journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38642585/the-emerging-role-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-binge-eating
#1
REVIEW
Katherine N Balantekin, Martin J Kretz, Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase
Binge eating is a central component of two clinical eating disorders, binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa, but the large treatment gap highlights the need to identify other strategies to decrease binge eating. Novel pharmacotherapies may be one such approach. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an intestinal and brain-derived neuroendocrine signal with a critical role in promoting glycemic control through its incretin effect. Additionally, the energy balance effects of GLP-1 are well-established; activation of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) reduces food intake and body weight...
April 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38642584/an-adipocentric-perspective-of-pancreatic-lipotoxicity-in-diabetes-pathogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Renata Risi, Antonio J Vidal-Puig, Guillaume Bidault
Obesity and diabetes represent two increasing and invalidating public health issues that often coexist. It is acknowledged that fat mass excess predisposes to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), with the increasing incidence of the two diseases significantly associated. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that obesity might also accelerate the appearance of type 1 diabetes (T1D), which is now a relatively frequent comorbidity in patients with obesity. It is a common clinical finding that not all patients with obesity will develop diabetes at the same level of adiposity, with gender, genetic, and ethnic factors playing an important role in defining the timing of diabetes appearance...
April 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38614123/lipid-regulation-of-the-glucagon-receptor-family
#3
REVIEW
Affiong Ika Oqua, Yusman Manchanda, Emma Rose McGlone, Ben Jones, Sarah Rouse, Alejandra Tomas
The glucagon receptor family are typical class B1 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with important roles in metabolism, including the control of pancreas, brain, and liver function. As proteins with 7 transmembrane domains, GPCRs are intimately in contact with lipid bilayers and therefore can be putatively regulated by interactions with their lipidic components, including cholesterol, sphingolipids, and other lipid species. Additionally, these receptors, as well as the agonists they bind to, can undergo lipid modifications, which can influence their binding capacity and/or elicit modified or biased signalling profiles...
April 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38593833/consistent-and-effective-method-to-define-the-mouse-estrous-cycle-stage-by-deep-learning-based-model
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Leena Strauss, Arttu Junnila, Anni Wärri, Maria Manti, Yiwen Jiang, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Marie K Lagerquist, Krisztina Kukoricza, Taija Heinosalo, Sami Blom, Matti Poutanen
The mouse estrous cycle is divided into four stages: proestrus (P), estrus (E), metestrus (M) and diestrus (D). The estrous cycle affects reproductive hormone levels in a wide variety of tissues. Therefore, to obtain reliable results from female mice, it is important to know the estrous cycle stage during sampling. The stage can be analyzed from a vaginal smear under a microscope. However, it is time-consuming, and the results vary between evaluators. Here, we present an accurate and reproducible method for staging the mouse estrous cycle in digital whole slide images (WSIs) of vaginal smears...
April 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38593829/urocortin3-contributes-to-paracrine-inhibition-of-islet-alpha-cells-in-mice
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Glyn M Noguchi, Vincent C Castillo, Cynthia J Donaldson, Marcus R Flisher, Ariana T Momen, Alan Saghatelian, Mark O Huising
Pancreatic alpha cell activity and glucagon secretion lowers as glucose levels increase. While part of the decrease is regulated by glucose itself, paracrine signaling by their neighboring beta and delta cells also plays an important role. Somatostatin from delta cells is an important local inhibitor of alpha cells at high glucose. Additionally, Urocortin3 (UCN3) is a hormone that is co-released from beta cells with insulin and acts locally to potentiate somatostatin secretion from delta cells. UCN3 thus inhibits insulin secretion via a negative feedback loop with delta cells, but its role with respect to alpha cells and glucagon secretion is not understood...
April 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38579817/glyphosate-based-herbicide-worsens-alterations-induced-by-cafeteria-diet-on-rat-uterus
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
María Victoria Zanardi, María Paula Gastiazoro, María F Rossetti, Florencia Doná, Gisela Paola Lazzarino, Oliver Zierau, Jorgelina Varayoud, Milena Durando
Exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) and consumption of cafeteria (CAF) diet, which are widespread in Western society, seem to be associated with endometrial hyperplasia (EH). Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of a subchronic low dose of a GBH added to CAF diet on the rat uterus. Female Wistar rats were fed from postnatal day (PND)21 until PND240 with chow (Control) or CAF diet. Since PND140, rats also received GBH (2 mg of glyphosate/kg/day) or water through food, yielding four experimental groups: Control, CAF, GBH and CAF+GBH...
April 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38579777/the-interplay-of-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-in-adipose-tissue
#7
REVIEW
Samrin Kagdi, Sulayman Lyons, Jacqueline L Beaudry
Adipose tissue was once known as a reservoir for energy storage but is now considered a crucial organ for hormone and energy flux with important effects on health and disease. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone secreted from the small intestinal K-cells, responsible for augmenting insulin release, and has gained attention for its independent and amicable effects with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), another incretin hormone secreted from the small intestinal L-cells. The GIP receptor (GIPR) is found in whole adipose tissue, whereas the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is not, and some studies suggest that GIPR action lowers body weight and plays a role in lipolysis, glucose/lipid uptake/disposal, adipose tissue blood flow, lipid oxidation, and free-fatty acid (FFA) re-esterification that may or may not be influenced by other hormones such as insulin...
