Soumyadeep Mukherjee, Jonathan Gordils
Background: Adolescents' possession of guns was a matter of concern even before the pandemic. It is pertinent to examine whether students continued possessing guns after schools reopened, and if so, identify factors that might have been associated with such behaviors. Towards this end, the present study examined the relationship between highschool students' experiences and their propensity to possess guns. Methods: This used responses from multiple nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of high school students from the 2019 and 2021 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 2021 Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey (ABES)...
June 24, 2024: Psychological Reports
Hasan Batmaz, Eyüp Çelik
This study examines the mediation role of life satisfaction and resilience variables in the relationships between anxiety sensitivity and perceived stress. The data was collected with the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3, Life Satisfaction Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Brief Psychological Resilience Scale from 347 university students (Mage = 23.15, SD = 5.15; 70% girls, 30% boys). The analyses were examined by structural equation modeling using AMOS 24. The findings suggest that students with high anxiety sensitivity and perceived stress have low resilience and life satisfaction levels...
June 22, 2024: Psychological Reports
Nicola-Hans Schwarzer, Nikolas Heim, Stephan Gingelmaier, Peter Fonagy, Tobias Nolte
Background: In recent years, mentalizing - the capacity to understand one's own and others' intentional mental states in social contexts - has been considered to be a protective capacity that enables adaptive processing of stress-related emotional arousal, benefits general well-being and underpins adaptive emotion regulation. Objective: Several studies using cross-sectional research designs have demonstrated the potential health-promoting effect of mentalizing in non-clinical samples. However, longitudinal evidence is scarce...
June 14, 2024: Psychological Reports
Maria A Kalantzis, Abby L Braden
Direct relationships between perceived discrimination and eating pathology in ethnic minorities are well-documented. However, theoretical work examining unique risk and resilience factors that strengthen or weaken the relation between these constructs in ethnic minorities is lacking. The current study aims to address this gap by incorporating stress-process and tripartite frameworks to examine social and personal resources as they relate to perceived discrimination and eating pathology. In a sample of Black, Asian, and Latine women ( N = 296, M age = 30...
June 13, 2024: Psychological Reports
Meredith B Elzy, Ashton Keaton, Melanie Bogus, Kristen Raymond
While we know childhood experiences are influential on a child's later socioemotional awareness and behavior, we are still searching for specific mechanisms that influence the transferability of childhood experiences and adult relationship functioning. In this study, we seek to further this area of investigation by examining the interpretation of ambiguous social interactions and perceptions of emotional invalidation as potential mediators of the relationship between perceptions of childhood emotional invalidation and current relationship quality...
June 13, 2024: Psychological Reports
Chiara Valzolgher
When completing a task, the ability to implement behavioral strategies to solve it in an effective and cognitively less-demanding way is extremely adaptive for humans. This behavior makes it possible to accumulate evidence and test one's own predictions about the external world. In this work, starting from examples in the field of spatial hearing research, I analyze the importance of considering motor strategies in perceptual tasks, and I stress the urgent need to create ecological experimental settings, which are essential in allowing the implementation of such behaviors and in measuring them...
June 10, 2024: Psychological Reports
Tom St Quinton, A William Crescioni
Previous research has demonstrated that a stronger belief in free will contributes to a variety of socially desirable behaviors. We assessed the correlation between free will beliefs and health behaviors. Four studies ( N = 1172) provide evidence that belief in free will is positively associated with health protective behaviors (e.g., physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, low fat diet) and negatively associated with health risk behaviors (e.g., alcohol consumption, smoking, unhealthy snacking)...
June 8, 2024: Psychological Reports
Chaoqun Dong, Hua Chen, Yi Li, Yumei Sun, Yinzhu Pan, Qiongying Xu, Hongyu Sun
This study investigated gender differences in health-risk behaviour patterns among young adults and assessed the associations of anxiety and depression with these patterns. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1740 young Chinese adults aged 18-24 years. Latent class analysis (LCA) and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to identify the clusters of health-risk behaviours and their associations with anxiety and depression. Three common patterns were found for both genders: physical inactivity, substance use, and insufficient fruit intake (5...
June 6, 2024: Psychological Reports
Eliza Kalika, Misba Hussain, Helen Egan, Michail Mantzios
Orthorexia Nervosa (ON) is characterized by an excessive preoccupation with healthy eating, accompanied by increasingly restrictive dietary practices over time. In light of the increased attention to ON, it is noteworthy that the existing body of research, specifically with regard to mindfulness and self-compassion remains constrained in scope and depth. A total of 151 participants over the age of 18 completed scales measuring Orthorexia, Self-Compassion, Mindfulness, and Perfectionism. The findings revealed that individuals exhibiting high levels of ON tended to have low levels of self-compassion and mindfulness, along with high levels of perfectionism...
June 4, 2024: Psychological Reports
Davide Crivelli, Roberta A Allegretta, Michela Balconi
Decisions under risk are a particular case of decisional skills taking place in complex and mostly unpredictable situations, where affective connotation of deciding is highly relevant. We aimed at investigating decisional processes under risk by outlining individual risk-taking (RT) and risk management (RM) attitudes via realistic decision-making and, in keeping with the risk-as-feeling hypothesis, at exploring implicit physiological correlates of such processes. 35 participants were presented with realistic situations where they had to make decisions by choosing between alternatives connoted by different levels of riskiness...
