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Psychological Reports

Alyson F Shapiro, John M Gottman, Brandi C Fink
The goal of the present research was to test the efficacy of the Bringing Baby Home couple-focused psychoeducational program for promoting father involvement and related satisfaction. A randomized clinical trial design was used to randomly assign 136 pregnant couples to either an intervention or control group. Father involvement post-intervention was assessed through self-report of engagement in parenting tasks. Intent-to-treat analysis of covariance analyses indicated that fathers who participated in the Bringing Baby Home program reported significantly more involvement in parenting tasks, satisfaction with the division of parenting labor, and feeling appreciated by their wives...
February 14, 2019: Psychological Reports
Fadwa Al Mughairbi, Ahmed Abdulaziz Alnajjar, Abdalla Hamid
This study examined the effects of psychoeducation and stress management techniques on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Libya. The 41 Libyan patients who volunteered to take part in the study were first assessed using the PTSD Checklist. They attended workshops on PTSD symptoms, stress management techniques, and communication skills on three successive days after which they were asked to answer the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations two weeks after they completed the workshops. Among the 39% of the participants who were diagnosed with PTSD prior to the intervention, 15% met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD after the intervention...
February 13, 2019: Psychological Reports
Steven S Posavac, Heidi D Posavac
The study of when and how individuals compare themselves against standards has been an enduring focus for clinical and social psychology researchers in efforts to facilitate well-being and health. Our study focused on internalization of the societal thin-ideal standard for feminine attractiveness, a construct that has proven to be very important in women's psychological health. Although multiple adverse consequences of thin-ideal internalization have been documented, the understanding of variability in the extent of thin-ideal internalization across women (e...
February 11, 2019: Psychological Reports
Rui Dong, Shi G Ni
Awe is the emotion experienced when people confront stimuli so vast and novel that they require accommodation. Dispositional awe, in contrast, captures individual differences in the tendency to experience awe. Previous research has found that state awe could predict life satisfaction; however, no study has focused on the indirect effects of dispositional awe on the relationship between personality traits and subjective well-being. Previous studies have found that both openness to experience and extraversion were significant predictors of subjective well-being...
February 10, 2019: Psychological Reports
Linlin Zhang, Yang Qiu, Nan Zhang, Shuang Li
Difficult doctor‒patient relationships are a common reality in many health-care organizations. Its harmful impacts have been mainly discussed from the perspectives of patients. However, understanding of its negative effects on physicians is limited. Drawing on the job demands-resources model and the conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that difficult relationships with patients negatively predict physicians' work engagement, mediated by physicians' personal resources (e.g. prosocial motivation and problem-solving pondering)...
February 7, 2019: Psychological Reports
Laurent Auzoult
Objectification at work reflects instrumentality and denial of humanness in work relationships. These relationships have deleterious consequences for workplace health. One of the consequences of this type of relationship is self-objectification in which the self is perceived as a non-person or as an object. This phenomenon leads to perceiving oneself without mental states (i.e., dementalization) or as an instrument (i.e., instrumentalization) and as a nonperson (i.e., loss of humanness). However, few studies have considered how to reduce these consequences...
February 2, 2019: Psychological Reports
Mariam Panjikidze, Andreas Beelmann, Khatuna Martskvishvili, Marine Chitashvili
Despite much research on adult posttraumatic growth in recent decades, few studies have focused on posttraumatic growth in the young and especially after experiencing war. This study examined personality factors and different types and sources of social support as key correlates of posttraumatic growth in war-experienced children and adolescents. Participants were 242 individuals from settlements for internally displaced people in Georgia with a mean age of 13.22 years ( SD = 2.73). Relations between variables were examined with correlations, standard multiple regressions, and mediation analyses...
January 31, 2019: Psychological Reports
Utku Beyazit, Aynur Bütün Ayhan
In the present research, the aim was to develop, implement, and examine the effectiveness of an education program for mothers for the prevention of child neglect. In the study, the "Mother Education Program to Prevent Child Neglect" was initially designed for implementation and a quasi-experimental design involving pretest/posttest, and one-month follow-up test was implemented to examine the effectiveness of the trial procedure. The study group of the research consisted of 24 mothers (12 mothers in the intervention group and 12 mothers in the comparison group) who agreed to participate in the study...
January 22, 2019: Psychological Reports
Funda Barutçu Yıldırım, Ayhan Demir
The purpose of the present study was to examine the predictor role of procrastination, test anxiety, self-esteem, and self-compassion for the variation in university students' self-handicapping. The sample of the study consisted of 801 undergraduate students (404 females and 397 males). In order to collect data, Self-Handicapping Scale, Tuckman Procrastination Scale, Anxiety Subscale of Academic Emotions Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Self-Compassion Scale were used. Stepwise regression analysis was conducted, and results showed that all of the predictor variables significantly contributed in explaining self-handicapping...
January 21, 2019: Psychological Reports
Manuel Dupont
Three experiments investigated a common but intriguing phenomenon, that is, repeated personal name confusion, a phenomenon at the border between language and memory. The purpose of those experiments was to evaluate the impact of the semantic and phonological similarities on name confusion and to compare repeated naming confusions (i.e., repeatedly confounding two names) with single confusions (i.e., confounding two names only once) in a same experimental paradigm. In all experiments, participants (64 middle-aged participants for each experiment) were asked to memorize the association between 16 names and 16 faces (face-name learning task)...
