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Journal of Heredity

Jim A Mossman, Russyan Mark S Mabeza, Emma Blake, Neha Mehta, David M Rand
Trans-generational maternal effects have been shown to influence a broad range of offspring phenotypes. However, very little is known about paternal trans-generational effects. Here, we tested the trans-generational effects of maternal and paternal age, and their interaction, on daughter and son reproductive fitness in Drosophila melanogaster. We found significant effects of parent ages on offspring reproductive fitness over 10 days post-fertilization. In daughters, older (45 days old) mothers conferred lower reproductive fitness compared to younger mothers (3 days old)...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Heredity
Martinus Johannes Scheepers, Gavin Gouws
A critical part of the sexual selection process in animals is the genetic mating system. Quantifying mating systems, especially in species with cryptic life-histories can be challenging. One approach is to use genotypic markers and accurate parentage analysis, along with methods to account for bias when sampling natural populations, to calculate sexual selection metrics derived from Bateman's principles. In this study, three microsatellites were used to genotype 48 adults (23 female and 25 male) and 342 offspring from known mothers of live-bearing bluntnose klipfish...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Heredity
Nicolas Cuénin, Olivier Flores, Eric Rivière, Gérard Lebreton, Bernard Reynaud, Florent Martos
Following the global trend of deforestation and degradation, tropical dry forests in the Mascarenes archipelago on Reunion has undergone harsh reduction and fragmentation within 3 centuries of human occupation. We investigated the genetic diversity, mating system, and gene flow in fragmented populations of the native tree Foetidia mauritiana (Lecythidaceae) on Reunion, using microsatellite genotyping of adults (in- and ex situ) and seed progenies (in situ only). To test genetic isolation between the Mascarene islands, we also genotyped conspecific adults on Mauritius, and trees of Foetidia rodriguesiana on Rodrigues...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Heredity
Mark J Statham, William T Bean, Nathan Alexander, Michael F Westphal, Benjamin N Sacks
From a conservation management perspective it is important to understand how genetic diversity is partitioned across a species' range, including (1) identification of evolutionarily distinct units versus those recently isolated through anthropogenic activities and (2) the relative genetic contributions among components of fragmented (meta)populations. To address these questions, we investigated the phylogeography and metapopulation structure among relict populations of the endangered giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens) in the highly altered San Joaquin Desert Ecosystem...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Heredity
Adam G Jones, Stevan J Arnold, Reinhard Bürger
With the advent of next-generation sequencing approaches, the search for individual loci underlying local adaptation has become a major enterprise in evolutionary biology. One promising method to identify such loci is to examine genome-wide patterns of differentiation, using an FST-outlier approach. The effects of pleiotropy and epistasis on this approach are not yet known. Here, we model two populations of a sexually reproducing, diploid organism with two quantitative traits, one of which is involved in local adaptation...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Heredity
Paul V Hickner, Akio Mori, Samuel S C Rund, Aaron D Sheppard, Joanne M Cunningham, Dave D Chadee, Giles E Duffield, David W Severson
Members of the Culex pipiens complex differ in physiological traits that facilitate their survival in diverse environments. Assortative mating within the complex occurs in some regions where autogenous (the ability to lay a batch of eggs without a blood meal) and anautogenous populations are sympatric, and differences in mating behaviors may be involved. For example, anautogenous populations mate in flight/swarms, while autogenous populations often mate at rest. Here, we characterized flight activity of males and found that anautogenous strain males were crepuscular, while autogenous strain males were crepuscular and nocturnal, with earlier activity onset times...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Heredity
Katherine L Bell, Chris C Nice, C Darrin Hulsey
In recent decades, an increased understanding of molecular ecology has led to a reinterpretation of the role of gene flow during the evolution of reproductive isolation and biological novelty. For example, even in the face of ongoing gene flow strong selection may maintain divergent polymorphisms, or gene flow may introduce novel biological diversity via hybridization and introgression from a divergent species. Herein, we elucidate the evolutionary history and genomic basis of a trophically polymorphic trait in a species of cichlid fish, Herichthys minckleyi...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Heredity
