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Journal of Psychiatric Research

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776705/psychometric-liability-to-psychosis-and-childhood-adversities-are-associated-with-shorter-telomere-length-a-study-on-schizophrenia-patients-unaffected-siblings-and-non-clinical-controls
#1
Burcu Çevik, Öykü Mançe-Çalışır, Eşref Cem Atbaşoğlu, Meram Can Saka, Köksal Alptekin, Alp Üçok, Burcu Sırmatel, Sinan Gülöksüz, Ajlan Tükün, Jim van Os, Güvem Gümüş-Akay
Compared to the general population, individuals diagnosed with Schizophrenia (SCZ) experience a higher frequency and an earlier onset of chronic medical disorders, resulting in a reduction in life expectancy by an average of 15-25 years. Recently, it has been hypothesized that SCZ is a syndrome of accelerated aging. Childhood adversity was also associated with the pathogenesis and course of SCZ. Our hypothesis was that both SCZ patients and their unaffected siblings would have shorter telomere length (TL) compared to of non-clinical controls...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771621/exploring-anxiety-sensitivity-in-the-relationship-between-pain-intensity-and-opioid-misuse-among-opioid-using-adults-with-chronic-pain
#2
Andrew H Rogers, Justin M Shepherd, Michael F Orr, Jafar Bakhshaie, R Kathryn McHugh, Michael J Zvolensky
Opioid misuse is a significant public health problem. Chronic pain is one highly prevalent factor that is strongly associated with increased risk for opioid misuse. Anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety related physical sensations) is an individual difference factor consistently linked to pain experience, and separately, heroin use. The present study examined if anxiety sensitivity may be one factor related to the relationship between pain intensity and opioid misuse among opioid-using adults with chronic pain...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771620/clinical-and-genetic-analysis-of-children-with-a-dual-diagnosis-of-tourette-syndrome-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Karin Vanessa Carias, Rachel Wevrick
Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes children to make repeated, brief involuntary movements or sounds. TS can be co-morbid with other neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Clusters of biologically related genes have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, suggesting shared pathologies. However, the genetic contribution to TS remains poorly defined. We asked whether children with both TS and ASD differed clinically from children with ASD alone, and identified potentially deleterious genetic events in children with TS and ASD...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771619/a-pilot-investigation-of-neuroimaging-predictors-for-the-benefits-from-pivotal-response-treatment-for-children-with-autism
#4
John P Hegarty, Grace W Gengoux, Kari L Berquist, M Estefanía Millán, Serena M Tamura, Shweta Karve, Margaret D Rosenthal, Jennifer M Phillips, Antonio Y Hardan
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently exhibit language delays and functional communication deficits. Pivotal response treatment (PRT) is an effective intervention for targeting these skills; however, similar to other behavioral interventions, response to PRT is variable across individuals. Thus, objective markers capable of predicting treatment response are critically-needed to identify which children are most likely to benefit from this intervention. In this pilot study, we investigated whether structural neuroimaging measures from language regions in the brain are associated with response to PRT...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772760/the-subjective-objective-deficit-paradox-in-schizotypy-extends-to-emotion-regulation-and-awareness
#5
Lilian Yanqing Li, Nicole R Karcher, John G Kerns, Christie K Fung, Elizabeth A Martin
There is an emerging subjective-objective deficit paradox in schizotypy. Individuals with schizotypy report severe subjective complaints in several key functional domains commensurate with that of individuals with schizophrenia. However, objective assessments of the same domains show relatively intact performance. We examined whether this subjective-objective deficit paradox extends to two closely linked affective processes: emotion regulation and awareness. Individuals with elevated social anhedonia (SocAnh; n = 61) and elevated perceptual aberration/magical ideation (PerMag; n = 73) were compared to control participants (n = 81) on subjective and objective measures of emotion regulation and awareness...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738930/cannabis-use-behaviors-and-prevalence-of-anxiety-and-depressive-symptoms-in-a-cohort-of-canadian-medicinal-cannabis-users
#6
Jasmine Turna, William Simpson, Beth Patterson, Philippe Lucas, Michael Van Ameringen
Cannabis is commonly used recreationally for its euphoric and relaxing effects, while its medical use is permitted in several jurisdictions. With only low-quality evidence suggesting anxiolytic effects of cannabis and strong public sentiment surrounding such purported effects, the purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of cannabis for medicinal purposes (CMP) use for anxiety symptoms. An online survey was disseminated to CMP users registered with a Canadian licensed producer. Respondents completed demographic and validated self-report questionnaires (GAD-7, PHQ-9, MINI-SPIN, and panic disorder/agoraphobia DSM-5 criteria)...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721849/an-examination-of-the-relationship-between-hoarding-symptoms-and-hostility
#7
Brittany M Mathes, Grace A Kennedy, Jesse R Cougle, Norman B Schmidt
Hoarding disorder (HD) is a persistent and severe psychiatric condition in which individuals are unable to discard possessions, which results in considerable clutter. Individuals who hoard often endorse interpersonal difficulties and social isolation. However, little research has examined mechanisms that may help to explain this relationship. One possible mechanism is hostility, which is characterized by increased sensitivity to real or perceived social threats. The current study examined the relationship between hoarding symptoms and hostility across two undergraduate samples...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738345/seasonality-of-antidepressant-prescriptions-and-sick-leaves
