Ruhul H Choudhury, Ian Daniels, Poonam Vaghela, Suha Atabani, Thomas Kirk, Peter Symonds, Katherine W Cook, Abdullah Al-Omari, Daisy Weston, Sabaria Shah, David Hutchinson, Samantha J Paston, Rachael L Metheringham, Victoria A Brentville, Lindy G Durrant
Citrullination and homocitrullination are stress induced post-translational modifications (siPTMs) which can be recognized by T cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from healthy donors and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were stimulated with nine siPTM-peptides. CD45RA/CD45RO depletion was employed to determine if peptide-specific responses are naïve or memory. Human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DP4 and HLA-DR4 transgenic mice were immunized with siPTM-peptides and immune responses were determined with ex vivo ELISpot assays...
April 13, 2023: Immunology
Feng Tang, Dan-Wen Wang, Chen Xi, Jin-Zhou Yang, Zhen-Yuan Liu, Dong-Hu Yu, Ze-Fen Wang, Zhi-Qiang Li
Adult gliomas are divided into isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type and IDH mutant subtypes according to the new 2021 World Health Organization classification system. However, the local and systemic effects of IDH mutations on primary glioma patients are not well illustrated. Retrospective analysis, immune-cell infiltration analysis, meta-analysis, and immunohistochemistry assay were applied in the present study. The results from our cohort showed that IDH mutant gliomas own a lower proliferating rate compared to that in wild-type gliomas...
April 13, 2023: Immunology
James Monkman, Honesty Kim, Aaron Mayer, Ahmed Mehdi, Nicholas Matigian, Marie Cumberbatch, Milan Bhagat, Rahul Ladwa, Scott N Mueller, Mark N Adams, Ken O'Byrne, Arutha Kulasinghe
The composition and activation status of the cellular milieu contained within the tumour microenvironment (TME) is becoming increasingly recognized as a driving factor for immunotherapy response. Here, we employed multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC), and digital spatial profiling (DSP) to capture the targeted immune proteome and transcriptome of tumour and TME compartments from an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-treated (n = 41) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient cohort. We demonstrate by mIHC that the interaction of CD68+ macrophages with PD1+ , FoxP3+ cells is enriched in ICI refractory tumours (p = 0...
April 6, 2023: Immunology
Greg M Delgoffe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2023: Immunology
Dan Yang, Yi'na Li, Ting Liu, Ling Yang, Lixiu He, Tingxuan Huang, Lanlan Zhang, Jian Luo, Chuntao Liu
IL-17A-producing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) have been found to participate in the development of various phenotypes of asthma, however, little is known about how ILC3s mediate neutrophilic airway inflammation. Elevated IL-1β has been reported in neutrophilic asthma (NA) and IL-1β receptor is highly expressed on lung ILC3s. Therefore, we hypothesize that IL-1β aggravates neutrophilic airway inflammation via provoking IL-17A-producing ILC3s. We sought to determine the pathological roles of the IL-1β-ILC3-IL-17A axis in neutrophilic airway inflammation...
March 29, 2023: Immunology
Wei Shi, Zhenzhen Tong, Shuang Chen, Qianqian Qiu, Jiaqi Zhou, Hai Qian
Vaccines based on tumour-specific antigens are a promising approach for immunotherapy. However, the clinical efficacy of tumour-specific antigens is still challenging. Twelve conjugates with self-assembly properties were designed and synthesized using MAGE-A1 peptide and TLR2 agonist, combined with different covalent bonds. All the developed conjugates formed spherical nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 150 nm, and enhanced the efficacy of the peptide vaccines with the better targeting of lymph nodes...
March 22, 2023: Immunology
Xuechen Yin, Lingfeng He, Zhigang Guo
Tumour immunotherapy has achieved good therapeutic effects in clinical practice and has received increased attention. Cytotoxic T cells undoubtedly play an important role in tumour immunotherapy. As a revolutionary tumour immunotherapy approach, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T-cell) therapy has made breakthroughs in the treatment of haematological cancers. However, T cells are easily exhausted in vivo, especially after they enter solid tumours. The exhaustion of T cells can lead to poor results of CAR-T-cell therapy in the treatment of solid tumours...
March 20, 2023: Immunology
Tingting Wang, Wei Qiao, Yang Xie, Jingchang Ma, Wei Hu, Lu Yang, Xuemei Li, Chujun Duan, Shuwen Wu, Yuling Wang, Kun Cheng, Yuan Zhang, Ran Zhuang
Intestinal mucosal immunity plays a pivotal role in host defence. In this study, we found that cluster of differentiation 226 (CD226) gene knockout (KO) led to more severe atopic dermatitis (AD)-related skin pathologies and bowel abnormalities in a 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like mouse model. Following DNCB administration, the expression of CD226 was elevated in intestinal mucosal tissues, including group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) and CD4+ T cells of Peyer's patches (PPs). CD226 deficiency led to an overactive intestinal immune response in the AD-like mice, as evidenced by increased inflammation and Th1/Th2-related cytokine levels as well as increased Paneth cell numbers and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) expression, which was likely due to the higher interleukin (IL)-22 production in the lamina propria...
