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Journal of Medical Entomology

Godwin Fuseini, Raul Ncogo Nguema, Wonder P Phiri, Olivier Tresor Donfack, Carlos Cortes, Michael E Von Fricken, Jacob I Meyers, Immo Kleinschmidt, Guillermo A Garcia, Carl Maas, Christopher Schwabe, Michel A Slotman
Sustaining high levels of indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage (≥85%) for community protection against malaria remains a challenge for IRS campaigns. We examined biting rates and insecticide resistance in Culex species and Anopheles gambiae s.l., and their potential effect on community adherence to IRS. The average IRS coverage in urban Malabo between 2015 and 2017 remained at 80%. Culex biting rate increased 6.0-fold (P < 0.001) between 2014 and 2017, reaching 8.08 bites per person per night, whereas that of An...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Siti Nor Ain Seri Masran, Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid
The surge in tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) infestations has led to an increase in genomic studies. In this study, the population genetics and breeding patterns of 22 Malaysian populations were analyzed, including genetic differentiation and genetic distance. For seven microsatellite loci, the number of alleles varied from 6 to 14. The allelels per loci contrasted sharply between the overall population and within the populations. The average observed and expected heterozygosity was 0...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
L M Rice, L L Robb, D A Hartman, J R Anderson, R C Kading
Hematophagous arthropod bloodmeal identification has remained a challenge in the field of vector biology, but these studies are important to understand blood feeding patterns of arthropods, spatial, and temporal patterns in arbovirus transmission cycles, and risk of human and veterinary disease. We investigated the use of an existing vertebrate primer set for use on the droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) platform, to explore the use of this technology in the identification and quantification of vertebrate DNA in mosquito blood meals...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Teresia M Njoroge, May R Berenbaum
The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) transmits several devastating arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus, making development of inexpensive and eco-friendly strategies for its control an urgent priority. We evaluated the lethality of 13 commonly used plant-derived edible oils against late-third instar Ae. aegypti and then tested the three most lethal oils for stage-specific differences in lethality. We also examined the effects of the most lethal (hempseed), moderately lethal (sunflower and peanut), and least lethal (olive) oils on survival to adulthood and oviposition behavior of gravid females...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Silvina A Belliard, Gerardo J De la Vega, Pablo E Schilman
Temperature is recognized as the most influential abiotic factor on the distribution and dispersion of most insect species including Rhodnius prolixus (Stål, 1859) and Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834), the two most important Chagas disease vectors. Although, these species thermotolerance range is well known their plasticity has never been addressed in these or any other triatomines. Herein, we investigate the effects of acclimation on thermotolerance range and resistance to stressful low temperatures by assessing thermal critical limits and 'chill-coma recovery time' (CCRT), respectively...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Allan T Showler, Jessica L Harlien, Adalberto A Perez de Léon
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is an important and cosmopolitan blood feeding ectoparasite of cattle. Resistance to conventional insecticides is increasingly problematic and alternative pesticides, including natural products, are being investigated. Limonene is a cyclic monoterpene repellent to some insects that occurs in citrus fruit rinds and in other plants. We assessed laboratory grade limonene and a commercial product, Orange Guard (5.8% AI limonene), against H. irritans irritans in terms of their contact effects upon contact on egg mortality, adults, and larval and pupal development; adult repellency as well as sublethal and fumigation effects...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Fariba Berenji, Ali Moshaverinia, Abbas Jadidoleslami, Aliakbar Shamsian, Stephen L Doggett, Elham Moghaddas
The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Linnaeus 1758), is a nocturnal blood-sucking ectoparasite of humans that is highly prevalent in the northeast of Iran. In recent years, the efficacy of those insecticides that have been frequently used to control bed bugs in Iran has not been studied. Due to frequent complaints about bed bug treatment failures in Mashhad city (northeastern Iran), this study assessed the susceptibility of C. lectularius collected from a student residence hall to Diazinon, Malathion, and λ-cyhalothrin...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Kyran M Staunton, Peter Yeeles, Michael Townsend, Somayeh Nowrouzi, Christopher J Paton, Brendan Trewin, Daniel Pagendam, Artiom Bondarenco, Gregor J Devine, Nigel Snoad, Nigel W Beebe, Scott A Ritchie
As the incidence of arboviral diseases such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever increases globally, controlling their primary vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), is of greater importance than ever before. Mosquito control programs rely heavily on effective adult surveillance to ensure methodological efficacy. The Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap is the gold standard for surveilling adult Aedes mosquitoes and is commonly deployed worldwide, including during modern 'rear and release' programs...
