Richard C Harruff, William L Barbour, Nicole A Yarid
With the escalating overdose epidemic, many surveillance efforts have appeared. In 2018, King County Medical Examiner's Office (KCMEO) initiated a fatal overdose surveillance project aimed at expediting death certification and disseminating timely information. In this project, KCMEO investigators collected items of evidence of drug use from overdose death scenes, which were tested by five in-house methods, four using handheld devices: TruNarc Raman spectrometer, with and without the manufacture's H-Kit, Rigaku ResQ Raman spectrometer, and MX908 mass spectrometer...
April 22, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Carlos A Valdez, Derrick C Kaseman, Mark L Dreyer, Saphon Hok, Alexander K Vu
Pinacolyl alcohol (PA), a key forensic marker for the nerve agent Soman (GD), is a particularly difficult analyte to detect by various analytical methods. In this work, we have explored the reaction between PA and 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) to yield pinacolyl 1H-imidazole-1-carboxylate (PIC), a product that can be conveniently detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Regarding its GC-MS profile, this new carbamate derivative of PA possesses favorable chromatographic features such as a sharp peak and a longer retention time (RT = 16...
April 22, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Graeme Horsman
Ground truth data (GTD) is used by those in the field of digital forensics (DF) for a variety of purposes including to evaluate the functionality of undocumented, new, or emerging technology and services and the digital traces left behind following their usage. Most accepted and reliable trace interpretations must be derived from an examination of relevant GTD, yet despite the importance of it to the DF community, there is little formal guidance available for supporting those who create it, to do so in a way that ensures any data is of good quality, reliable, and therefore usable...
April 21, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Maddie Keldson, Eugene Liscio
The ability to determine bullet trajectories after a shooting incident can allow investigators to reconstruct the locations of individuals and the sequence of events that took place. By using trajectory rods, investigators can be provided with an immediate visual estimate as to what the path of the projectile may have been. In certain instances, the use of the probing method with trajectory rods is not appropriate due to their being a single, thin target material, or no secondary bullet impact site. In these cases, other methods such as the lead-in or the ellipse method may be useful...
April 17, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Lauren C Coaker, Ashley B Batastini, Riley M Davis, Michael E Lester
Forensic clinicians are often called upon to help courts determine the likelihood that someone will continue to commit sexually violent acts in the future. The utility of these evaluations depends largely on how effectively the results are communicated to and understood by the trier of fact. Actuarial results, such as those commonly reported in sexual offense risk assessments, appear particularly challenging for laypersons to understand. Using a representative sample of 206 U.S. adults, this study examines three methods of communicating actuarial risk via simulated expert testimony on participants' ratings of a hypothetical evaluee's risk of sexual re-offending...
April 11, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Morgan J Ferrell, John J Schultz, Donovan M Adams
In forensic anthropology, osteological sex estimation methods are continuously reevaluated and updated to improve classification accuracies. Therefore, to gain a comprehensive understanding of recent trends in sex estimation research in forensic anthropology, a content analysis of articles published between 2000 and 2022 in Forensic Science International, the Journal of Forensic Sciences, the International Journal of Legal Medicine, the American Journal of Biological Anthropology, and Forensic Anthropology, was performed...
April 10, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Richard Sivulič, Martin Janík, Petr Hejna, Ivan Kocan, Ľubomír Straka
Power hammers are mechanised forging devices that constitute a pivotal part of steel manufacturing. Power hammer-associated injuries are a rare occurrence. We report a noteworthy case of a 52-year-old man who sustained a high-energy penetrating injury while working with a power (counterblow) hammer. The man used a sizable disc-shaped metallic object to dislodge the forging wedged in the machine by applying the force of the striking ram on it. On impact, the object ejected and struck the man in the right lateral portion of the chest...
April 4, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Sandhya, Abhishek Kashyap
Videos are considered as most trustworthy means of communication in the present digital era. The advancement in multimedia technology has made video content sharing and manipulation very easy. Hence, the video authenticity is a challenging task for the research community. Video forensics refer to uncovering the forgery traces. The detection of spatiotemporal object-removal forgery in surveillance videos is crucial for judicial forensics, as the presence of objects in the video has significant information as legal evidence...
April 4, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Ning He, Hongxia Hao
The impact of contextual bias has been demonstrated repeatedly across forensic domains; however, research on this topic in forensic toxicology is very limited. In our previous study, experimental data from only one context version were compared with the actual forensic biasing casework. As a follow-up, this controlled experiment with 159 forensic toxicology practitioners was conducted, to test whether knowledge of different contextual information influenced their forensic decision-making. Participants in different context groups were tasked to identify testing strategies for carbon monoxide and opiate drugs...
April 3, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Pascale Basilicata, Mariagrazia Marisei, Rossella Guadagni, Michelina Sibilio, Massimo Niola, Maria Pieri
Pediatric population represents the most vulnerable and at risk for unintentional poisoning, with children younger than 6 years old accounting for nearly half of poison exposures. Poisoning is a time-dependent emergency. The need to reach a scientific agreement on diagnostic protocol and treatment seems to be crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality. Starting from a buprenorphine pediatric intoxication case, this article highlights the limits and pitfalls of the traditional diagnostic approach. Diagnosis of drug intoxication was achieved after several days when an in-depth diagnostic investigation became necessary and complete forensic toxicological analyses were performed...
