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Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30653028/considering-type-1-diabetes-as-a-form-of-accelerated-muscle-aging
#1
Cynthia M F Monaco, Molly A Gingrich, Thomas J Hawke
Recent evidence reveals impairments to skeletal muscle health in adolescent/young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Interestingly, the observed changes in T1D are not unlike aged muscle; particularly, the alterations to mitochondria. Thus, we put forth the novel hypothesis that T1D may be considered a condition of accelerated muscle aging and that, similar to aging, mitochondrial dysfunction is a primary contributor to this complication.
January 16, 2019: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30640746/muscle-fiber-splitting-is-a-physiological-response-to-extreme-loading-in-animals
#2
Kevin A Murach, Cory M Dungan, Charlotte A Peterson, John J McCarthy
Skeletal muscle fiber branching and splitting is typically associated with damage and regeneration and is considered pathological when observed during loading-induced hypertrophy. We hypothesize that fiber splitting is a non-pathological component of extreme loading and hypertrophy, which is primarily supported by evidence in animals, and propose that the mechanisms and consequences of fiber splitting deserve further exploration.
January 11, 2019: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30632999/regulation-of-body-temperature-by-autonomic-and-behavioral-thermoeffectors
#3
Zachary J Schlader, Nicole T Vargas
Thermoregulation is accomplished via autonomic and behavioral responses. Autonomic responses may influence decisions to behaviorally thermoregulate. For instance, in addition to changes in body temperature, skin wettedness and involuntary muscle contraction, which occur subsequent to sweating and shivering, likely modulate thermal behavior. This autonomic-behavioral interaction provides the rationale for our hypothesis that thermoregulatory behavior decreases the requirement for autonomic responses.
January 10, 2019: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30632998/regulation-of-ribosome-biogenesis-during-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy
#4
Hyo-Gun Kim, Bin Guo, Gustavo A Nader
An increase in ribosomal capacity is a hallmark of the hypertrophying muscle. We review evidence demonstrating that transcription of ribosomal RNA genes is necessary for the increase in ribosomal capacity, and this is critical for muscle growth in human and animal models of hypertrophy.
January 10, 2019: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30550478/estrogens-are-for-more-than-just-reproductive-endocrinology
#5
COMMENT
Robert S Bowen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30550477/from-the-editor
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30334854/promoting-exercise-adherence-through-groups-a-self-categorization-theory-perspective
#7
Mark R Beauchamp
The hypothesis presented in this paper is that adherence to exercise programs can be understood, and fostered through intervention, by considering how social identities form within group settings. This paper explains these processes from a self-categorization theory perspective.
January 2019: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30334853/statistical-considerations-for-exercise-protocols-aimed-at-measuring-trainability
#8
REVIEW
Sarah Voisin, Macsue Jacques, Alejandro Lucia, David J Bishop, Nir Eynon
The individual response to exercise training is of great interest with methods that have been proposed to measure this response reviewed in this paper. However, individual training response estimates may be biased by various sources of variability present in exercise studies, and in particular by within-subject variability. We propose the use of protocols that can separate trainability from within-subject variability.
January 2019: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30334852/the-importance-of-mtor-trafficking-for-human-skeletal-muscle-translational-control
#9
REVIEW
Nathan Hodson, Andrew Philp
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of muscle protein synthesis, and its activation has long been attributed to its translocation to the lysosome. Here, we present a novel model of mTOR activation in skeletal muscle where the translocation of mTOR and the lysosome toward the cell membrane is a key process in mTOR activation.
January 2019: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30334851/syncing-exercise-with-meals-and-circadian-clocks
#10
REVIEW
Timothy D Heden, Jill A Kanaley
Circadian rhythms, meals, and exercise modulate energy metabolism. This review explores the novel hypothesis that there is an optimal time of day to exercise to improve 24 h glycemia and lipemia in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
January 2019: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30334849/raising-an-active-and-healthy-generation-a-comprehensive-public-health-initiative
#11
REVIEW
Russell R Pate, Marsha Dowda
Physical activity (PA) provides important health benefits to youth, but most U.S. children and adolescents fail to meet federal PA guidelines. The purpose of this article is to present a plan for a large-scale public health initiative aimed at producing population-level increases in PA among U.S. youth.
January 2019: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30334848/protein-metabolism-in-active-youth-not-just-little-adults
#12
REVIEW
Daniel R Moore
Understanding how exercise and dietary protein alter the turnover and synthesis of body proteins in youth can provide guidelines for the optimal development of lean mass. This review hypothesizes that active youth obtain similar anabolic benefits from exercise and dietary protein as adults, but the requirement for amino acids to support growth renders them more sensitive to these nutrients.
January 2019: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30334850/athletes-with-versus-without-leg-amputations-different-biomechanics-similar-running-economy
#13
Owen N Beck, Alena M Grabowski
Athletes with transtibial amputations use carbon-fiber prostheses to run. Compared to biological legs, these devices differ in structure and function, and yield affected leg running biomechanics that are theoretically more economical than those of non-amputees. However, experimental data indicate that athletes with unilateral and bilateral transtibial amputations exhibit running economy values that are currently well-within the range of non-amputee values.
October 16, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30216293/response
#14
LETTER
Jacob Bejder, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30216292/-live-high-train-low-paradigm-moving-the-debate-forward
#15
LETTER
Franck Brocherie, Grégoire P Millet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30216291/peripheral-fatigue-has-another-threshold-bitten-the-dust
#16
COMMENT
Mark Burnley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30216290/priscilla-m-clarkson-undergraduate-travel-award
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30052546/exercise-and-bariatric-surgery-an-effective-therapeutic-strategy
#18
REVIEW
Paul M Coen, Elvis A Carnero, Bret H Goodpaster
The long-term efficacy of bariatric surgery is not entirely clear, and weight regain and diabetes relapse are problems for some patients. Exercise is a feasible and clinically effective adjunct therapy for bariatric surgery patients. We hypothesize that exercise is also a critical factor for long-term weight loss maintenance and lasting remission of type 2 diabetes.
October 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30001275/dietary-nitrate-enhances-the-contractile-properties-of-human-skeletal-muscle
#19
REVIEW
Andrew R Coggan, Linda R Peterson
Dietary nitrate, a source of nitric oxide (NO), improves the contractile properties of human muscle. We present the hypothesis that this is due to nitrosylation of the ryanodine receptor and increased NO signaling via the soluble guanyl cyclase-cyclic guanosine monophosphate-protein kinase G pathway, which together increase the free intracellular Ca concentration along with the Ca sensitivity of the myofilaments themselves.
October 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30001274/the-renin-angiotensin-system-and-skeletal-muscle
#20
REVIEW
Scott K Powers, Aaron B Morton, Hayden Hyatt, Matthew J Hinkley
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a key role in the control of blood pressure and fluid homeostasis. Emerging evidence also reveals that hyperactivity of the RAS contributes to skeletal muscle wasting. This review discusses the key role that the RAS plays in skeletal muscle wasting due to congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and ventilator-induced diaphragmatic wasting.
October 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
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