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Nutrition Reviews

Sophie Budge, Alison H Parker, Paul T Hutchings, Camila Garbutt
In 2017, an estimated 1 in every 4 (23%) children aged < 5 years were stunted worldwide. With slow progress in stunting reduction in many regions and the realization that a large proportion of stunting is not due to insufficient diet or diarrhea alone, it remains that other factors must explain continued growth faltering. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a subclinical state of intestinal inflammation, can occur in infants across the developing world and is proposed as an immediate causal factor connecting poor sanitation and stunting...
February 7, 2019: Nutrition Reviews
Christopher D Gardner, Jennifer C Hartle, Rachael D Garrett, Lisa C Offringa, Arlin S Wasserman
This review utilizes current national dietary guidelines and published databases to evaluate the impacts of reasonable shifts in the amount and type of protein intake in the United States on the intersection of human and environmental health. The established scientific basis and recommendations for protein intake as described in the US Dietary Reference Intakes are reviewed. Data on food availability from both the US Department of Agriculture and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and data on consumption from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey are used to examine estimates of current US protein consumption...
February 6, 2019: Nutrition Reviews
Fateme Shafiei, Asma Salari-Moghaddam, Bagher Larijani, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh
Context: More than 300 million people worldwide have been diagnosed with depression, which is a leading cause of disability and disease burden. Elucidating dietary patterns that may reduce the risk of depression could help reduce the incidence of other diseases. Data Sources: PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify relevant publications up to May 2018. Study Selection: All observational studies that considered the Mediterranean diet as the exposure variable and depression as the main outcome or as one of the outcome variables were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis...
February 6, 2019: Nutrition Reviews
Daniela Küllenberg de Gaudry, Szimonetta Lohner, Christine Schmucker, Philipp Kapp, Edith Motschall, Simone Hörrlein, Christine Röger, Jörg J Meerpohl
Context: Various epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between exposure to cow's milk A1 β-casein protein and risk for noncommunicable chronic diseases. The consumption of A2 cow's milk is increasing, likely because A2 milk is postulated to have positive effects on digestive health. Objective: A systematic review was conducted to investigate associations between A1 β-casein and health-related outcomes in humans. Data Sources: Five electronic databases, 3 clinical trial registries, and the internet were searched systematically...
February 5, 2019: Nutrition Reviews
Emma Goddard, Jennifer Cohen, Lynsey Bramley, Claire E Wakefield, Eleanor J Beck
This narrative synthesis aims to examine the dietary intake, diet quality, and dietary preferences of pediatric cancer patients during cancer treatment. Thirteen studies were eligible for review. Studies mostly investigated nutrient intake, with 7 reporting on children's food intake. There was consensus among studies, which reported suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake and a preference for savory, carbohydrate-based foods. Results suggest that pediatric cancer patients consume a limited variety of foods, with a high intake of noncore foods...
January 31, 2019: Nutrition Reviews
Kawther M Hashem, Feng J He, Graham A MacGregor
Context: Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dental caries are all major public health problems in the United Kingdom and contribute substantially to healthcare costs. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of product reformulation measures on sugar intake and health outcomes. Data sources: Using a combination of terms, the following databases were searched-The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE (Ovid), and Scopus...
January 8, 2019: Nutrition Reviews
Irene Fleur Kramer, Taco J Blokhuis, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon, Martijn Poeze
Older people with hip fractures are often malnourished at the time of fracture, which can have substantial influence on mortality and clinical outcomes, as well as functional outcome and quality of life. A close relationship between protein intake and muscle maintenance has been demonstrated. Skeletal muscle weakness is an independent risk factor for falls and fall-related injuries in the elderly and is an independent marker of prognosis. However, the effect of perioperative nutritional interventions on outcomes in elderly hip-fracture patients remains controversial...
January 8, 2019: Nutrition Reviews
Haley W Parker, Maya K Vadiveloo
Objective: Vegetarian diets are consistently associated with improved health outcomes, and higher diet quality may contribute to improved health outcomes. This systematic review aims to qualitatively compare the a priori diet quality of vegetarian and nonvegetarian diets. Methods: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol, 2 online databases (Web of Science and PubMed) were searched for English language studies comparing diet quality among vegetarian and nonvegetarian adults using an a priori diet quality index...
January 8, 2019: Nutrition Reviews
Stuart M Phillips, Wendy Martinson
Sarcopenic declines in muscle mass and function contribute to the risk of falls, reduced mobility, and progression to frailty in older persons. Mitigation of sarcopenia can be achieved by consumption of higher quality protein in sufficient quantities, which current research suggests are greater than the recommended intakes of approximately 0.8 g/kg bodyweight/d. In addition, higher levels of physical activity and participation in exercise to support cardiovascular fitness and musculoskeletal function work additively with protein in attenuating sarcopenia...
December 17, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Teuta Gjuladin-Hellon, Ian G Davies, Peter Penson, Raziyeh Amiri Baghbadorani
Context: Carbohydrate-restricted diets may increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and thereby cardiovascular risk. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted to compare the effects of very low, low, and moderate carbohydrate, higher fat diets versus high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other lipid markers in overweight/obese adults. Data Sources: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Central, and CINAHL Plus were searched to identify large randomized controlled trials (n > 100) with duration ≥ 6 months...