April 1, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Rachel Longjohn, Padhraic Smyth
We investigate likelihood ratio models motivated by digital forensics problems involving time-stamped user-generated event data from a device or account. Of specific interest are scenarios where the data may have been generated by a single individual (the device/account owner) or by two different individuals (the device/account owner and someone else), such as instances in which an account was hacked or a device was stolen before being associated with a crime. Existing likelihood ratio methods in this context require that a precise time is specified at which the device or account is purported to have changed hands (the changepoint)-this is the known changepoint likelihood ratio model...
April 1, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Jonathan Hogg, Amber C W Vandepoele, Nori Zaccheo, Janine Schulte, Iris Schulz, Jeremy Dubois, Morgan Frank, Michael A Marciano
DNA mixture deconvolution in the forensic DNA community has been addressed in a variety of ways. "Front-end" methods that separate the cellular components of mixtures can provide a significant benefit over computational methods as there is no need to rely on models with inherent uncertainty to generate conclusions. Historically, cell separation methods have been investigated but have been largely ineffective due to high cost, unreliability, and the lack of proper instrumentation. However, the last decade has given rise to more innovative technology that can target and recover cells more effectively...
March 29, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Cris Hughes, An-Di Yim, Chelsey Juarez
Recent research observed 92% accuracy for age-at-death estimations by U.S. forensic anthropologists. The present study compares this case report level accuracy to method level accuracy for the most commonly used methods in U.S. casework, drawing from the Forensic Anthropology Database for Assessing Methods Accuracy (FADAMA). Method application rate (i.e., how often a method is used in casework) was analyzed for n = 641 cases and identified 15 methods with an application rate >45 cases, and the present study focused further analyses on these 15 methods...
March 26, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Emily Cropper, Paige Riley, Alison G Simon
There are many factors that may affect the longevity of or guide the use of canine training aids. Literature to date has mainly focused on identifying the headspace volatiles associated with training aids or odors and only minimal research exists into how different variables may alter those volatiles. The current study examines several factors affecting canine training aids: humidity, air flow, transportation, and operational deployment, using the triacetone triperoxide polymer odor capture-and-release canine training aid (TATP POCR) as the target...
March 26, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Bryan T Johnson
Postmortem fingerprinting is the fastest and most reliable way to scientifically identify unknown decedents from mass fatality incidents. In disaster victim identification (DVI), fingerprints, DNA, and dental examinations are the three primary methods of identification. Additional secondary identifiers such as comparative medical radiography, scars, marks, and tattoos can also be used if viable antemortem information can be located. As DNA technology continues to evolve, RAPID DNA may now identify a profile within 90 min if the remains are not degraded or comingled...
March 26, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Clebson de Jesus Macrino, Nayara A Dos Santos, Nathália Dos S Conceição, Clara S D Baptista, Alvaro Cunha Neto, Wanderson Romão
The area of forensic chemistry has been growing and developing as a line of research due to the high demands of public safety that require increasingly reliable results due to their importance in criminalistics. In this way, the development of new technologies that help this area, whether in the identification and quantification of drugs or the fight against fraud, becomes promising. In this context, the present work explored the production of reference standards from the purification of cocaine/crack samples seized by the Civil Police of the State of Espírito Santo...
March 22, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Alan Wayne Jones
This technical note reviews the plethora of concentration units used to report blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) and breath-alcohol concentrations (BrAC) for legal purposes in different countries. The choice of units sometimes causes confusion when scientific papers originating from a certain country might be introduced into evidence via expert testimony, such as when alcohol-related crimes are prosecuted. The concentration units are also important to consider when blood/breath ratios (BBRs) of alcohol are calculated and compared between countries...
March 22, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Sang-Yoon Lee, Hwa-Seon Lim, Ho-Yong Yie, Ki-Jong Rhee, Sung-Min Kim, Young-Il Seo
In bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA), a field of forensic science, there has been active discussion on the estimation of the area of origin of impact spatter. However, there is no established methodology to quantitatively analyze the area of origin of a swing cast-off pattern. To quantitatively analyze the methodology of previous research on estimation of area of origin, a device for generating uniform swing cast-off patterns was produced. Using artificial blood, 10 swing cast-off patterns were generated on porous paper; in each, 10 blood drops were selected for the calculation of the impact angle...
March 20, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Megan M Foley, Gerwald Koehler, Jun Fu, Robert Allen, Jarrad R Wagner
As massively parallel sequencing is implemented in forensic genetics, an understanding of sequence data must accompany these advancements, that is, accurate modeling of data for proper statistical analysis. Allelic drop-out, a common stochastic effect seen in genetic data, is often modeled in statistical analysis of STR results. This proof-of-concept study sequenced several serial dilutions of a standard sample ranging from 4 ng to 7.82 pg to evaluate allelic drop-out trends on a select panel of autosomal STRs using the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit, Primer Set A on the Illumina MiSeq FGx...
March 20, 2024: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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