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Biological Psychology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779926/resting-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#1
Allison Campbell
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been examined as a psychophysiological marker of stress vulnerability. Research indicates that low resting RSA is associated with physical and mental health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Some research suggests that people diagnosed with PTSD have lower RSA than people without PTSD, but findings have been mixed and the overall magnitude of this effect is unknown, indicating the need for a comprehensive meta-analysis. This meta-analysis examined the association between PTSD and baseline RSA in 55 studies, including 12 unpublished studies, with a total sample size of 6,689...
February 16, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772405/response-inhibition-in-borderline-personality-disorder-neural-and-behavioral-correlates
#2
Jacobo Albert, Sara López-Martín, Rocío Arza, Nerea Palomares, Sandra Hoyos, Luis Carretié, Marina Díaz-Marsá, José Luis Carrasco
Although response inhibition is thought to be important in borderline personality disorder (BPD), little is known about its neurophysiological basis. This study aimed to provide insight into this issue by capitalizaing on the the high temporal resolution of electroencephalography and information provided by source localization methods. To this end, twenty unmedicated patients with BPD and 20 healthy control subjects performed a modified go/no-go task designed to better isolate the brain activity specifically associated with response inhibition...
February 14, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772404/effects-of-an-attachment-based-intervention-in-infancy-on-children-s-autonomic-regulation-during-middle-childhood
#3
Alexandra R Tabachnick, K Lee Raby, Alison Goldstein, Lindsay Zajac, Mary Dozier
The present study used a longitudinal randomized clinical trial to test whether an early intervention has causal effects on children's autonomic nervous system regulation. When children were infants, parents involved with Child Protective Services received Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC; N = 43), an intervention that promotes sensitive parenting, or a control intervention (N = 53). When children were 9 years old, children whose parents had received ABC exhibited higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia and lower heart rate at rest and during a parent-child interaction than children in the control group...
February 14, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772403/reward-processing-and-irritability-in-young-adults
#4
Christen M Deveney
Despite increasing interest in the mechanisms of irritability, little research in this domain has been conducted with adults. The present study evaluates relationships among trait irritability, reward responsivity, and frustrative non-reward in a non-clinical sample of young adult females (n = 58) using a paradigm that has been used successfully in pediatric populations with clinically significant irritability. Similar to prior work in these pediatric populations, the frustration manipulation increased self-reported frustration and decreased task accuracy on trials requiring spatial attention shifts...
February 14, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772402/the-effects-of-negative-context-and-attachment-security-priming-on-working-memory-updating-among-anxiously-attached-individuals
#5
Xujia Bai, Xu Chen
Two studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) combined with emotional versions of 2-back tasks were performed to examine the effects of negative context on working memory (WM) updating task performance among anxiously attached individuals. One study also assessed the soothing effect of priming memories of attachment security on task performance. Three types of information, including negative attachment pictures, general negative pictures and neutral pictures, were used as materials in the present study...
February 14, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771407/do-theta-oscillations-explain-the-somatosensory-change-detection-mechanism
#6
Zhilin Zhang, Guoxin Guo, Jian Zhang, Chunlin Li, Qiang Huang, Ritsu Go, Tianyi Yan, Hidenao Fukuyama, Shintaro Funahashi, Jinglong Wu
Recent research has indicated that the mismatch negativity (MMN) is elicited in response to a discernible small change of a somatosensory stimulus applied on the hand. However, the neural mechanism for detecting small change of somatosensory stimulus remains unknown. In the present study, we developed a novel pressure stimulation device using air jet applied on the index finger pad, and determined the just noticeable differences (JNDs) of pressure discrimination for each subject. Using the deviant-standard-reversed oddball paradigm, we analyzed the average dynamic changes in MMN amplitude and changes of evoked spectral power...
February 13, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763606/identification-and-transformation-difficulty-in-problem-solving-electrophysiological-evidence-from-chunk-decomposition
#7
Zhonglu Zhang, Yu Luo, Chaolun Wang, Christopher M Warren, Qi Xia, Qiang Xing, Bihua Cao, Yi Lei, Hong Li
A wealth of studies have investigated how to overcome experience-based constraints in creative problem solving. One such experience-based constraint is the tendency for people to view tightly organized visual stimuli as single, unified percepts, even when decomposition of those stimuli into component parts (termed chunk decomposition) would facilitate problem solving. The current study investigates the neural underpinnings of chunk decomposition in creative problem solving by analyzing event-related potentials...