March 20, 2023: Immunology
Qin Zhang, Yanrong Zhu, Changjun Lv, Yulai Fang, Minhui Liao, Yufeng Xia, Zhifeng Wei, Yue Dai
Several aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists have been reported to promote the generation of regulatory T cells (Treg cells), and the action mechanisms need to be identified. In this study, we addressed the underlying mechanism of AhR activation to induce the generation of Treg cells in the view of cellular metabolism. Naïve CD4+ T cells were purified with mouse CD4+ CD62L+ T Cells Isolation Kits. The proportions of Treg cells were detected by flow cytometry. The value of oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of CD4+ T cells was detected by the Seahorse XFe 96 analyzer...
March 17, 2023: Immunology
Anton S Smirnov, Anastasia V Rudik, Dmitry A Filimonov, Alexey A Lagunin
The search for the relationships between CDR3 TCR sequences and epitopes or MHC types is a challenging task in modern immunology. We propose a new approach to develop the classification models of structure-activity relationships (SAR) using molecular fragment descriptors MNA (Multilevel Neighbourhoods of Atoms) to represent CDR3 TCR sequences and the naïve Bayes classifier algorithm. We have created the freely available TCR-Pred web application ( to predict the interactions between α chain CDR3 TCR sequences and 116 epitopes or 25 MHC types, as well as the interactions between β chain CDR3 TCR sequences and 202 epitopes or 28 MHC types...
March 16, 2023: Immunology
Ron Nudel, Rosa Lundbye Allesøe, Thomas Werge, Wesley K Thompson, Simon Rasmussen, Michael E Benros
Autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases (AIIDs) involve a deficit in an individual's immune system function, whereby the immune reaction is directed against self-antigens. Many AIIDs have a strong genetic component, but they can also be triggered by environmental factors. AIIDs often have a highly negative impact on the individual's physical and mental wellbeing. Understanding the genetic underpinning of AIIDs is thus crucial both for diagnosis and for identifying individuals at high risk of an AIID and mental illness as a result thereof...
April 2023: Immunology
Anna Kula, Edyta Makuch, Marta Lisowska, Patryk Reniewicz, Tomasz Lipiński, Jakub Siednienko
Viral infection activates the innate immune system, which recognizes viral components by a variety of pattern recognition receptors and initiates signalling cascades leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. To date, signalling cascades triggered after virus recognition are not fully characterized and are investigated by many research groups. The critical role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Pellino3 in antibacterial and antiviral response is now widely accepted, but the precise mechanism remains elusive...
March 2, 2023: Immunology
Yin Yao, Yiyin Hu, Fei Wang
Despite the clinical success of monoclonal and bispecific antibodies, there are still limitations in the therapeutic effect of malignant tumours, such as low response rate, treatment resistance, and so on, inspiring the exploration of trispecific antibodies (TsAbs). TsAbs further improve the safety and efficacy and has great clinical potential through three targets combination and formats optimization. This article reviews the development history and the target combination features of TsAbs. Although there are still great challenges in the clinical application of TsAbs, it is undeniable that TsAbs may be a breakthrough in the development of antibody drugs...
March 1, 2023: Immunology
Xuan Luo, Xunyao Wu, Anqi Wang, Yingying Chen, Yu Peng, Chuiwen Deng, Lidan Zhao, Huaxia Yang, Jiaxin Zhou, Linyi Peng, Qingjun Wu, Mengtao Li, Yan Zhao, Xiaofeng Zeng, Wen Zhang, Yunyun Fei
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by B cell hyperactivation and hypergrammaglobulinemia. Currently, the role of metabolic pathways in the B cells of pSS patients is poorly defined. Here, we showed that upon cytosine phosphate-guanine (CpG)/sCD40L/IL-4 stimulation, B cells proportionally increased glycolysis and oxygen consumption, and compared with B cells from healthy controls (HCs), B cells from pSS patients exhibited higher glycolysis capacity and maximal oxidative respiration (OXPHOS)...
