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Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease

Michael B First, Matthew D Erlich, David A Adler, Shirley Leong, Lisa B Dixon, David W Oslin, Beth Goldman, Steve Koh, Bruce Levine, Jeffrey L Berlant, Samuel G Siris
Despite widespread use, how clinicians use the DSM in psychiatric practice is not well understood. Recognizing public and professional attitudes toward the DSM are integral to future DSM development, to assess a commonly held assumption such as that the DSM is used primarily for coding, and to assess its clinical utility. A convenience sample of Psychiatric Times readers was surveyed to assess the DSM's use in clinical practice. A total of 394 behavioral health care practitioners fully completed the online survey...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Lihua Sun, Xiangyu Zheng, Chang Liu, Mingchao Shi, Yudan Lv
Evidence from a neuropsychological test revealed that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) may have significant impact on cognitive performance. Sometimes, neuropsychological tests may not be sensitive to detection of mild cognitive changes. We applied P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) to detect mild cognitive changes caused by small amount of IEDs. Sixty-seven adult epilepsy patients and participants were divided into six groups according to different IEDs index. The patients with IED index greater than 7...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Yudan Lv, Xiangyu Zheng, Xiao Zhang, Danyang Zhao, Li Cui
The diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy is often challenging, and may be misdiagnosed as epileptic disorders or viral encephalitis. Autoimmune epilepsy has a strong association with other autoimmune diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In addition, autoimmune epilepsy was reported to present with complex partial seizure (CPS), simple partial seizure (SPS), and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure (sGTCS). In our case, we present a different seizure type of tonic seizure in autoimmune epilepsy caused by SLE, which has not been reported, and it will provide with a new understanding of autoimmune epilepsy...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Zhiqiang Xue, Yanjun Wang, Lijuan Wang, Li Shen, Anning Zhang, Pan Pan, Hongjie Wang, Jing Dou, Xin Guo, Yaogai Lv, Lina Jin, Yan Yao
Poststroke depression (PSD) is a common complication of stroke. We sought to investigate the influencing factors of PSD and explored the association between body mass index (BMI) and PSD. A total of 397 stroke patients in a hospital in Qiqihar City, China, were included in this study in 2016. The order of independent variable importance was the score of the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, frequency of stroke, age, BMI, and sleep duration. Sleep duration of 7 hours or more (compared with <7 hours) was negatively associated with the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) score in all quantiles...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Hanaan Bing-Canar, Rachel M Ranney, Sage McNett, Jana K Tran, Erin C Berenz, Anka A Vujanovic
Alcohol use problems are associated with suicidal desire and may provide an avenue to suicidal ideation and behavior. However, the influence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the nature of the relationship between alcohol use problems and suicide risk is not well understood. In particular, the potential for PTSD to moderate the association between alcohol use problems and suicide risk remains unexplored. The present study investigated the main and interactive effects of alcohol use problems (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) and PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5) on suicide risk (Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised) in a sample of 632 trauma-exposed firefighters (93...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Simon P N Groen, Annemiek J M Richters, Cornelis J Laban, Jooske T van Busschbach, Walter L J M Devillé
Although there is ample empirical evidence that traumatic events, postmigration stress, and acculturation problems have a great impact on the mental health of refugees, so far no studies have included cultural identity after migration in the equation. This mixed-methods study conducted among Afghan and Iraqi refugee and asylum-seeker psychiatric patients aims to fill this gap. Associations between postmigration stress, symptoms of anxiety and depression disorders, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were significant...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Jens Plag, Deniz-Levent Ergec, Thomas Fydrich, Andreas Ströhle
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may produce strong physiological but also psychological effects within a short period. However, it is questionable if this type of training is applicable and effective in patients with panic disorder (PD) because they are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of exercise. Twelve PD patients performed a 12-day HIIT trial. Every second day, patients performed 10 high-intensive 1-minute intervals at 77% to 95% of their maximum heart rate separated by 1-minute intervals with moderate to low intensity...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Naiara Ozamiz-Etxebarria, Miren Agurtzane Ortiz-Jauregi, Javier I Escobar
In 2010, the Working Group of Personality and Personality Disorders of the DSM-5 task force proposed a thorough diagnostic reformulation of the category of personality disorders. After debates and negotiations, these alternative criteria ended in Section III of the DSM-5 manual (diagnoses in need of further testing). We tested these alternative criteria in a sample of Basque-speaking patients from the Basque region of Spain who had clinical diagnoses of personality disorder, using instruments that had been developed and used as part of the DSM-5 field trials in the United States for assessing the proposed new diagnostic category...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Tania Lecomte, Laurence Théroux, Karine Paquin, Stéphane Potvin, Amélie Achim
Social anxiety is highly prevalent in individuals with schizophrenia, with studies suggesting rates of 30%. This study aimed at determining if social anxiety is linked to specific emotion recognition deficits and to specific social functioning deficits. A total of 47 participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and receiving outpatient services answered measures of facial recognition (Ekman; Facial Emotion Identification Test), facial discrimination (Facial Emotion Discrimination Test), role-play, social anxiety (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Brief Social Phobia Scale), psychiatric symptoms (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale), self-esteem (Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form), and social functioning (Social Functioning Scale)...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Nicolas Rüsch, Alexandra Malzer, Nathalie Oexle, Tamara Waldmann, Tobias Staiger, Andreas Bahemann, Moritz E Wigand, Thomas Becker, Patrick W Corrigan
