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Life Sciences

Yan-Ling Cui, Run-Qing Xue, Xi-He, Ming-Zhao, Xiao-Jiang Yu, Long-Zhu Liu, Qing Wu, Si-Yang, Dong-Ling Li, Wei-Jin Zang
AIMS: Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is accompanied by augmented O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of proteins via increasing hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) flux. However, the changes and regulation of the O-GlcNAc levels induced by obesity are unclear. MAIN METHODS: High fat diet (HFD) model was induced obesity in mice with or without the cholinergic drug pyridostigmine (PYR, 3 mg/kg/d) for 22-weeks and in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was treated with high glucose with or without ACh...
February 17, 2019: Life Sciences
Yixuan Liang, Xiaoke Wang, Dongmei He, Qi You, Tingting Zhang, Wanfa Dong, Jingjin Fei, Yun Xing, Jie Wu
AIMS: Recent studies have revealed that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) provide negative feedback in the progression to chronic inflammation and contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes (T1D). In addition, accumulating evidences suggest that gut immunity play a key role in T1D pathogenesis. Our study aimed to evaluate whether staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) targeting intestinal NETs can ameliorate the intestinal inflammatory environment and protect against T1D development in non-obese diabetic(NOD) mice...
February 15, 2019: Life Sciences
Aurora Corrêa Rodrigues, Tiago Ferreira Leal, Alexandre Jayme Lopes Dantas Costa, Franciany de Jesus Silva, Leôncio Lopes Soares, Patrícia Chakur Brum, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Thales Nicolau Prímola-Gomes, Antônio José Natali
AIM: Investigate the effects of moderate continuous aerobic exercise (MCAE) on the inflammatory cytokine profile and expression of lipolytic and thermogenic genes in β1 -AR-/- mice adipose tissue. MAIN METHODS: Four- to five-month-old male wild type (WT) and β1 -AR-/- mice were divided into groups: WT control (WTc) and trained (WTt); and β1 -AR-/- control (β1 -AR-/- c) and trained (β1 -AR-/- t). Animals from trained groups were submitted to a MCAE regimen (60 min/day; 60% of maximal speed, 5 days/week) on a treadmill, for 8 weeks...
February 13, 2019: Life Sciences
Shikha Raheja, Amit Girdhar, Anjoo Kamboj, Viney Lather, Deepti Pandita
AIMS: Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (A. marmelos) has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as a brain tonic however its neuroprotective effect against streptozotocin (STZ) induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress has not been reported yet in vivo. Therefore, the present study was attempted to investigate the neuroprotective potential of ethanolic extract of A. marmelos leaves (AME) on STZ induced memory impairment in male rats. MAIN METHODS: Albino Wistar rats were pre-treated orally with AME at the doses 200 and 400 mg/kg for two weeks, followed by intracerebroventricular (i...
February 13, 2019: Life Sciences
Ming-Shan Chen, Wen-Chun Lin, Hsuan-Te Yeh, Chia-Lin Hu, Shew-Meei Sheu
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are net-like chromatin fibers that can trap and kill microorganisms. Although several anti-inflammatory effects of intravenous anesthetics have been reported, it has not been investigated whether intravenous anesthetics influence NET formation. AIMS: To compare the effects of four intravenous anesthetics (propofol, thiamylal sodium, midazolam, and ketamine) on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced NET formation and analyze the associated signaling pathways...
February 13, 2019: Life Sciences
Damla Binnetoglu, Ahmet Hacimuftuoglu, Feyza Aricioğlu
AIMS: The effects of agmatine, an endogenous substance known to have a neuroprotective effect against neurotoxicity has been investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The primary neuron culture obtained from neonatal rats was exposed to toxicity with paclitaxel and cisplatin and the effect of agmatine on both acute (1 h) and chronic (24 h) exposure was demonstrated by biochemical and molecular analyses. It was demonstrated that the effect of agmatine before and after agmatine was induced by neurotoxicity before agmatine and the effect of agmatine on the formed and occuring toxicities...
