving the media for the hypothermic cornea preservation, as well as developing the methods for the evaluation of the corneal functional properties. The transport of water and ions by the corneal endothelium is important for the viability and optic properties of the cornea...
March 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Tatiana A Kironenko, Kseniya G Milovanova, Anna N Zakharova, Svetlana V Sidorenko, Elizaveta A Klimanova, Elena Yu Dyakova, Anna A Orlova, Elena S Negodenko, Yuliya G Kalinnikova, Sergei N Orlov, Leonid V Kapilevich
Modulation of cytokine production by physical activity is of considerable interest, since it might be a promising strategy for correcting metabolic processes at both cellular and systemic levels. The content of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-15 in the plasma and the concentration of monovalent cations in the skeletal muscles of trained and untrained mice were studied at different periods after static and dynamic exercises. Dynamic loads caused an increase in the IL-6 content and decrease in the IL-15 content in the plasma of untrained mice, but produced no effect on the concentration of IL-8...
March 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Tamara V Tikhonova, Anastasiya V Lilina, Evgenii M Osipov, Nikolay S Shipkov, Nataliya I Dergousova, Olga G Kulikova, Vladimir O Popov
Flavocytochrome c sulfide dehydrogenase (FCC) is one of the central enzymes of the respiratory chain in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. FCC catalyzes oxidation of sulfide and polysulfide ions to elemental sulfur accompanied by electron transfer to cytochrome c. The catalytically active form of the enzyme is a non-covalently linked heterodimer composed of flavin- and heme-binding subunits. The Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus ARh1 genome contains five copies of genes encoding homologous FCCs with an amino acid sequence identity from 36 to 54%...
March 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Elizaveta D Mamontova, Svetlana S Michurina, Iurii S Stafeev, Ekaterina L Sorkina, Igor A Sklyanik, Ekaterina O Koksharova, Mikhail Y Menshikov, Marina V Shestakova, Yelena V Parfyonova
Incretin hormones analogues, including glucagon-like peptide type 1 (GLP-1), exhibit complex glucose-lowering, anorexigenic, and cardioprotective properties. Mechanisms of action of GLP-1 and its analogues are well known for pancreatic β-cells, hepatocytes, and other tissues. Nevertheless, local effects of GLP-1 and its analogues in adipose tissue remain unclear. In the present work effects of the GLP-1 synthetic analogue, liraglutide, on adipogenesis and insulin sensitivity of the 3T3-L1 adipocytes were examined...
March 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Ildar T Gabdrakhmanov, Mikhail V Gorshkov, Irina A Tarasova
One of the main goals of quantitative proteomics is molecular profiling of cellular response to stress at the protein level. To perform this profiling, statistical analysis of experimental data involves multiple testing of a hypothesis about the equality of protein concentrations between the cells under normal and stress conditions. This analysis is then associated with the multiple testing problem dealing with the increased chance of obtaining false positive results. A number of solutions to this problem are known, yet, they may lead to the loss of potentially important biological information when applied with commonly accepted thresholds of statistical significance...
March 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Artem B Isaev, Olga S Musharova, Konstantin V Severinov
Bacteriophages or phages are viruses that infect bacterial cells (for the scope of this review we will also consider viruses that infect Archaea). Constant threat of phage infection is a major force that shapes evolution of the microbial genomes. To withstand infection, bacteria had evolved numerous strategies to avoid recognition by phages or to directly interfere with phage propagation inside the cell. Classical molecular biology and genetic engineering have been deeply intertwined with the study of phages and host defenses...
March 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Dariya A Khrabrova, Marianna G Yakubovskaya, Elizaveta S Gromova
In mammals, DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification necessary for the maintenance of genome stability, regulation of gene expression, and other processes. Carcinogenesis is accompanied by multiple changes in the DNA methylation pattern and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) genes; these changes are often associated with poor disease prognosis. Human DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A is responsible for de novo DNA methylation. Missense mutations in the DNMT3A gene occur frequently at the early stages of tumor development and are often observed in hematologic malignances, especially in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), with a prevalence of the R882H mutation...
March 2021: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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