Unemployment and mental disorders are associated with impaired quality of life. Because of the stigma associated with mental illness, unemployed individuals with mental health problems face the difficult decision whether to disclose their condition to others. Disclosure has both risks and benefits, and it is unclear how it affects quality of life. We therefore examined disclosure attitudes at baseline as predictors of quality of life after 6 months and also assessed social support, depressive symptoms, self-stigma, and perceived discrimination among 301 unemployed individuals with mental health problems...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Yossi Levi-Belz, Lilac Lev-Ari
Losing a loved one to suicide may have detrimental effects, one of them being suffering from complicated grief (CG). To date, no studies have fully examined the psychological processes that delineate the risk and resilience factors that contribute to CG among suicide-loss survivors (SLSs). We hypothesized that social support and self-disclosure would moderate the relationship between attachment styles and CG for SLS. Questionnaires assessing attachment style, self-disclosure, social support, and CG were completed by 156 SLS participants...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Roger K Blashfield
Psychiatric classifications before the early 1900s generally are viewed as chaotic and not worthy of analysis. Sixteen different classificatory systems were identified that were pre-World War I and that were pre-Kraepelinian. A total of 827 names were collected from these 16 classifications. As expected, classification unreliability was a problem in these systems. Across the seven American classifications, the average match rate in names was 15% (i.e., 15% of the diagnoses in one system appeared with the same name in another system)...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Roberta Bortolla, Emanuela Roder, Pietro Ramella, Andrea Fossati, Cesare Maffei
The present study aims to test the hypothesis of biological hyperarousal and hyperreactivity underpinning the dysfunctional emotional processes of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Self-reported (quality and intensity of emotions) and physiological (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA] and heart rate) data were collected in 14 clinical subjects with BPD and in 14 control subjects (healthy controls [HCs]), during the administration of six video clips with different emotional contents. Our findings showed a constant hyperarousal state (lower RSA) in the clinical group, supporting the hypothesis of a biological vulnerability to emotional dysregulation...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Matteo Tonna, Rebecca Ottoni, Clara Pellegrini, Elena Bettini, Valeria Accardi, Paolo Ossola, Chiara De Panfilis, Carlo Marchesi
The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive functions and obsessive-compulsive dimension in schizophrenia and a possible moderating effect of schizophrenia symptom dimensions on this association. Sixty-one schizophrenia patients were administered the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), and the Matrics Consensus Cognitive Battery. A U-shaped curve described a gradual transition from an inverse association to a positive relationship between YBOCS and processing speed scores, along a severity gradient of obsessive dimension...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Jie Gao, Chongfa Zhao, Wenchen Jiang, Baosen Zheng, Yongjin He
To estimate the effect of acupuncture on idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN), we recruited 116 patients with ITN from December 2016 to April 2018 and further divided into them into two groups: acupuncture intervention group (n = 62) and sham control group (n = 54). Clinical pain, cognitive function, and quality of life (QoL) assessed with the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) were evaluated at the initial time of treatment, at the end of treatment, and 6 weeks after the treatment. Pain intensity, headache, and generalized body pain showed significant decrease both at the end of treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment when compared with initial time...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Vanda McNiven, Sarah Mamane, Gwyneth Zai, Joyce So
Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is a rarely diagnosed psychiatric disorder in which individuals falsely believe that they emit an offensive body odor. This retrospective cohort study characterizes the clinical and demographic features of 54 individuals who presented to a Canadian genetics clinic for query trimethylaminuria (TMAU), an inherited disorder in which a pungent fishy odor is produced. The majority (83%) were found to have a likely diagnosis of ORS and a high rate (73.3%) of concomitant psychiatric disorders; only two patients were diagnosed with TMAU...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Yosef Sokol, Mark R Serper
Individuals with psychiatric illness have difficulty remembering specific events from their personal past and imagining their future. We examined psychotic psychiatric inpatients' sense of self-continuity over time, predicting that low levels of temporal continuity would predict increased psychopathology and lower functionality. Inpatients (n = 60) were compared with healthy controls (n = 60) on a validated measure of self-continuity, psychiatric symptoms, insight, and adaptive functioning capacity. Results revealed that patients had significant difficulty perceiving their past, present, and future selves as unified over time compared with controls...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Olivier Laverdière, John S Ogrodniczuk, David Kealy
Psychotherapists can experience emotional drain as a result of their work with distressed and traumatized patients. It has been suggested that psychotherapists' empathy, which is central to clinical work, may be an important risk factor in the development of burnout or secondary traumatic stress. This apparent contradiction is thought provoking, especially given the complexity of empathic response. The current study aimed to explore the relationship of empathy to compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress, while also considering the influence of important work conditions...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Carlos Martín-Pérez, Juan Jesús Herrero-Martin, Gonzalo Pérez-López, Rafael Pedrosa-García, Inmaculada Ibañez-Casas, Francisco Torres-González, Berta Moreno-Küstner
The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of severe mental illness (SMI) in patients in contact with mental health services and to determine the factors associated with SMI. A total of 260 patients who met diagnostic criteria for SMI were assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales. The overall prevalence of SMI was 6.08 per thousand. According to the three different cutoff points with GAF, the prevalence of SMI ranged from 5.38 per thousand under the weak criterion (GAF < 70) to 1...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
C Hyung Keun Park, Hyeyoung Kim, Bora Kim, Eun Young Kim, Hyun Jeong Lee, Daewook Kim, Yong Min Ahn
Identifying predictors of planned suicide attempts (PSA) is critical because these are associated with grave consequences. Using data of suicide attempters visiting emergency departments, we investigated whether the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) subscales, by retrospectively evaluating ideation before an attempt, could predict the occurrence of PSA versus unplanned suicide attempts using logistic regression analyses. The severity subscale was used as a continuous (model A) and a categorical (model B) variable...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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