Michito Shimozuru, Yuri Shirane, Hifumi Tsuruga, Masami Yamanaka, Masanao Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi Ishinazaka, Shinsuke Kasai, Takane Nose, Yasushi Masuda, Yasushi Fujimoto, Tsutomu Mano, Toshio Tsubota
Understanding the breeding ecology of a species is essential for the appropriate conservation and management of wildlife. In brown bears, females occasionally copulate with multiple males in one breeding season, which may lead to multiple paternity in a single litter. In contrast, inbreeding, a potential factor in the reduction of genetic diversity, may occur, particularly in threatened populations. However, few studies have reported the frequency of these phenomena in brown bear populations. Here, we investigated the incidence of multiple paternity and inbreeding in a high-density brown bear population on the Shiretoko Peninsula in Hokkaido, Japan...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Heredity
Joseph Heras, Andres Aguilar
The genetic underpinnings that contribute to ecological adaptation and speciation are not completely understood, especially within marine ecosystems. These evolutionary processes can be elucidated by studying adaptive radiations, because they provide replicates of divergence within a given environment or time-frame. Marine rockfishes (genus Sebastes) are an adaptive radiation and unique model system for studying adaptive evolution in the marine realm. We investigated molecular evolution associated with ecological (depth) and life history (life span) divergence in two closely related clades of Sebastes...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Heredity
Joëlle Lafond, Philippe Hénault, Christelle Leung, Bernard Angers
Triploid vertebrates from unisexual complexes often perpetuate themselves asexually. In the fish Chrosomus eos×eos-neogaeus, triploids are continuously produced by diploid hybrids. However, they are not expected to perpetuate since C. eos are their only known progeny. This study aims to investigate the oogenesis of these triploid hybrids through experimental crosses. A total of 337 larvae from 12 female triploids and three 2n/3n mosaics fertilized with C. eos sperm were genetically characterized. The detection of C...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Elizabeth A O'Hare, Parker B Antin, Mary E Delany
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and expression technologies were utilized to investigate the genes and sequence elements in a 586 kb region of chicken chromosome 1 associated with the autosomal recessive diplopodia-1 (dp-1) mutation. This mutation shows a syndromic phenotype similar to known human developmental abnormalities (e.g., cleft palate, polydactyly, omphalocele (exposed viscera)). Toward our goal to ascertain the variant responsible, the entire 586 kb region was sequenced following utilization of a specifically designed capture array and to confirm/validate fine-mapping results...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Raheleh Sadeghi, Mohammad Moradi-Shahrbabak, Seyed Reza Miraei Ashtiani, Florencia Schlamp, Elissa J Cosgrove, Doug F Antczak
The principal aims of this study were to explore genetic diversity and genome-wide selection signatures in Persian Arabian horses and to determine genetic relationship of Persian Arabians with other Iranian horse breeds. We evaluated 71 horses from 8 matrilineal strains tracing to 47 mares from the mid to late 19th century, using the equine 670k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BeadChip. Mean observed and expected heterozygosity were (0.43) and (0.45), respectively, average inbreeding measures (inbreeding estimates based on runs of homozygosity and pedigree information) were low, indicating high genetic diversity in Persian Arabian horses...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Piotr Lukasik, Rebecca A Chong, Katherine Nazario, Yu Matsuura, DeAnna Bublitz, Matthew A Campbell, Mariah Meyer, James T Van Leuven, Pablo Pessacq, Claudio Veloso, Chris Simon, John P McCutcheon
Mitochondrial genomes can provide valuable information on the biology and evolutionary histories of their host organisms. Here we present and characterize the complete coding regions of 107 mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadoidea), representing 31 genera, 61 species and 83 populations. We show that all cicada mitogenomes retain the organization and gene contents thought to be ancestral in insects, with some variability among cicada clades in the length of a region between the genes nad2 and cox1, which encodes three tRNAs...