February 28, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Tianyun Su, Jennifer Thieme, Taylor Lura, Min-Lee Cheng, Michelle Q Brown
The peridomestic anthropophilic Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is originated from the wild zoophilic subspecies Aedes aegypti formosus in sub-Saharan Africa, and currently has a broad distribution in human-modified environments of the tropics and subtropics worldwide. In California, breeding populations were initially detected in 2013 in the cities of Fresno, Madera, and San Mateo, and now can be found in 188 cities of 12 counties in the state. Recent genetic studies suggest that this species invaded California on multiple occasions from several regions of the United States and northern Mexico prior to initial detection...
February 26, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Aldilene da Silva Lima, Gabriel Alves Landulfo, Livio M Costa-Junior
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) is a problem for livestock production systems, and its control has become challenging due to the selection of tick populations resistant to synthetic chemical acaricides. The use of repellent compounds prevents contact between the arthropod parasite and the host and can, thus, contribute to increases in the efficacy of these acaricides. Carvacrol monoterpenic phenol is a possible alternative method for controlling R. (B.) microplus; however, this compound is highly volatile, and its volatilization can be decreased through microencapsulation, which results in the timed release of the compound...
February 26, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Maria Luiza Ribeiro de Oliveira, Daniel Cardoso Portela Camara, Simone Patrícia Carneiro Freitas, Jacenir Reis Santos-Mallet
Spermatozoa are among the most diverse cell types, and their morphologies often provide data that can be used to reliably evaluate phylogenetic relationships. They can also help to clarify the nature of 'specific complexes', which are common among triatomines. In the present study, we evaluated the copulation behavior of Triatoma rubrovaria Blanchard 1843 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) and the structural morphology of sperm from T. carcavalloi Jurberg Rocha & Lent, 1998, T. infestans Klug, 1834, T...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Pia Untalan Olafson, Phillip E Kaufman, Gérard Duvallet, José-Arturo Solórzano, David B Taylor, Rebecca Trout Fryxell
Anecdotal evidence of pyrethroid insecticide product failure for the control of stable fly [Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)] populations in the United States and worldwide prompted us to evaluate the frequency of knockdown resistance (kdr)-type polymorphisms within the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc) gene of field collected specimens from the United States, France, Costa Rica, and Thailand. The kdr-his allele (L1014H), associated with permethrin resistance, was detected in stable flies from the 10 states sampled in the United States, as well as from Costa Rica and France (Toulouse)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Anabel Padilla N, Ana L Moncayo, Clifford B Keil, Mario J Grijalva, Anita G Villacís
Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). It is transmitted to humans primarily through contaminated feces of blood-sucking vectors of the subfamily Triatominae, known in Ecuador as 'chinchorros'. Some Triatominae species can adapt to domiciliary and peridomiciliary environments where T. cruzi can be transmitted to humans. Triatoma carrioni (Larrousse 1926) colonizes domestic and peridomestic habitats up to 2,242 m above sea level (masl) in southern Ecuador (Loja Province) and northern Peru...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
John B Keven, Edward D Walker, Patrick J Venta
Genetic profiling has been used to link mosquito bloodmeals to the individual humans, but this analysis has not been done for other mammalian bloodmeals. In this study, we describe a microsatellite-based method for identifying individual pigs in mosquito bloodmeals based on their unique multilocus genotypes. Eleven tetranucleotide microsatellites and a sex-specific marker were selected based on Smith-Waterman DNA sequence alignment scores from the reference genome and primers were designed with features that reduce primer dimers, promote complete adenylation, and enable fluorescent labeling of amplicons...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
L M Barros, R L Ferreira-Keppler, R T Martins, A L N Gutjahr