February 11, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742843/self-report-and-neurophysiological-indicators-of-emotion-processing-and-regulation-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#8
Kerry L Kinney, Katie L Burkhouse, Heide Klumpp
Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) report less habitual reappraisal and more frequent suppression compared to healthy controls (HC). However, it is unclear whether a neurophysiological index of emotional reactivity, the late positive potential (LPP), is aberrant in SAD or whether self-reported reappraisal or suppression relates to the LPP during on-line emotion reactivity and reappraisal. Participants with SAD (n = 51) and HC (n = 31) completed an Emotion Regulation Task. Emotion reactivity and regulation were measured via LPP when viewing negative images ('Look Negative') and when using a cognitive strategy to reduce negative affect ('Reappraise Negative')...
February 8, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738092/is-your-own-face-more-than-a-highly-familiar-face
#9
Elisabet Alzueta, María Melcón, Claudia Poch, Almudena Capilla
This study aimed to elucidate whether distinct early processes underlie the perception of our own face. Alternatively, self-face perception might rely on the same processes that realize the perception of highly familiar faces. To this end, we recorded EEG activity while participants performed a facial recognition task in which they had to discriminate between their own face, a friend's face, and an unknown face. We analyzed the event-related potentials (ERPs) to characterize the time course of neural processes involved in different stages of self-face recognition...
February 6, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735680/eye-gaze-contingent-attention-training-ecat-examining-the-causal-role-of-attention-regulation-in-reappraisal-and-rumination
#10
Alvaro Sanchez-Lopez, Jonas Everaert, Jill Van Put, Rudi De Raedt, Ernst H W Koster
This study used a novel eye-gaze contingent attention training (ECAT) to test the prediction that attention regulation is involved in reappraisal and rumination. Sixty-six undergraduates were randomly assigned to either the control or the active training condition of the ECAT. Active ECAT comprised training in allocating attention toward positive words to efficiently create positive interpretations while receiving gaze-contingent feedback. Participants in the control condition freely generated interpretations without receiving gaze-contingent feedback...
February 5, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721717/the-importance-of-age-in-the-search-for-erp-biomarkers-of-amci
#11
Susana Cid-Fernández, Mónica Lindín, Fernando Díaz
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) has become a major health issue in recent decades, and there is now growing interest in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), an intermediate stage between healthy aging and dementia, usually AD. Event-related brain potential (ERP) studies have sometimes failed to detect differences between aMCI and control participants in the Go-P3 (or P3b, related to target classification processes in a variety of tasks) and NoGo-P3 (related to response inhibition processes, mainly in Go/NoGo tasks) ERP components...
February 2, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710565/transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-reduces-spontaneous-but-not-induced-negative-thought-intrusions-in-high-worriers
#12
A M Burger, W Van der Does, J F Thayer, J F Brosschot, B Verkuil
Worrying is a central component of anxiety disorders. We tested whether non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation reduces negative thought intrusions in high worriers. Worry was assessed with a Breathing Focus Task, which consists of a pre-worry period, a worry induction, and a post-worry period. Ninety-seven high worriers were randomly allocated to receive transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve at the concha (tVNS), or of the earlobe (sham stimulation) throughout the lab session...
January 30, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703466/cortisol-reactivity-and-depressive-symptoms-in-pregnancy-the-moderating-role-of-perceived-social-support-and-neuroticism
#13
Yasmin B Kofman, Zoe E Eng, David Busse, Sophia Godkin, Belinda Campos, Curt A Sandman, Deborah Wing, Ilona S Yim
Perinatal depression negatively impacts mother-infant health and well-being. Previous work has linked cortisol reactivity to perinatal depressive symptoms, but moderating effects including social support and neuroticism, have not been studied. Forty-nine pregnant women (9 - 30 weeks' gestational age; GA) provided saliva samples in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and to awakening (cortisol awakening response, CAR), and completed questionnaires on perceived social support, personality, and depressive symptoms...