February 13, 2019: Life Sciences
Weiping Li, Miaomiao Dong, Pengmei Guo, Yu Liu, Yixin Jing, Rui Chen, Mingsheng Zhang
AIMS: Luteolin has been shown to be beneficial to cardiovascular tissues and organs. We aimed to study its vasospasmolytic effects against various vasoconstrictors in the isolated rat coronary arteries (RCAs) and its electrophysiological effects on K+ currents via voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels and inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels in freshly isolated rat coronary arterial smooth muscle cells (RCASMCs). MAIN METHODS: The vascular tone of the endothelium-denuded RCAs was recorded by a wire myograph...
February 13, 2019: Life Sciences
Lei Zhang, Yingying Guo, Heying Wang, Lili Zhao, Zhulin Ma, Tao Li, Jiao Liu, Man Sun, Yating Jian, Li Yao, Yun Du, Guilian Zhang
AIMS: Edaravone potentially alleviates cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism of edaravone in suppressing AD progression remains unclear. We aim to investigate the mechanism of edaravone in suppressing oxidative stress-mediated AD progression in vitro. MAIN METHODS: Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with different concentrations of edaravone prior to the induction by Aβ25-35 . Cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, and expression of antioxidative response elements (ARE) including Nrf2, SOD, and HO-1 were assessed...
February 12, 2019: Life Sciences
Jie Liu, Shulin Li, Dong Sun
Micro-vascular diseases and its associated complications continue to be a significant health problem worldwide. Vascular lesions from microvascular involvement lead to impaired blood flow and contribute to damage and dysfunction of one or more target organs, that is, the heart, kidneys, eyes, and nervous system. Calcium Dobesilate Drug (CAD) is an established vasoactive and angioprotective drug that has shown a unique, multitarget mode of action in several experimental studies and in different animal models of diabetic microvascular complications...
February 12, 2019: Life Sciences
Vajir Malek, Nisha Sharma, Himanshu Sankrityayan, Anil Bhanudas Gaikwad
AIMS: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and natriuretic peptides system (NPS) perturbations govern the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Hence, in search of a novel therapy against DN, present study targeted both, NPS and RAS simultaneously using a neprilysin inhibitor (NEPi) in combination with either angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activator. METHODS: We induced diabetes in male Wistar rats by a single dose of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, i...
February 12, 2019: Life Sciences
Ying Xing, Si-Dong Yang, Man-Man Wang, Ya-Shuo Feng, Fang Dong, Feng Zhang
Autophagy is a conservative catabolism process, participating in delivering the cytosol and cytosolic components to the lysosome. Abnormal autophagy is related to human pathologies, for instance diabetes, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular, macular degeneration, pulmonary, and cancer. Enormous evidences indicate that autophagy may mediate the cellular pathological condition in the process of neurological diseases. Exercise as a form of physiological stress may cause an adaptation, and autophagy is a necessary process for adaptational response to exercise...
February 12, 2019: Life Sciences
Farahmand Maryam, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Davood Khalili, Leila Cheraghi, Mahnaz Bahri Khomami, Fereidoun Azizi
AIMS: Duration of endogenous estrogen exposure is apparently associated with risk of cardiovascular disease, the longer durations being more cardiovascular disease protective in women. We aimed to investigate the association of cumulative duration of endogenous estrogen exposure over women's reproductive lifespans with cardiovascular disease outcomes. MAIN METHODS: For the purpose of the present study, of 10,192 female participants, after excluding those using HRT (n = 84), 3656 women, aged ≥30 years, who met eligibility criteria were selected and divided into three groups based on tertiles (T1, T2, T3) of exposure durations to endogenous estrogen...
February 11, 2019: Life Sciences
Qianqian Shi, Xiuying Chen, Guangli Sun, Lili Wang, Longjiang Cui
AIMS: The therapeutic strategies for diabetic retinopathy (DR) are disappointing. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) extracted from Panax ginseng can induce glucose uptake and lower oxidative stress. We aimed to explore the effect of Rg1 on DR using human retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19). MAIN METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were grown in high glucose (HG) to simulate DR. Cell viability, apoptosis, ROS generation and miR-26a level were examined by CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry assay, DCFH-DA staining and RT-qPCR, respectively...
