W El Hajj, N El Khatib
This work presents a mathematical model, based on partial differential equations, that analyzes the inflammatory stage of atherosclerosis. Four leading players are taken into consideration: Low Density Lipoproteins, oxidized Low Density Lipoproteins, immune cells and the inflammatory cytokines. In addition to this, the permeability of the endothelial layer is taken into account in the model. A stability analysis of the fixed points of the kinetic system is presented in details followed by the proof of existence of traveling wave solutions of the system of partial differential equations...
March 15, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Sou Tomimoto, Akiko Satake
In a long-lived organism with a modular architecture, such as trees, somatic mutations accumulate throughout the long lifespan and result in genetic mosaicism in each module within the same individual. In recent years, next-generation sequencing technology has provided a snapshot of such intra-organismal genetic variability. However, the dynamic processes underlying the accumulation and expansion of somatic mutations during the growth remain poorly understood. In this study, we constructed a model to describe these processes in a form that can be applied to a real tree...
March 15, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Saumya Yadav, Aritra Sen, Ambarish Kunwar
Molecular motors are responsible for carrying cellular transport of various membranous vesicles or organelles along cytoskeletal tracks. Transport of cellular cargos require high forces that are generated by motors working in groups. Hence, the properties of cargo transport can be modulated by varying various parameters such as cargo size and shape, microtubule geometry, motor number and their arrangement on cargo surface. Only those motors which are present in the contact zone on cargo surface have potential to bind to microtubule...
March 14, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Juan Uriel Legaria-Peña, Félix Sánchez-Morales, Yuriria Cortés-Poza
Cell-based models provide a helpful approach for simulating complex systems that exhibit adaptive, resilient qualities, such as cancer. Their focus on individual cell interactions makes them a particularly appropriate strategy to study cancer therapies' effects, which are often designed to disrupt single-cell dynamics. In this work, we propose them as viable methods for studying the time evolution of cancer imaging biomarkers (IBM). We propose a cellular automata model for tumor growth and three different therapies: chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy, following well-established modeling procedures documented in the literature...
March 13, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Richard M Sibly, Robert N Curnow
Understanding the role of natural selection in driving evolutionary change requires accurate estimates of the strength of selection acting at the genetic level in the wild. This is challenging to achieve but may be easier in the case of populations in migration-selection balance. When two populations are at equilibrium under migration-selection balance, there exist loci whose alleles are selected different ways in the two populations. Such loci can be identified from genome sequencing by their high values of FST ...
March 11, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Andrei A Domogo, Peter Reinstrup, Johnny T Ottesen
The intracranial pressure (ICP) curve with its different peaks has been comprehensively studied, but the exact physiological mechanisms behind its morphology has not been revealed. If the pathophysiology behind deviations from the normal ICP curve form could be identified, it could be vital information to diagnose and treat each single patient. A mathematical model of the hydrodynamics in the intracranial cavity over single heart cycles was developed. A Windkessel model approach was generalized but the unsteady Bernoulli equation was utilized for blood flow and CSF flow...
March 10, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Jingsi Xu, Jonathan Carruthers, Thomas Finnie, Ian Hall
Understanding the mechanistic dynamics of transmission is key to designing more targeted and effective interventions to limit the spread of infectious diseases. A well-described within-host model allows explicit simulation of how infectiousness changes over time at an individual level. This can then be coupled with dose-response models to investigate the impact of timing on transmission. We collected and compared a range of within-host models used in previous studies and identified a minimally-complex model that provides suitable within-host dynamics while keeping a reduced number of parameters to allow inference and limit unidentifiability issues...
March 8, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Chapin S Korosec, Matthew I Betti, David W Dick, Hsu Kiang Ooi, Iain R Moyles, Lindi M Wahl, Jane M Heffernan
Within-host SARS-CoV-2 modelling studies have been published throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. These studies contain highly variable numbers of individuals and capture varying timescales of pathogen dynamics; some studies capture the time of disease onset, the peak viral load and subsequent heterogeneity in clearance dynamics across individuals, while others capture late-time post-peak dynamics. In this study, we curate multiple previously published SARS-CoV-2 viral load data sets, fit these data with a consistent modelling approach, and estimate the variability of in-host parameters including the basic reproduction number, R0 , as well as the best-fit eclipse phase profile...
March 7, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Isabelle Dupin, Edmée Eyraud, Élise Maurat, Jean-Marc Sac-Épée, Pierre Vallois
The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a highly prevalent lung disease, in which unusual interactions between fibrocytes and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the peribronchial area could induce chronic inflammation and tissue remodeling. We considered a probabilistic cellular automata type model where the two types of cells follow simple local interaction rules taking into account cell death, proliferation, migration and infiltration. A rigorous mathematical analysis carried out within the framework of a streamlined model makes it possible to estimate with precision the parameters of the model using multiscale experimental data obtained in control and disease conditions...
March 4, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Lucie Plazen, Anmar Khadra
Mesenchymal cell motility is mainly regulated by two members of the Rho-family of GTPases, called Rac and Rho. The mutual inhibition exerted by these two proteins on each other's activation and the promotion of Rac activation by an adaptor protein called paxillin have been implicated in driving cellular polarization comprised of front (high active Rac) and back (high active Rho) during cell migration. Mathematical modeling of this regulatory network has previously shown that bistability is responsible for generating a spatiotemporal pattern underscoring cellular polarity called wave-pinning when diffusion is included...