June 4, 2024: Psychological Reports
Saifang Liu, Xiaoxi Han, Lei Du, Honghai Zhu, Runze Shi, Jijun Lan
Scholars tend to believe that effective leadership contributes to facilitating employee work engagement. Based on social identity theory and self-determination theory, this study explored how empowering leadership affects employee work engagement through the mediating roles of organisational identification and workplace well-being. A sample of 3645 front-line employees in China participated in this study. A structural equation model analysis was performed to examine the hypothetical model. Sex, age, degree of education, wage income per month (RMB), and subjective social class were covariables...
June 3, 2024: Psychological Reports
Gerald D Higginbotham
This paper situates current social psychological research on the symbolic use of firearms (e.g., as a source of personal safety) in broader historical context to motivate a more thorough consideration of collective power motives. Historically, firearms have been used to dominate racial outgroup members (e.g., White Americans use of firearms and firearm laws to dispossess indigenous people of land or control free and enslaved Black people) or, at times, attempt to resist group-based oppression (e.g., Black Americans use of firearms to struggle against White Jim Crow terrorism)...
June 3, 2024: Psychological Reports
Maor Yeshua, Andrea Berger
It is well established that parents' own self-regulation is related to adaptive parenting practices (such as warmth and sensitivity) as well as to maladaptive ones (such as laxness and over-reactivity). However, parenting practices are not solely determined by parents' self-regulation. We discuss how broad personality dimensions (drawn from the Big-Five model) relate to temperamental self-regulation (effortful control) and to parenting practices. Considering the limited empirical literature linking these three constructs, we present extant evidence for each of the dyadic connections between these three constructs...
June 1, 2024: Psychological Reports
Ferhat Ayyildiz, Ilknur Özalp Türetgen, Mahmut Bayazit
This paper aims to investigate the role of stereotype threat and the moderating role of gender stigma consciousness on women's leadership aspiration, leadership career goal, social self-esteem, and negative affect across two experimental studies in Türkiye. We expected the detrimental effects of streotype threat to be experienced by those with high gender stigma consciousness. The first study, involving 130 female undergraduates (Mage = 20.7, SD = 4.4), presented implicit stereotype threat and showed that the threat increased the interest of team membership and women low in stigma consciousness reported higher leadership career goals than those high in stigma consciousness...
June 1, 2024: Psychological Reports
Mike Henson-Garcia, Lauren Q Malthaner, Katelyn K Jetelina, Michael Mackert, Marlyn Allicock, Sandra McKay
Firearm injury is a major yet understudied public health issue in the U.S. This qualitative study explored firearm retailers' perspectives to inform messaging and communication approaches to promote firearm safety among the gun owning population. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 retailers at a single gun shop in Texas. Thematic analysis identified key themes related to (1) audience segmentation, (2) appropriate use of language, and (3) trusted messengers and modalities for the communication of firearm safety information...
May 31, 2024: Psychological Reports
Deborah J Hartley, Mario A Davila
The primary objective of the current study was to add to the literature and broaden our understanding of gun violence victims by examining attitudes towards gun legislation held by victims of gun violence. To our knowledge, there are only two quantitative studies that have examined the impact of gun victimization on attitudes towards gun control legislation. A secondary objective was to examine the link between impressions of the National Rifle Association (NRA) and gun policy preferences, which remains an understudied area in the gun legislation literature...
May 29, 2024: Psychological Reports
Tameka L Gillum, Clarice J Hampton, Chanté Coppedge
Gun violence is a major public health issue of growing concern in the United States (U.S.) with 48,830 lives lost to gun related violence in 2021, documenting the highest number of gun related homicides and suicides ever recorded. The African American community is disproportionately impacted by gun violence and members of this community are almost 14x more likely to die by gun homicide than their white counterparts. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has identified a socio-ecological framework as a lens through which to better understand violence and inform potential prevention strategies to address it...
May 28, 2024: Psychological Reports
Jarrod E Bock, Samantha E Daruwala, Raymond P Tucker, Stephen D Foster, Shelby L Bandel, John F Gunn, Michael D Anestis
The surge in firearm sales from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic have been linked to increases in firearm violence, which is of public concern given that having firearms in one's home is associated with increased risk for domestic violence and suicide. Consistent with pre-pandemic trends, individuals tended to purchase firearms for self-protection during COVID-19. Prior work indicates that protective firearm ownership is motivated not only by perceptions that the world (and one's local environment) is dangerous, but also by one's endorsement of masculinity norms found in U...
May 27, 2024: Psychological Reports
Jasmine W Rios, C Veronica Smith, Taylor N Locke
The Hallmark Channel, a highly watched cable network, is known for its consistently idealistic portrayals of romantic relationships. Despite its popularity, no research has examined whether increased viewership of Hallmark movies covaries with endorsement of relationship beliefs. According to cultivation theory, what we watch impacts our beliefs and perceptions of reality. Additionally, the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM) proposes that certain variables, such as developmental (i.e...
May 27, 2024: Psychological Reports
James J Annesi, Francine A Stewart
The aim of this study was to evaluate behavioral mediators of relationships between increased self-regulation of eating and weight loss so that findings on psychosocial correlates of treatment-associated weight change could be extended. Participants were women enrolled in 6-month community-based obesity treatments using primarily self-regulatory (SR-treatment, n = 52) or education-focused (Didactic training, n = 54) methods. Changes from baseline in self-regulation of eating, self-efficacy for controlled eating, emotional eating propensity, exercise, and the diet were first calculated...
May 27, 2024: Psychological Reports
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