Chanda Bhandari, Azophi Moffat, John Fakhry, Ashritha Malkoochi, Austin Nguyen, Brian Trinh, Kenneth Hoyt, Michael D Story, Tayyaba Hasan, Girgis Obaid
Photodynamic priming (PDP) leverages the photobiological effects of subtherapeutic photodynamic therapy (PDT) regimens to modulate the tumor vasculature and stroma. PDP also sensitizes tumors to secondary therapies, such as immunotherapy by inducing a cascade of molecular events, including immunogenic cell death (ICD). We and others have shown that PDP improves the delivery of antibodies, among other theranostic agents. However, it is not known whether a single PDP protocol is capable of both inducing ICD in vivo and augmenting the delivery of immune checkpoint inhibitors...
October 11, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Xinran Zhang, Haotian Li, Lu Tang, Biao Zhu, Wenwen Yang, Miao Li, Ying Zhao
Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) is the application of a low-level laser device to generate physiological changes and provide therapeutic effects. Till now, the effects of PBMT on the neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells have been rarely reported. Herein, the potential effect and mechanism of PBMT on the neural differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were preliminarily investigated in our research. The optimal dose of 3.75 J/cm2 was first screened for use in the following neural-inducing studies...
October 10, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Fen Wu, Bingrong Dang, Liming Hu, Sen Zhu, Zuohao Liu, Xinhui Cao, Zhen Li, Chunming Wang, Changjun Lin
Although blue light can damage the skin to a certain extent, the pathogenesis of its damage remains still unclear. The available evidence suggests that oxidative stress may be the main cause of its damage. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) has antioxidative effects in a variety of cells. In this paper, we investigated the protective role of LBP and its mechanism of action related to mitophagy in blue-light-damaged skin cells. The findings indicated that in HaCaT cells and mouse skin, LBP pretreatment was effective in reducing blue-light-induced apoptosis and ameliorating the elevated level of cellular autophagy/mitophagy caused by excessive blue light exposure...
October 10, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
David Kessel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Qian Zhou, Wenwen Guo, Zheng Hu, Shuyi Yan, Jialong Jie, Hongmei Su
The direct photoionization of DNA canonical bases under ultraviolet radiation is difficult due to the high ionization potentials. According to previous quantum chemical calculations, methylation can have great influence on the ionization potential. Are methylated nucleobases prone to photoionization and cause DNA damage? As an important epigenetic modification in transcription, expression, and regulation of genes, it is of great biological significance to explore the effect of methylation on base photoionization from the experimental perspective...
October 4, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Rahnuma Siddique, Rajesh K Yadav, Satyam Singh, Rehana Shahin, Arun K Dubey, Alok Kumar Singh, Atresh K Singh, Navneet Kumar Gupta, Jin-Ook Baeg, Tae Wu Kim
The combination of excellent electronic properties and thermal stability positions orange-derived graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as promising materials for solar light-based applications. Researchers are actively exploring their potential in fields such as photovoltaics, photocatalysis, optoelectronics, and energy storage. Their abundance, cost-effectiveness, and eco-friendly nature further contribute to their growing relevance in cutting-edge scientific research. Furthermore, only GQDs are not much more effective in the UV-visible region, therefore, required band gap engineering in GQDs material...
September 22, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Yan Guo, Yue Kong, Juan Sun, Yang Jiao, Yan Hong, Yan Wang
Saussurea medusa polysaccharide, the polysaccharide extract of Saussurea medusa Maxim, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is used to combat intense ultraviolet radiation, cold, and hypoxia in patients, as well as during drought. This polysaccharide has rich medicinal and ecological values. We aimed to determine whether saussurea medusa polysaccharides can reduce ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin photoaging. Seventy-five male Kunming mice were divided into five groups: control, UVB-only, UVB plus vitamin E (VE group), UVB plus saussurea medusa (2 g/kg), and UVB plus saussurea medusa (6 g/kg)...
September 21, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Xiaoying Mo, Xiaochun Chen, Xiaojiao Pan, Yantong Lu, Guangjuan Pan, Jielan Xie, Zhenzhen Pan, Li Li, Hui Tian, Yaohua Li
Helianthus annuus seed byproduct is a residual product obtained after seed oil extraction. The present study investigated the preventive and repair effects of the H. annuus seed byproduct ethanol extract (HSE) on ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced injury in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and human skin fibroblasts (HSFs). Results revealed that the total phenolic acid and oligosaccharide content in HSE was >50%. HSE had a stronger preventive effect on UVR-induced injury than the repair effect...
September 20, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Yoshiyuki Nishimiya, Yosuke Morita, Chun Wu, Yasushi Ohyama, Yuki Tochigi, Tsugumi Okuzawa, Mami Sakashita, Atsushi Asakawa, Tsutomu Irie, Yoshihiro Ohmiya, Satoru Ohgiya, Naoki Morita
Luciferase is a popular enzyme used for biological analyses, such as reporter assays. In addition to a conventional reporter assay using a pair of firefly and Renilla luciferases, a simple multicolor reporter assay using multiple firefly or beetle luciferases emitting different color luminescence with a single substrate has been reported. Secretory luciferases have also been used for convenient sample preparation in reporter assays; however, reporter assay using secretory luciferase mutants that emit spectrum-shifted luminescence have not yet been reported...
September 16, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Reema Iqbal, Tariq Khan, Tauqir A Sherazi, Abdullah Jalal, Gul Shad Ali
Plant-based nanoparticles can be tuned through the frequency of light for efficient synthesis, structural properties, and antibacterial applications. This research assessed the effect of material type (callus and whole-plant extract) and the interaction with a specific range of light wavelength on AgNP synthesis. All types of AgNPs were characterized by their size, shape, associated functional groups, and surface charge. Interestingly, the size of red light and callus-based AgNPs (RC-AgNPs) was smaller (6.32 nm) compared to 14...
