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Public Health

G C Donaldson, C Witt, S Näyhä
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine trends in cold-related mortalities between 1995 and 2016. STUDY DESIGN: This is a longitudinal mortality study. METHODS: For men and women aged 65-74 years or those older than 85 years in South East England, the relationship between daily mortality (deaths per million population) and outdoor temperatures below 18 °C, with allowance for influenza epidemics, was assessed by linear regression on an annual basis...
February 18, 2019: Public Health
N Windarti, S W Hlaing, M Kakinaka
OBJECTIVES: The obesity epidemic has prevailed worldwide and is currently recognized as a global pandemic disease. Given the argument that various socio-economic features contribute to substantial differences in obesity rates across countries, economic development can also be considered a crucial factor of such variation. This study examines the relationship between economic development and each of three weight-related health statuses (rates of overweight, obesity, and morbid obesity)...
February 15, 2019: Public Health
M J Rana, A Gautam, S Goli, Uttamacharya, T Reja, P Nanda, N Datta, R Verma
OBJECTIVES: In an effort to provide recommendation for maximizing synergy between maternal, infant, and young children's nutrition and family planning in India, this study makes a comprehensive assessment of the effects of the planning of births in terms of timing, spacing and limiting childbearing on maternal and child health outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This study used the latest National Family Health Survey data of India that is globally known as the Demographic and Health Survey...
February 14, 2019: Public Health
A Lee, F Sim, P Mackie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2019: Public Health
L Squiers, M Lynch, S Dolina, S Ray, B Kelly, J Herrington, M Turner, D Chawla, S Becker-Dreps, L Stamm, L McCormack
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to understand what information the US media communicated about Zika virus (ZIKV) and travel in 2016 and 2017. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a content analysis of news coverage about ZIKV and travel from April 5, 2016 to March 31, 2017. METHODS: We obtained a stratified, random sample of English language, US print newspaper and television news coverage about ZIKV and travel. We developed a coding scheme to assess key messages in the news, including how ZIKV is transmitted, the symptoms and outcomes of ZIKV infection, and recommended prevention behaviors...
February 13, 2019: Public Health
M Aloosh, A Salavati, A Aloosh
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to review evidence of the negative consequences of international economic sanctions on population health in Iran and pathways via which the sanctions affect health. STUDY DESIGN: This is a narrative review. METHODS: Data from the World Bank and the Central Bank of Iran were gathered to clarify economic consequences of sanctions. Moreover, the literature was reviewed for published data on health consequences of economic sanctions in Iran and economic crisis in other parts of the world...
February 13, 2019: Public Health
J Maron, E Gomes de Matos, D Piontek, L Kraus, O Pogarell
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated mediating effects of the health status on the association between socio-economic status (SES) and medicine use. It was hypothesized that more privileged people show a reduced use of medicines, as compared with the underprivileged, because of their superior health status. It was further hypothesized that people may apply medication based on their type of health complaint (ill physical versus mental status). STUDY DESIGN: Data were taken from the 2012 German Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse, a nationally representative cross-sectional study of n = 9084 individuals of the German general population aged 18-64 years...
February 13, 2019: Public Health
A Garner-Purkis, P Hine, A Gamage, S Perera, M C Gulliford
OBJECTIVE: To compare predeparture tuberculosis (TB) screening policies, including screening criteria and screening tests, and visa requirements for prospective migrants to high-income countries that have low to intermediate TB incidence and high immigration. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review of policy documents. METHODS: We systematically identified high-income, high net-migration countries with an estimated TB incidence of <30 per 100,000...
February 13, 2019: Public Health
T A Motz, C L Currie
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impacts of housing discrimination experienced by Indigenous postsecondary students on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology and perceptions of university stress. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Data were gathered via in-person surveys completed by 142 Indigenous students between 2015 and 2017. Associations were analyzed using phi coefficients and linear regression models adjusted for confounders...
February 12, 2019: Public Health
A M Alguacil-Ramos, A Portero-Alonso, E Pastor-Villalba, J Muelas-Tirado, J Díez-Domingo, A Sanchis-Ferrer, J A Lluch-Rodrigo
OBJECTIVES: The enhanced safety surveillance for seasonal influenza vaccines established by the European Medicines Agency is required each season. Therefore, a registry capable of rapidly detecting and evaluating potential new safety concerns is needed. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the vaccine information system of the Valencia region to make a rapid assessment of the influenza vaccine safety and describe the safety of the two vaccine types used in the 2017/2018 season...
