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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Veronika Sramkova, Sarah Berend, Michaela Siklova, Sylvie Caspar-Bauguil, Jérôme Carayol, Sophie Bonnel, Marie Marques, Pauline Decaunes, Catherine-Ines Kolditz, Ingrid Dahlman, Peter Arner, Vladimir Stich, Wim H M Saris, Arne Astrup, Armand Valsesia, Lenka Rossmeislova, Dominique Langin, Nathalie Viguerie
BACKGROUND: The adipose tissue (AT) is a secretory organ producing a wide variety of factors that participate in the genesis of metabolic disorders linked to excess fat mass. Weight loss improves obesity-related disorders. OBJECTIVES: Transcriptomic studies on human AT, and a combination of analyses of transcriptome and proteome profiling of conditioned media from adipocytes and stromal cells isolated from human AT, have led to the identification of apolipoprotein M (apoM) as a putative adipokine...
March 14, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Karen M Switkowski, Paul F Jacques, Aviva Must, Abby Fleisch, Emily Oken
BACKGROUND: Early protein intake may program later body composition and height growth, perhaps mediated by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). In infancy, higher protein intake is consistently associated with higher IGF-I concentrations and more rapid growth, but associations of protein intake after infancy with later growth and IGF-I are less clear. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to examine associations of protein intake in early childhood (median 3.2 y) with height, IGF-I, and measures of adiposity and lean mass in mid-childhood (median 7...
March 14, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ma'atem B Fofou-Caillierez, Rosa-Maria Guéant-Rodriguez, Jean-Marc Alberto, Céline Chéry, Thomas Josse, Philippe Gérard, Thierry Forges, Bernard Foliguet, François Feillet, Jean-Louis Guéant
BACKGROUND: The risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) is influenced by nutritional factors and genetic determinants of one-carbon metabolism. A key pathway of this metabolism is the vitamin B-12- and folate-dependent remethylation of homocysteine, which depends on methionine synthase (MS, encoded by MTR), methionine synthase reductase, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Methionine, the product of this pathway, is the direct precursor of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the universal methyl donor needed for epigenetic mechanisms...
March 6, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ang Zhou, Elina Hyppönen
BACKGROUND: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed stimulants worldwide and is generally considered to be safe or even beneficial for health. However, increased risk of myocardial infarction and hypertension has been suggested for individuals who carry a functional variant at cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), which makes them less effective at metabolizing caffeine. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine if the CYP1A2 genotype or a genetic score for caffeine metabolism (caffeine-GS) modifies the association between habitual coffee consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
March 6, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Dong Hang, Ane Sørlie Kværner, Wenjie Ma, Yang Hu, Fred K Tabung, Hongmei Nan, Zhibin Hu, Hongbing Shen, Lorelei A Mucci, Andrew T Chan, Edward L Giovannucci, Mingyang Song
BACKGROUND: Coffee consumption has been linked to lower risk of various health outcomes. However, the biological pathways mediating the associations remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between coffee consumption and concentrations of plasma biomarkers in key metabolic and inflammatory pathways underlying common chronic diseases. METHODS: We investigated the associations of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee consumption with 14 plasma biomarkers, including C-peptide, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein (IGFBP) 1, IGFBP-3, estrone, total and free estradiol, total and free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR-2)...
March 5, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Paul A M Smeets, Alain Dagher, Todd A Hare, Stephanie Kullmann, Laura N van der Laan, Russell A Poldrack, Hubert Preissl, Dana Small, Eric Stice, Maria G Veldhuizen
The use of neuroimaging tools, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, in nutritional research has increased substantially over the past 2 decades. Neuroimaging is a research tool with great potential impact on the field of nutrition, but to achieve that potential, appropriate use of techniques and interpretation of neuroimaging results is necessary. In this article, we present guidelines for good methodological practice in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies and flag specific limitations in the hope of helping researchers to make the most of neuroimaging tools and avoid potential pitfalls...
March 5, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Marina Touillaud, Amandine Gelot, Sylvie Mesrine, Catherine Bennetau-Pelissero, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Patrick Arveux, Fabrice Bonnet, Marc Gunter, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Agnès Fournier
BACKGROUND: Soy-based dietary supplements have been promoted as natural alternatives to menopausal hormone therapy, but their potential effect on breast cancer development is controversial. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relation between the consumption of soy supplements and the risk of breast cancer, overall and by tumor hormone receptor status, among women aged >50 y. METHODS: In total, 76,442 women from the Etude Epidemiologique aupres de Femmes de la Mutuelle Generale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) cohort, born between 1925 and 1950, were followed from 2000 to 2011 (11...