April 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38579776/androgens-and-immune-cell-function
#8
REVIEW
Rebecca J Ainslie, Ioannis Simitsidellis, Phoebe M Kirkwood, Douglas A Gibson
Androgens can modulate immune cell function and may contribute to differences in the prevalence and severity of common inflammatory conditions. Although most immune cells are androgen targets, our understanding of how changes in androgen bioavailability can affect immune responses is incomplete. Androgens alter immune cell composition, phenotype and activation by modulating expression and secretion of inflammatory mediators or by altering development and maturation of immune cell precursors. Androgens are generally associated with having suppressive effects on the immune system but their impacts are cell and tissue context dependent and can be highly nuanced even within immune cell subsets...
April 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38579764/fsh-bone-belly-and-brain
#9
REVIEW
Se-Min Kim, Farthath Sultana, Steven Sims, Judit Gimenez-Roig, Victoria Laurencin, Anusha Pallapati, Satish Rojekar, Vitaly Ryu, Daria Lizneva, Funda Korkmaz, Tony Yuen, Mone Zaidi
The pituitary gland, often called the "master gland", orchestrates multiple effector hormonal organs and other glands by secreting various tropic hormones, which play a significant role in a myriad of physiological processes including skeletal modeling and remodeling, fat and glucose metabolism, and cognitive and psychological processes. The findings of the expression of receptors for each pituitary hormone and the hormone itself in skeleton, fat and immune cells suggested that their role is much broader than the traditional or classic role...
April 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38579751/glucagon-resistance-and-metabolic-associated-steatotic-liver-disease-a-review-of-the-evidence
#10
REVIEW
Emma Rose McGlone, Steve R Bloom, Tricia Mei-Mei Tan
Metabolic-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) is closely associated with obesity. MASLD affects over one billion adults globally but there are few treatment options available. Glucagon is a key metabolic regulator, and its actions include the reduction of liver fat through direct and indirect means. Chronic glucagon signalling deficiency is associated with hyperaminoacidaemia, hyperglucagonaemia, and increased circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21)...
April 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38552310/insulin-induces-bioenergetic-changes-and-alters-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-podocytes
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Irena Audzeyenka, Patrycja Rachubik, Dorota Rogacka, Moin A Saleem, Agnieszka Piwkowska
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most frequent complications of diabetes. Early stages of DN are associated with hyperinsulinemia and progressive insulin resistance in insulin-sensitive cells, including podocytes. The diabetic environment induces pathological changes, especially in podocyte bioenergetics, which is tightly linked with mitochondrial dynamics. The regulatory role of insulin in mitochondrial morphology in podocytes has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to investigate effects of insulin on the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics in human podocytes...
March 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38513357/female-rats-present-higher-oxidative-damage-and-inflammation-during-goitrogenesis
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Caroline C Faria, Leonardo Matta Pereira, Luiz Gabriel Portilho Moreira, Kathelinie Celestino Faustino, Milena Simões Peixoto, Ariclécio Cunha de Oliveira, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, Denise Pires Carvalho, Rodrigo Soares Fortunato
Thyroid disorders affect more women than men, but the underlying mechanisms contributing to this disparity remain incompletely understood. Thyrotropin (TSH), the primary regulator of thyroid oxidative hormonogenesis, has been implicated as a risk factor for proliferative thyroid diseases and a predictor of malignancy. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of sustained elevated TSH levels on thyroid redox homeostasis, inflammatory markers, and DNA damage response in both male and female rats. Rats were treated with methimazole for 7 or 21 days, and hormonal measurements were conducted...
March 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38513352/loss-of-klf15-impairs-endometrial-receptivity-by-inhibiting-emt-in-endometriosis
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Yaxiong Huang, Zihan Wang, Bin Li, Lina Ke, Yao Xiong, Yuanzhen Zhang
The impaired endometrial receptivity is a major factor contributing to infertility in patients with endometriosis (EM), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the role of Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) in endometrial receptivity and its regulation in EM. We observed a significant decrease in KLF15 expression in the mid-secretory epithelial endometrial cells of EM patients compared to normal females without EM. To confirm the role of KLF15 in endometrial receptivity, we found a significantly reduced KLF15 expression and a significant decrease of embryo implantations number in the rat model via uterine horn infection with siRNA...
March 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38492310/litsea-glutinosa-extract-promotes-fracture-healing-and-prevents-bone-loss-via-bmp2-smad1-signaling
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sonu Khanka, Charul Somani, Kriti Sharma, Shivani Sharma, Akhilesh Kumar, Sanjeev K Kanojiya, Naibedya Chattopadhyay, Dinesh Kumar Yadav, Divya Singh
Estrogen deficiency is one of the main causes for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Current osteoporotic therapies are of high cost and associated with serious side effects. So there is an urgent need for cost effective anti-osteoporotic agents. Anti-osteoporotic activity of Litsea glutinosa extract (LGE) is less explored. Moreover, its role in fracture healing and mechanism of action is still unknown. In the present study we explore the osteoprotective potential of LGE in osteoblast cells and fractured and ovariectomized (Ovx) mice models...