#8
Dietmar Winkler, Berthold Reichardt, Georg S Kranz, Lucie Bartova, Siegfried Kasper, Edda Pjrek
The aim of the present study was to estimate the number of patients with a seasonal prescription pattern of antidepressants, which might be taken as a surrogate marker for medicated patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Furthermore, we examined the time course of sick leaves for patients with seasonal and non-seasonal prescriptions of antidepressants. A retrospective analysis of prescription data of all patients insured by the Sickness Fund Burgenland (BGKK) between 2005 and 2016 was performed. Patients with treatment initiation of an antidepressant in the last and first quarter of the year for at least two consecutive years were selected (SAD-med)...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716647/brain-enriched-microrna-184-is-downregulated-in-older-adults-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-translational-study
#9
Ana Paula Mendes-Silva, Patricia Tiemi Fujimura, Jéssica Regina da Costa Silva, Antonio Lucio Teixeira, Erica Marciano Vieira, Pedro Henrique Gonçalves Guedes, Lucélia Scarabeli Silva Barroso, Mariana de Souza Nicolau, Jéssica Diniz Rodrigues Ferreira, Laiss Bertola, Eduardo de Souza Nicolau, Gesiane Thamire Tolentino-Araújo, Camila Moreira Silva Ferreira Berlezzi, Tamiris Sabrina Rodrigues, Luiza Diniz Ferreira Borges, Matheus de Souza Gomes, Laurence Rodrigues do Amaral, Ana Maria Bonetti, Carlos Ueira-Vieira, Breno Satler Diniz
Changes in microRNAs (miRNAs) expression have been described in major depressive disorder in young and middle-aged adults. However, no study has evaluated miRNA expression in older adults with major depression (or late-life depression [LLD]). Our primary aim was to evaluate the expression of miRNAs in subjects with LLD. We first evaluated the miRNA expression using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and then we validated the miRNAs found in NGS in an independent sample of LLD patients, using RT-qPCR. Drosophila melanogaster model was used to evaluate the impact of changes in miRNA expression on behavior...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711770/mortality-in-hospital-patients-with-and-without-mental-disorders-a-data-linkage-cohort-study
#10
Rafid S Karim, Marcella Ms Kwan, Angus Jf Finlay, Srinivas Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Maree R Toombs, Geoffrey C Nicholson, Matthew McGrail, Neeraj S Gill
OBJECTIVE: In the general population, people with mental disorders have increased mortality. This association, however, has not been explored in a population who at some time were inpatients of a public hospital. METHODS: The sampling frame was patients admitted to an Australian regional public hospital 1996-2010. Those with known mental disorder were compared with an equal number of randomly selected patients without known mental disorder, matched for age, sex, and year of admission...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685566/telomere-shortening-in-blood-leukocytes-of-patients-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#11
Diana Avetyan, Roksana Zakharyan, Martin Petrek, Arsen Arakelyan
Telomeres are protective fragments on chromosome ends involved in maintaining genome stability, preventing chromosomal fusions, regulation of cell division. It was shown that telomere attrition rate is accelerated in age-related diseases, as well as in response to physiological and psychosocial stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in patients with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as to investigate association of functional SNPs of telomerase TERC and TERT genes with LTL and PTSD...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685565/exploration-of-microbiota-targets-for-major-depressive-disorder-and-mood-related-traits
#12
Yu-Chu Ella Chung, Hsi-Chung Chen, Hsiang-Chin Lori Chou, I-Ming Chen, Meei-Shyuan Lee, Li-Chung Chuang, Yen-Wenn Liu, Mong-Liang Lu, Chun-Hsin Chen, Chi-Hsin Wu, Ming-Chyi Huang, Shih-Cheng Liao, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Mei-Shu Lai, Wei-Liang Shih, Po-Hsiu Kuo
Growing evidence suggests the link between gut microbiota and mood regulation. The current study aimed to identify microbiota targets for major depressive disorder (MDD) and mood-related traits in Taiwanese samples, while taking into account the influence of dietary patterns. We recruited 36 MDD patients and 37 healthy controls for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We assessed nutrient content using food frequency questionnaire, and mood related phenotypes, including depressive severity, anxiety, and perceived stress...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685564/comparability-of-blinded-remote-and-site-based-assessments-of-response-to-adjunctive-esketamine-or-placebo-nasal-spray-in-patients-with-treatment-resistant-depression
#13
S D Targum, E Daly, M Fedgchin, K Cooper, J B Singh
Functional unblinding due to treatment emergent adverse events (TEAEs) may occur with any investigational drug and poses a challenge for double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. This pilot study compared site-based Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores to remote, site-independent scores by blinded raters. Audio-digital recordings of site-based MADRS interviews were obtained from a subset of patients during a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of esketamine nasal spray or placebo spray in treatment resistant depression (Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01998958)...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30677645/comparative-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-antipsychotics-as-augmentations-in-adults-with-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-network-meta-analysis
#14
Dong-Dong Zhou, Xiao-Xin Zhou, Zhen Lv, Xiao-Rong Chen, Wo Wang, Gao-Mao Wang, Chuan Liu, Da-Qi Li, Li Kuang
