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Joe Cain
This paper tells the history of this famous joke in science: Gerolf Steiner's invention of the Rhinogradentia using the pseudonym Harald Stümpke. It follows this story from this joke's creation in the 1940s, to the relabelling of Rhinogradentia as "snouters" in the 1960s, to later use as an inside joke within zoology and taxonomy. Steiner's original monograph for these imaginary creatures followed standard conventions in taxonomy and did not disclose its fictitious nature. It was a tall tale for specialists to cherish...
January 1, 2019: Endeavour
João Lourenço Monteiro
A lost zoological collection was found in an old school in Lisbon, Portugal. Taxidermied animals, fauna preserved in glass jars, skeletons, and fossilized shells were all part of this collection. The research showed that those animals were used by libertarian teachers in science classes in a school created by republicans and freemasons in the transition from the 19th to the 20th century.
September 28, 2018: Endeavour
Eunsoo Lee
The printed Elements in the sixteenth century presented more practical and functional diagrams than those of previous manuscripts. Whereas conventional diagrams were limited to implementing the description of the text, the new diagrams introduced more concise constructions and visual auxiliaries. This change toward more practical and functional diagrams reflects the increased emphasis on the pedagogical value of the diagram. As is evident from the compass arcs upon the diagram, readers of the Elements were invited to draw their own diagrams, deviating from tradition and also from the text...
September 7, 2018: Endeavour
Karine Chemla
In a specific tradition of dealing with algebraic equations in China, eleventh to thirteenth century writings on the topic combine problems, algorithms, and diagrams of several types. This article focuses on the geometrical diagrams that some of them contain. The argument holds that the captions in these diagrams establish a specific connection with the algorithms in relation to which they are given. Accordingly, I claim that these diagrams constitute the proof of the correctness of the algorithms. Reading the diagrams as assertions is thus in my view essential to capture what is at stake in them...
August 31, 2018: Endeavour
Jessica Carter
I consider the role of diagrams in contemporary mathematics. More specifically the role of certain diagrams-so-called directed graphs-will be investigated. I propose that these graphs act as mediating objects. This means that they link certain objects, that is, a C*-algebra and its associated K-groups, and that this link yields an epistemic gain. I explain that the link is possible because a graph represents as a metaphor in two distinct ways. In addition, the diagrammatic presentation of a directed graph becomes an object that can be manipulated...
August 31, 2018: Endeavour
M Norton Wise
The "Carnot Diagram," so prevalent in conveying the Second Law of Thermodynamics, had a prehistory in the indicator diagrams used by some practical engineers to diagnose the ailments of steam engines and to improve their operation. These diagnoses can be understood in narrative terms, analogous to the case reports of physicians. A different narrative understanding can be extended to the series of theoretical works on the maximum power obtainable from heat engines by mathematical engineers and physicists: Sadi Carnot, Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron, Rudolf Clausius, and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin)...
August 23, 2018: Endeavour
Greg Priest, Silvia De Toffoli, Paula Findlen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2018: Endeavour
Valeria Giardino
The objective of this article is to take into account the functioning of representational cognitive tools, and in particular of notations and visualizations in mathematics. In order to explain their functioning, formulas in algebra and logic and diagrams in topology will be presented as case studies and the notion of manipulative imagination as proposed in previous work will be discussed. To better characterize the analysis, the notions of material anchor and representational affordance will be introduced.
August 18, 2018: Endeavour
Paula Findlen
In 1670 the Sicilian painter Agostino Scilla (1629-1700) devised an entirely new way of depicting fossils when he wrote and illustrated his Vain Speculation Undeceived by Sense (1670-1671), which argued that fossils were the remains of once living creatures and not mimetic stones. This essay explores the nature of Scilla's graphic innovations, comparing his fossils drawings and Pietro Santi Bartoli's engravings of them to earlier and contemporary images of fossils. Scilla captured the effect of time on nature by infusing his style of drawing with his philosophical understanding of what it means to see and to know...
August 15, 2018: Endeavour
Greg Priest
From his earliest student days through the writing of his last book, Charles Darwin drew diagrams. In developing his evolutionary ideas, his preferred form of diagram was the tree. An examination of several of Darwin's trees-from sketches in a private notebook from the late 1830s through the diagram published in the Origin-opens a window onto the role of diagramming in Darwin's scientific practice. In his diagrams, Darwin simultaneously represented both observable patterns in nature and conjectural narratives of evolutionary history...
August 10, 2018: Endeavour
J P Daly
John Pringle Nichol (1804-1859), a Scottish Romantic astronomer, educator, and social reformer, used visual representations to develop and communicate key elements of his theory of evolution as a universal principle. Examining four of the diverse representations that appeared in Nichol's popular science books between 1846 and 1850 reveals the rich possibilities of evolutionary imagery prior to the emergence of more dominant forms of representation in the wake of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859)...