March 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38470178/specific-cellular-microenvironments-for-spatiotemporal-regulation-of-star-and-steroid-synthesis
#15
REVIEW
Ana Fernanda Castillo, Cecilia Poderoso, Paula Mariana Maloberti, Fabiana Cornejo Maciel, María Mercedes Mori Sequeiros Garcia, Ulises Daniel Orlando, Pablo Mele, Yanina Benzo, Melina Andrea Dattilo, Jesica Prada, Luciano Quevedo, Matías Belluno, Cristina Paz, Ernesto Jorge Podesta
For many years, research in the field of steroid synthesis has aimed to understand the regulation of the rate-limiting step of steroid synthesis, i.e., the transport of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane, and identify the protein involved in the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone. The extraordinary work by B Clark, J Wells, S R King, and D M Stocco eventually identified this protein and named it steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). The group's finding was also one of the milestones in understanding the mechanism of non-vesicular lipid transport between organelles...
March 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38451877/the-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-skeletal-health-and-disease-insights-from-targeted-knockout-mice
#16
REVIEW
Eugenie Macfarlane, Hong Zhou, Markus J Seibel
Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones, secreted by the adrenals to regulate a range of metabolic, immunologic, and homeostatic functions. Due to their potent anti-inflammatory effects, synthetic glucocorticoids are widely used to treat inflammatory disorders. However, their use especially at high doses and over the long-term is associated with several unwanted side effects that compromises their intended use (e.g., glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and/or diabetes, myopathy, and skin atrophy). Both endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids exert their effects through the glucocorticoid receptor, a transcription factor present in nearly all nucleated cells...
March 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38451873/the-glp-1r-as-a-model-for-understanding-and-exploiting-biased-agonism-in-next-generation-medicines
#17
REVIEW
Jonathan D Douros, Jacek Mokrosinski, Brian Finan
The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) emerged as a pharmacologic target in cardiometabolic disease including diabetes and obesity over 30 years ago. The subsequent widespread clinical use of GLP-1R agonists including exenatide, liraglutide, and semaglutide has made the GLP-1R a preeminent model for understanding basic GPCR biology including the emergent field of biased agonism. Recent data demonstrate that the dual GLP-1R/glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) agonist tirzepatide exhibits a biased signaling profile characterized by preferential Gαs activation over β-arrestin recruitment, which appears to contribute to its insulinotropic and body-weight reducing effects in preclinical models...
March 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38329368/sodium-iodide-symporter-and-its-related-solute-carriers-in-thyroid-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Zhongqin Gong, Minghui Wei, Alexander C Vlantis, Jason Yk Chan, C Andrew van Hasselt, Dongcai Li, Xianhai Zeng, Lingbin Xue, Michael C F Tong, George G Chen
The solute carrier (SLC) family is a large group of membrane transport proteins. Their dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer. The most well-known SLC is the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), also known as sodium/iodide co-transporter or solute carrier family 5 member 5 (SLC5A5) in thyroid cancer. The dysregulation of NIS in thyroid cancer is well documented. The role of NIS in the uptake of iodide is critical in the treatment of thyroid cancer, radioactive iodide (RAI) therapy in particular...
February 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38305305/osteocalcin-protects-islet-identity-in-ldl-receptor-knockout-mice-on-high-fat-diet
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Christine A Beamish, Yoon K Lee, A Osama Gaber, Priyanka Chanana, Edward A Graviss, Malgorzata Kloc, M Waleed Gaber, Willa A Hsueh, Omaima M Sabek
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an increasing global health threat and strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). MetS causes both hyperinsulinemia and islet size overexpansion, and pancreatic beta (β)-cell failure impacts insulin and proinsulin secretion, mitochondrial density, and cellular identity loss. The low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr-/-) model combined with high fat diet (HFD) has been used to study alterations in multiple organs, but little is known about changes to β-cell identity resulting from MetS...
February 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38334309/rising-stars-bumps-and-bacteria-influence-of-the-maternal-microbiota-on-pregnancy-outcomes
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Thomas Willmott, Elizabeth C Cottrell
During pregnancy, all major physiological systems undergo remarkable changes, driven largely by alterations in the maternal hormonal milieu. In healthy pregnancies, maternal cardiovascular and metabolic adaptation to pregnancy occurs to support fetal growth and maternal well-being. Impaired maternal adaptation to pregnancy is associated with a range of pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. There is growing recognition of the importance of different maternal microbiota, including in the gut, vagina and oral cavity, in supporting normal maternal adaptations to pregnancy as well as evidence for microbial disturbances associating with pregnancy pathologies...
May 1, 2024: Journal of Endocrinology
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