January 19, 2019: Psychological Reports
Jeffrey A Miles
The present study replicated and extended research on the influence of team assignment methods on task performance and fairness perceptions. This study examined the influence of team assignment methods, goal commitment, and partner status on team member performance and fairness perceptions in a laboratory setting. The assignment conditions were comprised of three variables: assignment method (random, self-decision, and ability), performer status (assigned or unassigned), and partner status (unassigned team member stayed or left during task performance)...
January 17, 2019: Psychological Reports
Amy Y Cameron, Shannon Erisman, Kathleen Palm Reed
Shame has been individually linked to nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal ideation and behavior and is highly prevalent in individuals with borderline personality disorder. The current study investigated the relationship between shame, nonsuicidal self-injury, and suicidal ideation in a sample of women with borderline personality disorder. Participants were 40 women recruited from a Women's Dialectical Behavior Therapy Partial Hospital Program in a psychiatric hospital in New England as part of a larger, six-month treatment development study...
January 17, 2019: Psychological Reports
Yunxiang Chen, Ruoxuan Li, Peng Zhang, Xiangping Liu
This study aims to explore the relationships among social anxiety, social networking sites (SNS) addiction, and SNS addiction tendency and further to examine the moderating role of state attachment anxiety and state attachment avoidance. A sample of Chinese young adults ( N = 437, Mage  = 24.21 ± 3.25, 129 males) participated in this study, the data were collected through self-reports. Results revealed that participants' social anxiety was positively associated with SNS addiction and SNS addiction tendency...
January 6, 2019: Psychological Reports
Luca Negri, Marta Bassi, Antonella Delle Fave
Several studies highlighted the role of meaning in life as a major component of well-being and researchers have developed different measures to assess the features of this construct. In the present study, the psychometric properties of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire were investigated in the Italian context. The Meaning in Life Questionnaire is a 10-item scale measuring perceived presence of and search for meaning in life, conceptualized as two separate factors. The former refers to perceived meaning and purpose in life, the latter to the active commitment to find meaning in life...
January 2, 2019: Psychological Reports
Adelheid Am Nicol, Kalee De France
The role of prejudice in second-language acquisition has received little attention but may be related to an individual's motivation to learn another language. For instance, learners who express high Social Dominance Orientation or Right-Wing Authoritarianism, constructs reflective of prejudice and worldviews that endorse hostility towards or fear of outgroup members, may be less motivated to learn a second language. Moreover, increased Social Dominance Orientation and/or Right-Wing Authoritarianism scores may be associated with reduced motivation to learn a second language due to the impact of prejudice on Integrativeness, which is the extent to which a person has an interest in learning a second language and in interacting with members who speak that second language...
December 26, 2018: Psychological Reports
Manisha Sawhney, Seth Kunen, Ashum Gupta
Depression is now the leading cause of disability worldwide, and globally more than 300 million people of all ages suffer from depression. Depression, despite its major health consequences, frequently goes unnoticed among university students, since their lives are often filled with symptoms normally associated with depression (e.g., loss of sleep, low energy, anxiety, and sadness). Successful adaptation to depression depends on the use of adequate coping strategies. The extent to which university students in India with high and low levels of depressive symptoms use adequate or inadequate coping strategies has not been evaluated...
December 21, 2018: Psychological Reports
Béla Birkás, Gabriella Pátkai, Árpád Csathó
Life History Theory posits early-life adversities affect personality development partway through sensitizing individuals to certain environmental cues, thus influencing the person's responses to different stressors. We therefore hypothesized that life history strategy affects perceived distress and self-efficiency in coping through certain personality traits. The concept of the Dark Triad describes specific forms of personalities found to be associated with faster life strategies and perceived stress. Hence, the aim of our study was to examine the possible mediator role of the Dark Triad traits on the relationship between life strategies and perceived stress...
December 20, 2018: Psychological Reports
Paul A Klaczynski, Wejdan Felmban
To explore hypotheses based on Stanovich's proposal that analytic processing comprises a reflective-level, an algorithmic level, and specific mindware, 342 participants completed measures of thinking dispositions, general ability (GA), numeracy, and probabilistic and nonprobabilistic reasoning. In a control condition, numeracy predicted probabilistic reasoning at high levels of both thinking dispositions and GA, and GA predicted nonprobabilistic reasoning at high levels of thinking dispositions. In a logic instruction condition, numeracy predicted probabilistic reasoning when GA was high, and GA affected nonprobabilistic reasoning directly...
December 14, 2018: Psychological Reports
Joanna E Preś, Jacek Kurpisz, Justyna Pełka-Wysiecka, Katarzyna Adamowicz, Daria Suchecka-Fidura, Marta Ilnicka, Monika Mak, Jerzy Samochowiec
This paper touches upon gender differences concerning psychosocial factors related to the emotional reaction of gratitude and forms of expressing gratitude in quasi-experimental conditions. It is based on findings from a study conducted on 576 participants of both sexes, aged 14 to 86 years. There were used three versions of the same questionnaire, depending on the type of the received good-material, intangible, or none. The participants' gratitude level (as a trait), self-esteem, and emotional intelligence were measured...
December 14, 2018: Psychological Reports
Jason A Cantone
In the past three decades, researchers have examined counterfactual thinking and causation in decision making. However, little work has applied these findings to trial settings. The present research examined two conflicting theories regarding counterfactual thinking and causation to elaborate on earlier work examining counterfactual thinking in negligence law cases. The research also expanded the earlier work by examining covariation theory, additional psychological measures, and the rank order and reaction time associated with counterfactuals...
December 14, 2018: Psychological Reports
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