August 6, 2018: Endeavour
Edward J Gillin
Between 1834 and 1860 the British government mobilised the latest scientific knowledge in the construction of the new Palace of Westminster, home to the nation's Houses of Parliament. Built in a Gothic style, this legislative building embodied the latest experimental techniques and expertise from geology, mathematics, engineering, chemistry, and optics. By exploring the narrative of this architectural project, it becomes clear just how central scientific values were to Victorian politics. At the same time, this article shows how the experience of constructing Britain's nineteenth-century parliament building has implications and lessons for parliamentary architecture today...
August 3, 2018: Endeavour
Logan D A Williams
The global network to eradicate blindness emerged out of the work of Western and South Asian professionals to eradicate smallpox which was endemic in South Asia. The history of the emergence of the global network to eradicate blindness demonstrates a shift from vertical command and control public health programs directed by the WHO, to the decentralized public health services originating in non-profit, non-governmental organizations and coordinated by the WHO. The WHO constitution started with a federal regionalist structure that encouraged collaboration and coordination with NGOs...
March 2018: Endeavour
Jiuchen Zhang, Feklova T Yu
In the 1950s, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) engaged in close cooperation with the Soviet Academy of Sciences. The CAS sent scientists to the Soviet Academy to work as interns, study for advanced degrees, or engage in academic cooperation, and a large number of Soviet scientists were invited by the various institutes of the CAS to come to China to give lectures, direct research, help make scientific plans, and collaborate. The comprehensive cooperation between the two academies was launched at a time when the CAS institutes were in their embryonic stage, which suggests that the better-established Soviet scientists had the opportunity to play a dominate role...
March 2018: Endeavour
Diarmid A Finnegan
In November 1843 John Cassidy, curator in the Belfast Museum received, perhaps rather dolefully, a collection of bird skins. The Museum was barely managing to cope with the constant flow of donations from the 'four quarters of the globe'. But the gift of bird skins could not be ignored. Sent by Captain Francis Crozier, recently returned from the British Antarctic Expedition, the bequest contained 150 species of Southern Ocean birds, including the remains of two immature 'great penguins'. Taking the one surviving specimen as a focal point, this paper compares and contrasts the ways in which Aptenodytes forsteri, or the emperor penguin, was differently scripted on board ship and in the museum...
March 2018: Endeavour
Jennifer Crane
Contemporary policy debates construct public involvement in England's National Health Service as "new," or as a practice dating back only as far as the 1990s. This article argues that the longer historical contexts of such consultative practice matter, and it explores various and shifting manifestations of "consultation" in the NHS from the foundation of the Service in 1948. In doing so, it first demonstrates that consultation has always been a part of the theory and practice of postwar health policy...
March 2018: Endeavour
Annika A Culver
In postwar Tokyo, ornithologist Oliver L. Austin's leadership of the Wildlife Branch of the Natural Resources Section (NRS) for the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) serves as an intriguing lens into the reconstruction of Japanese conservation activities. His experiences as a scientist working on wildlife policies in US-occupied Korea (1945-1946) and Japan (1946-1949) illuminate the war's impact on individuals and their environment. Austin collaborated closely with elite Japanese colleagues, despite their ruined laboratories, burnt collections, inadequate shelter, and despair...
December 2017: Endeavour
Gilbert Shama
In the spring of 1944 Sister Marie Immaculate was awarded a Master of Science degree for research on penicillin which she had conducted at St John's University in Brooklyn, New York. She gave her motivation for undertaking research in this topic as wishing to fulfil her patriotic duty by participating in the quest towards making penicillin more readily available to all who needed it. It is possible that contemporary media reports suggesting that the power of penicillin was comparable to a miracle cure contributed to her interest in the subject at the time...
December 2017: Endeavour
Daniel Volmar
Mr. Robot is a television drama with an unusually techno-cynical premise, tying cybersecurity to the contemporary malaise of social alienation and political disengagement. Weary of consumer capitalism, the show's youthful protagonists seek a more authentic sense of belonging by exploiting the vulnerability of a global economic system that depends critically on creaking technological infrastructures. A remarkable display of iconoclasm for commercial entertainment, Mr. Robot suggests rising discontentment with the commodification of friendship through consumer electronics, but it may also offer media enterprises a model for how to profit from that discontentment in the future...
December 2017: Endeavour
Seán M Stewart
Small drops of liquid brought into contact with very hot surfaces float above it as beautiful, slightly flattened spheroids without coming to the boil. An example of film boiling, drops that are sessile can often suddenly and quite unexpectedly start to oscillate forming highly symmetric patterns of surprising pulchritude. The rim of these oscillating drops take on "star-shaped" patterns with many different modes of vibration possible. Still an object of study today, their discovery, early accounts, rediscovery and ensuing controversies over claims of priority, before quietly slipping away from the collective memory of the scientific community to become all but forgotten makes for a compelling story in the early history of film boiling...
December 2017: Endeavour
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