March 4, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Marthe-Lise Næss-Andresen, Åse Ruth Eggemoen, Jens Petter Berg, Ragnhild Sørum Falk, Anne Karen Jenum
BACKGROUND: Which blood-based indicator best reflects the iron status in pregnant women is unclear. Better assessments of iron status in today's multiethnic populations are needed to optimize treatment and clinical recommendations. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin <11.0 g/dL in first and <10.5 g/dL in second trimester) and iron deficiency (ID) by the iron indicators serum ferritin <15 µg/L, serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) >4...
March 4, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Siraphat Taesuwan, Francoise Vermeylen, Marie A Caudill, Patricia A Cassano
BACKGROUND: Dietary choline is a precursor of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite that has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The mechanism underlying this association is unknown, but may include TMAO effects on blood pressure (BP). OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the association of choline intake with hypertension and BP in US adults through the use of NHANES 2007-2010 data. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in nonpregnant individuals aged ≥20 y...
March 4, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ahmed El-Sohemy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 4, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Christopher Papandreou, Mònica Bulló, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Courtney Dennis, Amy Deik, Daniel Wang, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Edward Yu, Cristina Razquin, Dolores Corella, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros, Montserrat Fitó, Miquel Fiol, Liming Liang, Pablo Hernández-Alonso, Clary B Clish, Miguel A Martínez-González, Frank B Hu, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is a complex metabolic disorder and is often associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test whether baseline metabolites can additionally improve the prediction of insulin resistance beyond classical risk factors. Furthermore, we examined whether a multimetabolite model predicting insulin resistance in nondiabetics can also predict incident T2D. METHODS: We used a case-cohort study nested within the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) trial in subsets of 700, 500, and 256 participants without T2D at baseline and 1 and 3 y...
February 23, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Vin Tangpricha, Joshua Lukemire, Yuqing Chen, José Nilo G Binongo, Suzanne E Judd, Ellen S Michalski, Moon J Lee, Seth Walker, Thomas R Ziegler, Rabin Tirouvanziam, Susu M Zughaier, Supavit Chesdachai, Wendy A Hermes, James F Chmiel, Ruth E Grossmann, Amit Gaggar, Patricia M Joseph, Jessica A Alvarez
BACKGROUND: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have increased risk of vitamin D deficiency owing to fat malabsorption and other factors. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of pulmonary exacerbations of CF. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of a single high-dose bolus of vitamin D3 followed by maintenance treatment given to adults with CF during an acute pulmonary exacerbation on future recurrence of pulmonary exacerbations...
February 22, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Peng Li, Elizabeth A Stuart
Missing data ubiquitously occur in randomized controlled trials and may compromise the causal inference if inappropriately handled. Some problematic missing data methods such as complete case (CC) analysis and last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF) are unfortunately still common in nutrition trials. This situation is partially caused by investigator confusion on missing data assumptions for different methods. In this statistical guidance, we provide a brief introduction of missing data mechanisms and the unreasonable assumptions that underlie CC and LOCF and recommend 2 appropriate missing data methods: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood...
February 22, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Leticia C R Pereira, Sarah A Purcell, Sarah A Elliott, Linda J McCargar, Rhonda C Bell, Paula J Robson, Carla M Prado
BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of energy expenditure may support weight-management recommendations. Measuring energy expenditure for each postpartum woman is unfeasible; therefore, accurate predictive equations are needed. OBJECTIVES: This study compared measured with predicted resting energy expenditure (REE) and total energy expenditure (TEE) in postpartum women. METHODS: This was a longitudinal observational study. REE was measured at 3 mo postpartum (n = 52) and 9 mo postpartum (n = 49), whereas TEE was measured once at 9 mo postpartum (n = 43) by whole body calorimetry (WBC)...
February 22, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Chih-Jen Huang, Ming-Yii Huang, Pen-Tzu Fang, Frank Chen, Yu-Tsang Wang, Chung-Ho Chen, Shyng-Shiou Yuan, Chun-Ming Huang, Kuei-Hau Luo, Hung-Yi Chuang, Yen-Yun Wang, Hsin-Hua Lee
Background: Glutamine is the primary fuel for the gastrointestinal epithelium and maintains the mucosal structure. Oncologists frequently encounter oral mucositis, which can cause unplanned breaks in radiotherapy (RT). Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the association between oral glutamine and acute toxicities in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing RT. Methods: This was a parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled Phase III trial conducted in a university hospital...