February 12, 2019: Public Health
S A Butame
OBJECTIVE: This study estimated the prevalence of modern contraceptive use (MCU) and the sociodemographic factors associated with MCU among sexually active men in Ghana. The study is informed by the Health Belief Model, which is used as a conceptual framework for understanding MCU. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data. METHODS: Analysis was limited to 3373 men who reported being sexually active within the 24-months prior to the survey data collection...
February 12, 2019: Public Health
J Leston, C Crisp, C Lee, E Rink
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to work with tribal communities to define and develop their own healthcare services and strategies for positive change regarding injection drug use, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The secondary objective of this study was to incorporate community capacity building strategies to develop and sustain programming and resources to optimize tribal communities' responsiveness to reduce health disparities...
February 11, 2019: Public Health
S Schneider, A Bolbos, J Fessler, C Buck
OBJECTIVES: The deprivation amplification hypothesis postulates that the socially disadvantaged are exposed to further structural deprivation by their residential environment such that social inequalities are therefore amplified. To date, no publication has investigated deprivation amplification solely using playgrounds; the present health geography study investigates this hypothesis with regard to the availability of playgrounds in a typical large German city. STUDY DESIGN: Between July 2016 and January 2017, all playgrounds in the city of Mannheim, Germany, were identified and evaluated by systematic audits...
February 8, 2019: Public Health
J Tsai, X Gu
OBJECTIVES: This study examines rates of lifetime adult homelessness among foreign-born adults in the United States and how they differ from native-born adults. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from a nationally representative US sample were analyzed. METHODS: A sample of 29,896 native-born (weighted 84.1%) and 6404 foreign-born (weighted 16.0%) US adults participating in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III were compared on rates of homelessness, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, mental and substance-use disorders, health insurance, and use of welfare...
February 7, 2019: Public Health
A Pavli, I Lymperi, T Minitsios, P Katerelos, M Souli, Z Ouzounidou, H C Maltezou
OBJECTIVES: Unemployment in Greece has been increasing as a result of the financial crisis. The aim of this study was to assess the changing trends of business travelers and their pretravel preparation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, questionnaire-based study. METHODS: The study was conducted between 2008 and 2016 at all Regional Public Health Departments. All travelers seeking pretravel advice during the study period were invited to participate...
February 7, 2019: Public Health
J Hapeta, F Palmer, Y Kuroda
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the article was to explore the application and interpretation of indigenous stories introduced in 2015-2017 in relation to the identity and leadership (well-being elements) of players and coaches of a men's provincial rugby team in Aotearoa/New Zealand (NZ). STUDY DESIGN: The study utilised a Kaupapa Māori case study approach and indigenous forms of storytelling (pūrākau, whakataukī) to encourage participants to share their narratives and experiences of how the inclusion of Māori knowledge in a team context influenced their sense of identity and leadership and thus well-being on and off the field...
February 7, 2019: Public Health
A M Oommen, G K Mini, K George
OBJECTIVES: Most World Health Organisation (WHO) STEPS surveys use cluster sampling to assess the prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) for which design effects need to be estimated using intracluster correlation (ICCs) coefficients, for sample size calculation. Although there are many reports of risk factor surveys reported from developing countries, there are very few reports of ICCs for risk factors for NCDs, which can inform planning the appropriate sample size needed for such surveys...
February 6, 2019: Public Health
N F Torres, B Chibi, L E Middleton, V P Solomon, T P Mashamba-Thompson
OBJECTIVES: Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) is a practice of global concern with a higher incidence within the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite worldwide efforts to control and promote the rational use of antibiotics, the continuing practice of SMA systematically exposes individuals and communities to the risk of antibiotic resistance and a host of other antibiotic side-effects. This systematic scoping review maps evidence on the factors influencing SMA in these settings...
February 1, 2019: Public Health
H You, H Gu, N Zhang, H Fan, Y Kou, N Cui, X Y Liu, X L Li, J H Gu
OBJECTIVE: Less than half of eligible Chinese rural women have been screened for breast and cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to describe individual-level reasons for attending or not attending 'two cancers' screening using Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: The study sample was from the Health Services Survey in 2013 in Jiangsu, China. A total of 6520 rural women aged 36-65 years answered the questions on 'two cancers' screening participation and were included in the final analysis, which consisted of univariate and multivariate logistic regression...
January 29, 2019: Public Health
S Alghnam, T M Bell, L J Cook, F Alqahtani, R Castillo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the association between childhood injury and health outcomes among survivors and their mothers using a national survey in the United States (US). STUDY DESIGN: This was a longitudinal analysis of a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the 1997-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) was performed. Children (aged 2-18 years) with or without injuries were followed up for two years...
January 29, 2019: Public Health
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