September 14, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Serah Essang, Alexander Greer
This article is a highlight of the paper by Huang et al. in this issue of Photochemistry and Photobiology. It describes shades of phototoxicity in fluorescent imaging agents that are not intended to be phototoxic. Phototoxicity was assessed using a modified neutral red uptake (NRU) in vitro assay with mean photo-effects (MPE) for the fluorescent agents IRdye800, indocyanine green (ICG), proflavine, and methylene blue (MB), with comparisons to known phototoxic agents benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD) and rose bengal (RB)...
September 12, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Zhenbin Miao, Yanlian Liao, Xuhua Huang, Xiaochun Wang, Wei Liao, Guiwen Wang
Nosema bombycis (Nb) is a pathogen causing pebrine in sericulture. Ultraviolet (UV) light exposure is a common physical disinfection method, but the mechanisms underlying UV-based disinfection have only been studied at the population level. In this study, changes in and germination of UV-irradiated spores were observed using Raman tweezers and phase-contrast imaging to evaluate the effects of UV radiation on Nb spores at the single-cell level. We found that irradiation caused the complete leakage of trehalose from individual spores...
September 12, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Thomas M Elliott, Louisa G Gordon, Ann Webb, Richard Kift, Anna Foeglein, Rachel E Neale
Our objective was to calculate the time in the sun necessary to maintain existing 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration at locations across Australia and New Zealand. We used a microsimulation model to estimate changes in monthly 25(OH)D concentration using data on standard erythemal dose, solar zenith angle, and climatological ozone. We estimated the number of standard vitamin D doses per 10-min interval and used a dose-response equation to determine the average time in the sun to maintain existing 25(OH)D concentration according to month and time of day...
September 10, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Chensheng Ma, Qingwu Xiong, Jingdong Lin, Allen Ka-Wa Wong, Mingliang Wang, Wai-Ming Kwok
Isocytosine, having important applications in antivirus and drug development, is among the building blocks of Hachimoji nucleic acids. In this report, we present an investigation of the excited state dynamics of isocytosine in both protic and aprotic solvents, which was conducted by a combination of methods including steady-state spectroscopy, femtosecond broadband time-resolved fluorescence, and transient absorption. These methods were coupled with density functional and time-dependent density functional theory calculations...
September 8, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Cristina Girardi, Francesca Benato, Marco Massironi, Vincenzo Vindigni, Dominik Stuhlmann, Michele Massironi
Sunlight, and more specifically the UV component, induces several skin damages, including sunburns, erythema and photoaging. The purpose of this work is to set up an ex vivo human skin model to assess the capacity of active principles in protecting skin from the deleterious effects of solar radiation. Ex vivo human skin biopsies were cultured in an air-liquid interface and exposed to solar-simulated radiation (SSR, 300-750 nm). L-Carnosine (0.2% and 2%) was applied topically to be tested as photoprotective compound...
September 7, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Afaf Elkurdi, Gernot Guigas, Latifa Hourani-Alsharafat, Patrick Scheerer, Gerd Ulrich Nienhaus, Norbert Krauß, Tilman Lamparter
Phytochromes are photoreceptor proteins with a bilin chromophore that undergo photoconversion between two spectrally different forms, Pr and Pfr. Three domains, termed PAS, GAF, and PHY domains, constitute the N-terminal photosensory chromophore module (PCM); the C-terminus is often a histidine kinase module. In the Agrobacterium fabrum phytochrome Agp1, the autophosphorylation activity of the histidine kinase is high in the Pr and low in the Pfr form. Crystal structure analyses of PCMs suggest flexibility around position 308 in the Pr but not in the Pfr form...
September 7, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Hao Tang, Xiangyu Li, Xingyou Liu, Yifan Xu, Jie Shen
Blue light is known as one of the harmful light pollution that has complex effects on organisms. The massive use of LED lights in cities has greatly increased the frequency of human exposure to blue light, and therefore the hazards of blue light are receiving widespread attention. In our study, Drosophila was used as the model organism to explore the ability of the flavonoid rutin to resist blue light damage under the intensity of 3000 Lux. Siler model analysis was performed. Our results showed sex-specific pattern of rutin as an effective antioxidant...
September 4, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Lloyd Lapoot, Shakeela Jabeen, Andrés M Durantini, Alexander Greer
A density functional theoretical (DFT) study is presented, implicating a 1 O2 oxidation process to reach a dihydrobenzofuran from the reaction of the natural homoallylic alcohol, glycocitrine. Our results predict an interconversion between glycocitrine and an iso-hydroperoxide intermediate [R(H)O+ -O- ] that provides a key path in the chemistry which then follows. Formations of allylic hydroperoxides are unlikely from a 1 O2 'ene' reaction. Instead, the dihydrobenzofuran arises by 1 O2 oxidation facilitated by a 16° curvature of the glycocitrine ring imposed by a pyramidal N-methyl group...
August 21, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Brian L Diffey, Alois W Schmalwieser
Beach holidays in areas of strong sunlight are popular and sunscreen is often the primary means of photoprotection favored by many people. The object of this study was to estimate how effective sunscreen is in preventing sunburn under high ultraviolet (UV) levels. We used a computational model to determine how the quantity, frequency, substantivity, and labeled SPF of applied sunscreens impact on the predicted erythemal response in unacclimatized skin over the course of a 7-day holiday in a high-solar environment...
August 21, 2023: Photochemistry and Photobiology
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