March 1, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Sayantan Nag Chowdhury, Jeet Banerjee, Matjaž Perc, Dibakar Ghosh
Predator-prey interactions are one of ecology's central research themes, but with many interdisciplinary implications across the social and natural sciences. Here we consider an often-overlooked species in these interactions, namely parasites. We first show that a simple predator-prey-parasite model, inspired by the classical Lotka-Volterra equations, fails to produce a stable coexistence of all three species, thus failing to provide a biologically realistic outcome. To improve this, we introduce free space as a relevant eco-evolutionary component in a new mathematical model that uses a game-theoretical payoff matrix to describe a more realistic setup...
March 1, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Hossein Nemati, Kamran Kaveh, Mohammad Reza Ejtehadi
Local environmental interactions are a major factor in determining the success of a new mutant in structured populations. Spatial variations in the concentration of genotype-specific resources change the fitness of competing strategies locally and thus can drastically change the outcome of evolutionary processes in unintuitive ways. The question is how such local environmental variations in network population structures change the condition for selection and fixation probability of an advantageous (or deleterious) mutant...
February 22, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Pariya Khalili, Ramin Vatankhah
Studying the mathematical dynamics of cancer has gained the attention of bioengineers in the past three decades. Different kinds of modelling considering various aspects of treatment have been proposed. In this paper, the key role of Regulatory T cells is discussed and a model in ordinary differential equation (ODE) form is proposed by adding this state to the system dynamics considering chemoimmunotherapy treatment. Regulatory T cells are considered as one of the main tumor cells' tactics to deceive the body's immune system...
February 16, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Peter M Uhl, Naveen K Vaidya
Injection drug use is one of the most significant risk factors associated with contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and drug users infected with HIV suffer from a higher viral load and rapid disease progression. While replication of HIV may result in many mutant viruses that can escape recognition of the host's immune response, the presence of morphine (a drug of abuse) can decrease the viral mutation rate and cellular immune responses. This study develops a mathematical model to explore the effects of morphine-altered mutation and cellular immune response on the within-host dynamics of two HIV species, a wild-type and a mutant...
February 8, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Ilan N Rubin, Yaroslav Ispolatov, Michael Doebeli
Explaining the emergence of diversity and the coexistence of competing types has long been one of the main goals of ecological theory. Rugged fitness landscapes have often been used to explain diversity through the presence of local peaks, or adaptive zones, in the fitness landscape acting as available niches for different species. Alternatively, niche-packing and theories based on limiting similarity describe frequency-dependent selection leading to the organic differentiation of a continuous phenotype space into multiple coexisting types...
February 6, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Sachin Kaushik
Neutral theory predicts that the genetic diversity within a population is proportional to the effective population size. In contrast, the observed genetic diversity for various species vary in a narrow range for several orders of magnitude change in the population sizes (Lewontin's paradox). The selective sweeps and background selection, reduce the genetic variation at the linked neutral sites and have been studied considering the environment to be selectively constant. However, in a natural population, the selective environment varies with time...
February 6, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Franco Flandoli, Marta Leocata, Cristiano Ricci
We present a mathematical model for the complex system for the growth of a solid tumor. The system embeds proliferation of cells depending on the surrounding oxygen field, hypoxia caused by insufficient oxygen when the tumor reaches a certain size, consequent VEGF release and angiogenic new vasculature growth, re-oxygenation of the tumor and subsequent tumor growth restart. Specifically cancerous cells are represented by individual units, interacting as proliferating particles of a solid body, oxygen, and VEGF are fields with a source and a sink, and new angiogenic vasculature is described by a network of growing curves...
February 4, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Egor Lappo, Kaleda K Denton, Marcus W Feldman
Conformist and anti-conformist cultural transmission have been studied both empirically, in several species, and theoretically, with population genetic models. Building upon standard, infinite-population models (IPMs) of conformity, we introduce finite-population models (FPMs) and study them via simulation and a diffusion approximation. In previous IPMs of conformity, offspring observe the variants of n adult role models, where n is often three. Numerical simulations show that while the short-term behavior of the FPM with n=3 role models is well approximated by the IPM, stable polymorphic equilibria of the IPM become effective equilibria of the FPM at which the variation persists prior to fixation or loss, and which produce plateaus in curves for fixation probabilities and expected times to absorption...
February 4, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Pierre Jacquet, Angélique Stéphanou
Cancer cells metabolism focuses the interest of the cancer research community. Although this process is intensely studied experimentally, there are very few theoretical models that address this issue. One of the main reasons is the extraordinary complexity of the metabolism that involves numerous interdependent regulatory networks which makes the computational recreation of this complexity illusory. In this study we propose a reduced model of the metabolism which focuses on the interrelation of the three main energy metabolites which are oxygen, glucose and lactate in order to better understand the dynamics of the core system of the glycolysis-OXPHOS relationship...
February 3, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Samuel Monter, Veit-Lorenz Heuthe, Emanuele Panizon, Clemens Bechinger
Understanding why animals organize in collective states is a central question of current research in, e.g., biology, physics, and psychology. More than 50 years ago, W.D. Hamilton postulated that the formation of animal herds may simply result from the individual's selfish motivation to minimize their predation risk. The latter is quantified by the domain of danger (DOD) which is given by the Voronoi area around each individual. In fact, simulations show that individuals aiming to reduce their DODs form compact groups similar to what is observed in many living systems...
February 2, 2023: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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