Biological data on development of Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758) is useful to calculate the postmortem interval (PMI), thus being important for solving crimes. We aimed at gathering bionomic information on H. illucens, during the decomposition of a Sus scrofa, in the urban zone of Manaus, Amazonas State. Mature females and eggs were collected on the swine carcass. After hatching under natural conditions, larvae were observed daily. Different instars were fixed in ethylic alcohol to determine instar duration by the evaluation of the frequency distribution of cephalic capsule measurements and the principal components analysis (PCA)...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Hakan Kavur
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a zoonotic infectious disease caused mainly by Leishmania infantum Nicolle, 1908 (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatida) transmitted by dominant species Phlebotomus tobbi Adler & Theodor (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Adana, Turkey. CL has been reported to be detected commonly in low-socioeconomic status population scattered in rural areas. The environmental determinants are relatively poorly understood, especially in Adana despite the fact that Adana is endemic foci of CL. The subject of this study was the current and future probability model of P...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Roberto Barrera, Angela Harris, Ryan R Hemme, Gilberto Felix, Nicole Nazario, Jorge L Muñoz-Jordan, Damaris Rodriguez, Julieanne Miranda, Eunice Soto, Stephanie Martinez, Kyle Ryff, Carmen Perez, Veronica Acevedo, Manuel Amador, Stephen H Waterman
This investigation was initiated to control Aedes aegypti and Zika virus transmission in Caguas City, Puerto Rico, during the 2016 epidemic using Integrated Vector Management (IVM), which included community awareness and education, source reduction, larviciding, and mass-trapping with autocidal gravid ovitraps (AGO). The epidemic peaked in August to October 2016 and waned after April 2017. There was a preintervention period in October/November 2016 and IVM lasted until August 2017. The area under treatment (23...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Ifeoluwa K Fagbohun, Tolulope A Oyeniyi, Taiwo E Idowu, Olubunmi A Otubanjo, Samson T Awolola
Pyrethroids and DDT are key insecticides in the control of malaria, yellow fever, and lymphatic filariasis vectors. Knockdown and metabolic resistance mechanisms have been proven to be important in determining the efficacy of insecticides. Here we investigated cytochrome P450 as a resistance mechanism in Anopheles gambiae Giles and Culex quinquefasciatus Say exposed to deltamethrin and DDT. Two- to three-days-old adult female mosquitoes were used for insecticide exposures and PBO synergistic assays using WHO standard guidelines, kits and test papers (DDT 4%, deltamethrin 0...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Nicholas V Travanty, Charles S Apperson, Loganathan Ponnusamy
Laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of bacteria isolated from senescent white oak leaves on the growth and survivorship of larval Aedes albopictus (Skuse). Larvae hatched from surface-sterilized eggs were reared in microcosms containing individual bacterial isolates, combined isolates (Porphyrobacter sp., Enterobacter asburiae, Acidiphilium rubrum, Pseudomonas syringae, and Azorhizobium caulinodans), a positive control containing a microbial community from an infusion of white oak leaves, and a negative control consisting of sterile culture media...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Marion Ripoche, Céline Campagna, Antoinette Ludwig, Nicholas H Ogden, Patrick A Leighton
Since 2002, human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) have occurred every year in southern Canada, but WNV risk remains challenging to predict. Here, we explored the ability of weather-based forecasting models to predict the seasonal abundance of two WNV vector species (Culex pipiens-restuans and Aedes vexans) in Québec, Canada, and explored the importance of accounting for larvicide use and local habitat (forest park vs residential garden). A gamma-generalized linear model predicting mosquito abundance was developed based on an approach previously used in Ontario combining temperature and precipitation during the days preceding mosquito captures...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
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