December 22, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Judit Vörös, Sylvain Ursenbacher, Dušan Jelic
We provide a comparative population genetic study of the elusive amphibian, Proteus anguinus, by comparing the genetic diversity and divergence among four cave populations (96 individuals) sampled in the Dinaric Karst of Croatia. We developed 10 variable microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing and applied them to the four selected populations belonging to four different cave systems. The results showed strong genetic differentiation between the four caves corroborating with previous findings suggesting that Proteus might comprises several unrecognized taxa...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Philip W Hedrick
The organisms of the Galapagos Islands played a central role in the development of the theory of evolution by Charles Darwin. Examination of the population genetics factors of many of these organisms with modern molecular methods have expanded our understanding of their evolution. Here I provide a perspective on how selection, gene flow, genetic drift, mutation, and inbreeding have contributed to the evolution of six of the iconic Galapagos species; flightless cormorant, pink iguana, marine iguana, Galapagos hawk, giant tortoises, and Darwin's finches...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Juan Francisco Ornelas, José Manuel García, Andrés E Ortiz-Rodriguez, Yuyini Licona-Vera, Etelvina Gándara, Francisco Molina-Freaner, Antonio A Vásquez-Aguilar
The host-dependence of mistletoes suggests that they track the distributions of their hosts. However, the factors that determine the geographic distribution of mistletoes are not well understood. In this study, the phylogeography of Psittacanthus sonorae was reconstructed by sequencing one nuclear (ITS) and two plastid (trnL-F and atpB-rbcL) regions of 148 plants from populations separated by the Sea of Cortez. Divergence time and gene flow were estimated to gain insight into the historical demography and geographic structuring of genetic variation...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Carl E Hjelmen, Margaret A Garrett, V Renee Holmes, Melissa Mynes, Elizabeth Piron, J Spencer Johnston
Genome sizes are known to vary between closely related species, but the patterns behind this variation have yet to be fully understood. While this variation has been evaluated between species and within sexes, unknown is the extent to which this variation is driven by differentiation in sex-chromosomes. In order to address this longstanding question, we examine the mode and tempo of genome size evolution for a total of 87 species of Drosophilidae, estimating and updating male genome size values for 44 of these species...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Pablo C Guerrero, Lucas C Majure, Amelia Cornejo-Romero, Tania Hernández-Hernández
Members of the cactus family are keystone species of arid and semiarid biomes in the Americas, as they provide shelter and resources to support other members of ecosystems. Extraordinary examples are the several species of flies of the genus Drosophila that lay eggs and feed in their rotting stems, which provide a model system for studying evolutionary processes. Although there is significant progress in understanding the evolution of Drosophila species, there are gaps in our knowledge about the cactus lineages hosting them...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Risako Nishino, Sabrina Petri, Mary Ann Handel, Tetsuo Kunieda, Yasuhiro Fujiwara
Although organisms belonging to different species and subspecies sometimes produce fertile offspring, a hallmark of the speciation process is reproductive isolation, characterized by hybrid sterility (HS) due to failure in gametogenesis. In mammals, HS is usually exhibited by males, the heterogametic sex. The phenotypic manifestations of HS are complex. The most frequently observed are abnormalities in both autosomal and sex chromosome interactions that are linked to meiotic prophase arrest or post-meiotic spermiogenesis aberrations and lead to defective or absent gametes...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Rahul V Rane, David F Clarke, Stephen L Pearce, Guojie Zhang, Ary A Hoffmann, John G Oakeshott
We use annotated genomes of fourteen Drosophila species covering diverse host use phenotypes to test whether five gene families which often have detoxification functions are associated with host shifts among species. Bark, slime flux, flower and generalist necrotic fruit feeding species all have similar numbers of carboxyl/cholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase, cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes. However, species feeding on toxic Morinda citrifolia fruit and the fresh fruit feeding D...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Heredity
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