February 11, 2019: Life Sciences
Xuan Gao, Jiang Ming, Shiwen Liu, Bin Lai, Fang Fang, Jing Cang
The neurotoxicity of anesthetics on developing brain has been a focused issue for years. However, controversy exists between human and animal studies and surgery may be a potential reason for this. The discovery of glymphatic system, a pathway eliminating soluble substance from central nervous system (CNS), together with recent evidence that surgery-induced Aβ increase contributes to cognition dysfunction made us rethink about the influence of anesthetics on cognitive function. The function of glymphatic system was proved to be enhanced by sleep and sedation, so we assumed that under clinical situation Aβ1-40 whose accumulation played important role in cognitive dysfunction was increased by surgery and eliminated from CNS by glymphatic system...
February 11, 2019: Life Sciences
Zili Zhang, Jian Wang, Fei Liu, Liang Yuan, Mingjing Ding, Lingdan Chen, Jili Yuan, Kai Yang, Jing Qian, Wenju Lu
AIMS: A rat model of emphysema was established that mimics the features of the human emphysema subtype and explores the effects of demethylation on lung function and blood tests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned to NO2 , NO2  + 5-Azacytidine, and normal air groups based on a emphysema rat model induced by chronic NO2 exposure. This study estimates the characteristics of emphysema by conducting an analysis for IL-6 and TNF-α levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and plasma...
February 11, 2019: Life Sciences
Osama Y Althunibat, Amir M Al Hroob, Mohammad H Abukhalil, Mousa O Germoush, May Bin-Jumah, Ayman M Mahmoud
AIMS: Hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative damage has been described as a major mechanism leading to pathologic changes associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Fisetin is a bioactive flavonol molecule found in many plants and possesses various biological activities. The present study investigated the protective effect of fisetin on diabetes-induced cardiac injury. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and both diabetic and control rats were treated with 2...
February 8, 2019: Life Sciences
Gayatri Devi Donepudi, Sindhu Ramesh, Manoj Govindarajulu, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran, Timothy Moore, Sunil Ganekal, Chandrashekharayya S Hiremath
Limbal Conjunctival Autograft Transplantation (LCAT) is considered to be the most effective treatment option for pterygium with the least recurrence rate and rapid restoration of normal epithelial morphology. Of the many available methods for securing Limbal Conjunctival Autograft (LCAG), sutures and autogenous serum in-situ are cost-effective and offers better outcomes. AIM: To compare the outcome of surgeries between the two groups: Group I - LCAG secured with autogenous serum in-situ versus Group II - LCAG secured with sutures...
February 8, 2019: Life Sciences
Zhengfan Gong, Yu Han, Lianpan Wu, Tianyang Xia, Hongmei Ren, Donghai Yang, Daqian Gu, He Wang, Cuimei Hu, Duofen He, Lin Zhou, Chunyu Zeng
AIMS: The proliferation of VSMCs is the pathologic basis for intimal hyperplasia after angioplasty in diabetic patients. Translocator protein (TSPO), located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, has been found to regulate redox intermediate components in cell dysfunction. We hypothesized that TSPO may regulate VSMC proliferation and migration, and be involved in the intimal hyperplasia after angioplasty in diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell proliferation was measured by cell counting and MTT assays...
February 7, 2019: Life Sciences
Hossein Shateri, Akram Ranjbar, Nejat Kheiripour, Hassan Ghasemi, Yasin Pourfarjam, Elahe Habibitabar, Hamid Gholami, Heresh Moridi
AIMS: Oxidative stress induced by diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered as one of the main causes of infertility in diabetic patients. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of Tempol - as a synthetic antioxidant- on the testis oxidative stress and sperm parameters in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats. MAIN METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Control groups (C) and diabetic groups (D); the control and diabetic groups received Tempol (100 mg/kg) for one month...
February 7, 2019: Life Sciences
Yuehua Zhao, Guorui Ma, Xingge Yang
Excessive inflammation is fundamental in the pathophysiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP)-induced respiratory infection in children. Histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) is involved in the regulation of inflammation, however, whether it associates with immunity against MP infection is not determined. We report here that HDAC5 expression is decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) children as well as in MP-infected peritoneal and THP-1 macrophages. Functionally, HDAC5 overexpression promotes and its depletion inhibits MP-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in THP-1 macrophages...
February 6, 2019: Life Sciences
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