December 13, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Olivier Desmedt, Valérie J V Broers, Giorgia Zamariola, Barbara Pachikian, Nathalie Delzenne, Olivier Luminet
Studies conducted in rodents have highlighted that neurobiological processes underlying cognition and affect are modulated by the gut microbiota. Certain dietary fibers are able to modulate the composition of gut microbiota and are thus considered prebiotics. A review of the impact of the available prebiotic intervention studies in humans on cognition and affect, addressing the potential mediating role of the microbiota, was conducted. PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO were selected as sources. Fourteen articles were eligible for narrative synthesis...
December 10, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Maude Le Gall, Sophie Thenet, Doriane Aguanno, Anne-Charlotte Jarry, Laurent Genser, Lara Ribeiro-Parenti, Francisca Joly, Séverine Ledoux, André Bado, Johanne Le Beyec
The plasticity of a material corresponds to its capacity to change its feature under the effect of an external action. Intestinal plasticity could be defined as the ability of the intestine to modify its size or thickness and intestinal cells to modulate their absorption and secretion functions in response to external or internal cues/signals. This review will focus on intestinal adaptation mechanisms in response to diet and nutritional status. These physiological mechanisms allow a fine and rapid adaptation of the gut to promote absorption of ingested food, but they can also lead to obesity in response to overnutrition...
December 5, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Alison I C Donaldson, Toby O Smith, Sarah Alder, Alexandra M Johnstone, Baukje De Roos, Lorna S Aucott, Adam L Gordon, Phyo K Myint
Context: Care home residents are at risk of malnutrition owing to reduced food intake, anabolic resistance in aging muscle, and a high prevalence of medical morbidity and functional dependency. There has been limited consensus regarding the effectiveness of a high-protein diet on quality of life or clinical outcomes in care home residents. Objective: The aim of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of nonmeat, high-protein supplementation on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and relevant clinical and nutritional outcomes in older people in a care home setting...
February 1, 2019: Nutrition Reviews
Sébastien La Vieille, David E Lefebvre, Ahmad Firas Khalid, Matthew R Decan, Samuel Godefroy
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency in the world and renders those affected susceptible to potentially severe oxidative hemolysis. Although the resulting hemolysis is most often associated with drug exposure, it has also been reported after consumption of certain foods. With the exception of review articles that reiterated the historical knowledge that fava beans can provoke severe oxidative hemolysis in individuals with G6PD deficiency, very few articles have examined the safety of other food ingredients and food additives for people with G6PD deficiency...
February 1, 2019: Nutrition Reviews
Gaby Andersen, Patrick Marcinek, Nicole Sulzinger, Peter Schieberle, Dietmar Krautwurst
Tyramine is a biogenic trace amine that is generated via the decarboxylation of the amino acid tyrosine. At pico- to nanomolar concentrations, it can influence a multitude of physiological mechanisms, exhibiting neuromodulatory properties as well as cardiovascular and immunological effects. In humans, the diet is the primary source of physiologically relevant tyramine concentrations, which are influenced by a large number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Among these factors are the availability of tyrosine in food, the presence of tyramine-producing bacteria, the environmental pH, and the salt content of food...
February 1, 2019: Nutrition Reviews
Car Reen Kok, Robert Hutkins
Increased consumption of yogurt, kefir, and other fermented foods has been driven, in part, by the health benefits these products may confer. Epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of fermented foods is associated with reduced risks of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease, along with improved weight management. The microorganisms present in these foods are suggested to contribute to these health benefits. Among these are the yogurt starter culture organisms Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus as well as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains that are added for their probiotic properties...
December 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Carlos Gómez-Gallego, Miguel Gueimonde, Seppo Salminen
In the modern food technology era, one of the aims of food safety and quality is to eliminate or reduce the number of microorganisms in food. This may now be changing. In particular, the importance of live microorganisms as beneficial food constituents is now being recognized. Microorganisms present in food that contribute to the human diet include not only viable bacteria but also metabolites and bioactive components. Yogurt is one of the most biologically active foods consumed by humans. It is an excellent source of proteins, vitamins, and minerals...
December 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Melissa Anne Fernandez, André Marette
This review will explore the observational and mechanistic evidence supporting the hypothesis that fermented milk consumption has beneficial effects on metabolism. Live cultures in fermented dairy are thought to contribute to gut microbial balance, which is likely an instrumental mechanism that protects the host against gut dysbiosis and systemic inflammation associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) release bioactive metabolites, such as exopolysaccharides and peptides, that have the potential to exert a wide range of metabolic and regulatory functions...
December 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Sharon M Donovan, Robert Hutkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Ralph Rühl, Wojciech Krezel, Angel R de Lera
The identity of the endogenous RXR ligand has not been conclusively determined, even though several compounds of natural origin, including retinoids and fatty acids, have been postulated to fulfill this role. Filling this gap, 9-cis-13,14-dihydroretinoic acid (9CDHRA) was identified as an endogenous RXR ligand in mice. This review examines the physiological relevance of various potential endogenous RXR ligands, especially 9CDHRA. The elusive steps in the metabolic synthesis of 9CDHRA, as well as the nutritional/nutrimetabolic origin of 9CDHRA, are also explored, along with the suitability of the ligand to be the representative member of a novel vitamin A class (vitamin A5)...
December 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
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