March 2023: Immunology
Laura Otto Walter, Chandra Chiappin Cardoso, Íris Mattos Santos-Pirath, Heloisa Zorzi Costa, Rafaela Gartner, Isabel Werle, Eduarda Talita Bramorski Mohr, Julia Salvan da Rosa, Tainá Larissa Lubschinski, Mariano Felisberto, Iara Fabricia Kretzer, Ivete Ioshiko Masukawa, Patrícia de Almeida Vanny, Magali Chaves Luiz, Ana Carolina Rabello de Moraes, Eduardo Monguilhott Dalmarco, Maria Claudia Santos-Silva
BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a respiratory tract infection caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. An adequate T-cell response is essential not only for fighting disease but also for creation of immune memory. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the T cells of patients with moderate, severe, and critical COVID-19 not only at the time of illness but also two months after diagnosis to observe whether changes in this compartment persist. METHODS: In this study, 166 COVID-19 patients were stratified into moderate/severe and critical disease categories...
February 28, 2023: Immunology
Daniel Sharygin, Leonidas G Koniaris, Clark Wells, Teresa A Zimmers, Tewfik Hamidi
The cell surface antigen CD14 is primarily understood to act as a co-receptor for toll-like receptors (TLRs) to activate innate immunity responses to pathogens and tissue injury in macrophages and monocytes. However, roles for CD14 are increasingly being uncovered in disease responses in epithelial and endothelial cells. Consistent with these broader functions, CD14 expression is altered in a variety of non-immune cell types in response to a several of disease states. Moreover, soluble CD14 activated by factors from both pathogens and tissue damage may initiate signaling in a variety of non-immune cells...
February 25, 2023: Immunology
Ling Qi, Li Wang, Mengru Jin, Mingxia Jiang, Lisha Li, Yanjing Li
Cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (caspase)-6 belongs to the caspase family and plays a vital role in mediating cell death. Under certain conditions, three pathways of programmed cell death (PCD), including apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis (PANoptosis), transform one way into another, with enormous therapeutic potential. Initially, scholars reported that caspase-6 is a caspase executor that mediates apoptosis. With the ceaseless exploration of the PCD types, studies have demonstrated that caspase-6 mediates pyroptosis by regulating gasdermin D and mediates necroptosis by regulating mixed lineage kinase domain-like...
February 22, 2023: Immunology
Kai Fu Jhuang, Man Lun Hsu, Yu-Chia Chen, Jan-Growth Chang, Moncef Zouali
B lymphocytes can engage in either a rapid T cell-independent pathway (TI) or a delayed long-lasting T cell-independent (TD) response through highly ordered transcriptional programs, yet the detailed underlying mechanisms are unclear. Since DNA methylation plays a key role in controlling gene expression and lineage specification, we explored the dynamics of whole-genome cytosine modifications during the ex vivo response of human B cells isolated from normal individuals by negative selection. We found that B cell differentiation following TI and TD signaling is accompanied by extensive remodeling of the epigenome, including global gain and loss of DNA methylation...
February 10, 2023: Immunology
Carlos A Fuzo, Thais F C Fraga-Silva, Sandra R Maruyama, Víctor A F Bastos, Luana A Rogerio, Nayore T Takamiya, Pedro V da Silva-Neto, Vinícius E Pimentel, Diana M Toro, Malena M Pérez, Jonatan C S de Carvalho, Ingryd Carmona-Garcia, Camilla N S Oliveira, Augusto M Degiovani, Fátima M Ostini, Leticia F Constant, Alessandro P de Amorim, Fernando C Vilar, Marley R Feitosa, Rogerio S Parra, José J R da Rocha, Omar Feres, Gilberto G Gaspar, Angelina L Viana, Ana P M Fernandes, Isabel K F M Santos, Elisa M S Russo, Cristina R B Cardoso, Carlos A Sorgi, Lúcia H Faccioli, Vânia L D Bonato, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi
COVID-19 has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations associated with the host immune response heterogeneity. Despite the advances in COVID-19 research, it is still crucial to seek a panel of molecular markers that enable accurate stratification of COVID-19 patients. Here, we performed a study that combined analysis of blood transcriptome, demographic data, clinical aspects, and laboratory findings from sixty-six participants classified into different degrees of COVID-19 severity and healthy subjects. We identified a perturbation in blood-leukocyte transcriptional profile associated with COVID-19 aggravation, which was mainly related to processes that disfavored lymphocyte activation and favored neutrophil activation...
February 5, 2023: Immunology
Sushmita Chakraborty, Jakob Schneider, Dipendra Kumar Mitra, Katharina F Kubatzky
Interleukin (IL)-9 is an emerging player in the pathogenesis of various chronic inflammatory diseases including bone disorders like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis. Recently, IL-9 was shown to enhance the osteoclast formation and their function in RA. However, the mechanisms by which IL-9 influences osteoclastogenesis are not known. Therefore, in this study we aimed to unravel the direct and indirect ways by which IL-9 can influence osteoclast formation. We used mouse bone marrow precursor cells for checking the effect of IL-9 on osteoclast differentiation and its function...
February 2, 2023: Immunology
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