January 28, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703465/prime-warning-moderates-implicit-affect-primes-effect-on-effort-related-cardiac-response-in-men
#14
David Framorando, Guido H E Gendolla
Based on the Implicit-Affect-Primes-Effort model (Gendolla, 2012, 2015), we tested whether warning individuals about the occurrence of affect primes during a cognitive task moderates the primes' effect on effort-related cardiac response. Participants worked on a challenging mental arithmetic task with integrated masked affect primes-very briefly flashed pictures of facial sadness vs. happiness expressions. Additionally, half of the participants were warned about the primes' appearance and their possible effect on experienced task demand; the other half of the participants was not informed about the primes...
January 28, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703464/selective-attention-not-cognitive-load-elicited-fewer-eyeblinks-in-a-concealed-information-test
#15
Takuro Otsuka, Mitsuyoshi Mizutani, Fumio Yamada
The concealed information test (CIT), a memory detection test, compares physiological responses to crime-related and crime-unrelated items. This study elucidated processes involving spontaneous eyeblinks during the CIT by manipulating participants' intention to conceal. Thirty-four participants committed mock theft. In the CIT, wherein eyeblinks are measured simultaneously with autonomic responses, the secret group concealed the crime-related item, whereas the no-secret group did not. As a result, heart rate (HR) was modulated by the intention of concealment in autonomic measures, whereas the effect of concealment on the decrease of eyeblinks was not found to be significant...
January 28, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690055/the-aroma-of-arousal-effects-of-menstrual-cycle-phase-and-women-s-sexual-arousal-state-on-men-s-responsiveness-to-women-s-body-odor
#16
Heather Hoffmann
Humans can detect aspects of identity, reproductive status, and emotional state from body odor. Women have shown a distinctive neural response to male sexually-aroused (vs. resting) sweat. The present study examined olfactory sexual arousal contagion in men. Axial sweat was collected from naturally cycling women when they were sexually aroused and when they were resting, during both their follicular and their luteal phase. Men were exposed to both aroused and resting sweat in a state of low-level sexual arousal...
January 25, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685414/electro-cortical-correlates-of-multisensory-integration-using-ecologically-valid-emotional-stimuli-differential-effects-for-fear-and-disgust
#17
M E Stefanou, N Dundon, P E G Bestelmeyer, K Koldewyn, C W N Saville, C Fleischhaker, B Feige, M Biscaldi, N Smyrnis, C Klein
Multisensory integration (MSI) is crucial for human communication and social interaction and has been investigated in healthy populations and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the use of stimuli with high ecological validity is sparse, especially in event-related potential (ERP) studies. The present study examined the ERP correlates of MSI in healthy adults using short (500 ms) ecologically valid professional actor-produced emotions of fear or disgust as vocal exclamation or facial expression (unimodal conditions) or both (bimodal condition)...
January 24, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30677430/one-plus-one-is-more-than-two-the-interactive-influence-of-group-membership-and-emotional-facial-expressions-on-the-modulation-of-the-affective-startle-reflex
#18
Andrea Paulus, Katrin Renn, Dirk Wentura
It has been demonstrated repeatedly that the evaluation of a face is not only influenced by the social message that is signaled by the face's emotional expression, but also by other social factors such as ethnicity or group membership. Studies in the field of startle research, however, have hitherto investigated only the effects of one of the two factors-that is, either emotional expression or group membership-on the startle response. Yet, we propose that the startle reflex is a sensitive marker for the interactive effect of both factors...
January 21, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30668965/unpredictability-impairs-goal-directed-target-processing-and-performance
#19
Raoul Dieterich, Tanja Endrass, Norbert Kathmann, Anna Weinberg
Unpredictability influences emotion and attention, but its effects on goal-directed behavior are unclear. We examined whether unpredictable events interfere with performance, using event-related potentials to specify underlying attentional dynamics. The paradigm involved task-irrelevant distracters of either predictable or unpredictable content (neutral/negative) preceding targets of a stimulus discrimination task. Mean and single-trial analyses showed that unpredictable compared to predictable distracters elicited larger late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes and were followed by diminished P300 amplitudes and slower responses to the target...
January 19, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30668964/rewarding-safe-choices-in-peer-contexts-adolescent-brain-activity-during-decision-making
#20
Ben Hinnant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2019: Biological Psychology
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