February 9, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Casey M Rebholz, Zihe Zheng, Morgan E Grams, Lawrence J Appel, Mark J Sarnak, Lesley A Inker, Andrew S Levey, Josef Coresh
Background: Accurate assessment of dietary intake is essential, but self-report of dietary intake is prone to measurement error and bias. Discovering metabolic consequences of diets with lower compared with higher protein intake could elucidate new, objective biomarkers of protein intake. Objectives: The goal of this study was to identify serum metabolites associated with dietary protein intake. Methods: Metabolites were measured with the use of untargeted, reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantification in serum specimens collected at the 12-mo follow-up visit in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study from 482 participants in study A (glomerular filtration rate: 25-55 mL · min-1 · 1...
February 8, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Simon M Schoenbuchner, Carmel Dolan, Martha Mwangome, Andrew Hall, Stephanie A Richard, Jonathan C Wells, Tanya Khara, Bakary Sonko, Andrew M Prentice, Sophie E Moore
Background: The etiologic relationship between wasting and stunting is poorly understood, largely because of a lack of high-quality longitudinal data from children at risk of undernutrition. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the interrelationships between wasting and stunting in children aged <2 y. Methods: This study involved a retrospective cohort analysis, based on growth-monitoring records spanning 4 decades from clinics in rural Gambia...
February 7, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Alyssa M Tindall, Emily A Johnston, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Kristina S Petersen
Background: Observational evidence suggests higher nut consumption is associated with better glycemic control; however, it is unclear if this association is causal. Objectives: We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to examine the effect of tree nuts and peanuts on markers of glycemic control in adults. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted...
February 5, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
David Karasik, M Carola Zillikens, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, Ali Aghdassi, Kristina Akesson, Najaf Amin, Inês Barroso, David A Bennett, Lars Bertram, Murielle Bochud, Ingrid B Borecki, Linda Broer, Aron S Buchman, Liisa Byberg, Harry Campbell, Natalia Campos-Obando, Jane A Cauley, Peggy M Cawthon, John C Chambers, Zhao Chen, Nam H Cho, Hyung Jin Choi, Wen-Chi Chou, Steven R Cummings, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Phillip L De Jager, Ilja Demuth, Luda Diatchenko, Michael J Econs, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Anke W Enneman, Joel Eriksson, Johan G Eriksson, Karol Estrada, Daniel S Evans, Mary F Feitosa, Mao Fu, Christian Gieger, Harald Grallert, Vilmundur Gudnason, Launer J Lenore, Caroline Hayward, Albert Hofman, Georg Homuth, Kim M Huffman, Lise B Husted, Thomas Illig, Erik Ingelsson, Till Ittermann, John-Olov Jansson, Toby Johnson, Reiner Biffar, Joanne M Jordan, Antti Jula, Magnus Karlsson, Kay-Tee Khaw, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Norman Klopp, Jacqueline S L Kloth, Daniel L Koller, Jaspal S Kooner, William E Kraus, Stephen Kritchevsky, Zoltán Kutalik, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Jari Lahti, Thomas Lang, Bente L Langdahl, Markus M Lerch, Joshua R Lewis, Christina Lill, Lars Lind, Cecilia Lindgren, Yongmei Liu, Gregory Livshits, Östen Ljunggren, Ruth J F Loos, Mattias Lorentzon, Jian'an Luan, Robert N Luben, Ida Malkin, Fiona E McGuigan, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Thomas Meitinger, Håkan Melhus, Dan Mellström, Karl Michaëlsson, Braxton D Mitchell, Andrew P Morris, Leif Mosekilde, Maria Nethander, Anne B Newman, Jeffery R O'Connell, Ben A Oostra, Eric S Orwoll, Aarno Palotie, Munro Peacock, Markus Perola, Annette Peters, Richard L Prince, Bruce M Psaty, Katri Räikkönen, Stuart H Ralston, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, John A Robbins, Jerome I Rotter, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Suzanne Satterfield, Sabine Schipf, Chan Soo Shin, Albert V Smith, Shad B Smith, Nicole Soranzo, Timothy D Spector, Alena Stancáková, Kari Stefansson, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Lisette Stolk, Elizabeth A Streeten, Unnur Styrkarsdottir, Karin M A Swart, Patricia Thompson, Cynthia A Thomson, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Emmi Tikkanen, Gregory J Tranah, André G Uitterlinden, Cornelia M van Duijn, Natasja M van Schoor, Liesbeth Vandenput, Peter Vollenweider, Henry Völzke, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Mark Walker, Nicholas J Wareham, Dawn Waterworth, Michael N Weedon, H-Erich Wichmann, Elisabeth Widen, Frances M K Williams, James F Wilson, Nicole C Wright, Laura M Yerges-Armstrong, Lei Yu, Weihua Zhang, Jing Hua Zhao, Yanhua Zhou, Carrie M Nielson, Tamara B Harris, Serkalem Demissie, Douglas P Kiel, Claes Ohlsson
Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives: To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci. Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms)...
February 5, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Marc Hellerstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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