We performed a network meta-analysis to build clear hierarchies of efficacy and tolerability of antipsychotics to augment serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) for treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adults. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched on September 8, 2018. Randomized controlled trials investigating antipsychotics as augmentation agents were included. Network meta-analyses were performed using frequentist methods. Efficacy was measured by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30665010/gender-inequality-and-depression-among-medical-students-a-global-meta-regression-analysis
#15
João Pedro Gonçalves Pacheco, Júlia Belizário Silveira, Raphael Paiva Cock Ferreira, Kenneth Lo, Jenyfer Regonini Schineider, Henrique Ton Azevedo Giacomin, Wilson Wai San Tam
Depression is a serious mental health problem with a high prevalence among medical students. It is unclear whether a gender disparity of depression exists in this population, and whether gender inequality influences depression estimates by gender. We conducted a systematic search for published systematic reviews or meta-analyses in six databases and primary studies were obtained from those records. Studies were included if they contained original data on the prevalence of depression among male and female medical students...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30660811/late-life-depression-and-cognitive-function-among-older-adults-in-the-u-s-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2011-2014
#16
Jingkai Wei, Meiling Ying, Liyang Xie, Eeshwar K Chandrasekar, Haidong Lu, Tiansheng Wang, Changwei Li
Discrepancies exist on the associations of late-life depression with cognition, and synergistic effect of depression and diabetes on cognition among older adults was suggested in literature. We aimed to examine the associations of late-life depression with cognitive function in a representative sample of older adults in the U.S., and to examine the associations among individuals with diabetes. A total of 3101 adults aged 60 and above of the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who completed measurements of depressive symptoms and diabetes were included in cross-sectional analyses...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30660810/increased-levels-of-serum-leptin-in-the-early-stages-of-psychosis
#17
Lourdes Martorell, Gerard Muntané, Sara Porta-López, Irene Moreno, Laura Ortega, Itziar Montalvo, Vanessa Sanchez-Gistau, Rosa Monseny, Javier Labad, Elisabet Vilella
BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating leptin levels in patients with first-episode psychoses (FEP) have been inconclusive, and apparently, the high levels of leptin reported in patients with schizophrenia may be associated with weight gain. The aim of this study was to evaluate leptin levels at the early stages of the disease and the relationship between leptin and lifestyle habits, stress-related variables and metabolic parameters. METHODS: In total, 14 at-risk mental state (ARMS) patients, 39 FEP patients, 32 psychotic patients in the critical period (CP) and 21 healthy controls (HCs) were assessed...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30660809/child-abuse-interacts-with-hippocampal-and-corpus-callosum-volume-on-psychophysiological-response-to-startling-auditory-stimuli-in-a-sample-of-veterans
#18
Dmitri A Young, Thomas C Neylan, Linda L Chao, Aoife O'Donovan, Thomas J Metzler, Sabra S Inslicht
Child abuse (CA), which is linked to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), has been associated with a reduction in both hippocampal and corpus callosum (CC) volume. However, few studies have explored these relationships on psychophysiological variables related to trauma exposure. Therefore, we assessed whether the interaction between CA and hippocampal and CC volume were associated with enhanced fear potentiated psychophysiological response patterns in a sample of Veterans. 147 Veteran participants who were part of a larger study of Gulf War Illness were exposed to startling sounds in no, ambiguous, and high threat conditions and also provided MRI data...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30658135/the-role-of-illness-engulfment-in-the-association-between-insight-and-depressive-symptomatology-in-schizophrenia
#19
Susanna Konsztowicz, Martin Lepage
Good clinical insight in schizophrenia tends to be associated with better outcomes, but also with increased depression. We hypothesized that illness engulfment, a process whereby an individual's self-concept becomes defined solely by illness and the 'patient identity' becomes primary, is a mediating and/or moderating factor in the association between insight and depressive symptomatology in schizophrenia. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using the PROCESS macro on data from 140 individuals with enduring schizophrenia who completed measures of the insight dimension of 'Awareness of Illness and Need for Treatment' (AINT), the Calgary Depression Scale, and the Modified Engulfment Scale...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690329/maternal-inflammation-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-psychiatric-symptoms-in-childhood-timing-and-sex-matter
#20
Naoise Mac Giollabhui, Elizabeth C Breen, Shannon K Murphy, Seth D Maxwell, Barbara A Cohn, Nickilou Y Krigbaum, Piera M Cirillo, Christian Perez, Lauren B Alloy, Deborah A G Drabick, Lauren M Ellman
OBJECTIVE: Maternal infection during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of offspring psychopathology, including depression. As most infections do not cross the placenta, maternal immune responses to infection have been considered as potentially contributing to this relationship. This study examined whether gestational timing of maternal inflammation during pregnancy is associated with offspring internalizing and/or externalizing symptoms during childhood and, further, whether fetal sex moderated this relationship...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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