Runfeng Shi, Meixin He, Yongzheng Peng, Xu Xia
Interleukin-41 (IL-41) is a newly discovered cytokine, named Cometin, Subfatin, meteorin-like transcription (Metrnl), and so forth. It is widely expressed in animals and can exert its biological roles through autocrine and paracrine forms. It has functions such as anti-inflammatory, improving body metabolism, regulating immunity, regulating fat metabolism and participates in the process of autoimmune disease or inflammatory injury. It plays an important role in psoriasis, diabetes, Crohn's disease (CD), osteoarthritis, Kawasaki disease (KD), Graves' disease, autoimmune hepatitis, infertility, obesity, sepsis, cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases...
April 9, 2024: Immunology
Ismail Sebina, Sylvia Ngo, Ridwan B Rashid, Mariah Alorro, Patricia Namubiru, Daniel Howard, Tufael Ahmed, Simon Phipps
Lifestyle factors like poor maternal diet or antibiotic exposure disrupt early life microbiome assembly in infants, increasing the risk of severe lower respiratory infections (sLRI). Our prior studies in mice indicated that a maternal low-fibre diet (LFD) exacerbates LRI severity in infants by impairing recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and consequently attenuating expansion of lung regulatory T (Treg) cells during pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) infection. Here, we investigated whether maternal dietary fibre intake influences Treg cell phenotypes in the mediastinal lymph nodes (mLN) and lungs of PVM-infected neonatal mice...
April 7, 2024: Immunology
Soumyadeep Chattopadhyay, Rudradeep Hazra, Arijit Mallick, Sakuntala Gayen, Souvik Roy
Ferroptosis, a necrotic, iron-dependent controlled cell death mechanism, is distinguished by the development of lipid peroxides to fatal proportions. Malignant tumours, influenced by iron to promote fast development, are vulnerable to ferroptosis. Based upon mounting evidence it has been observed that ferroptosis may be immunogenic and hence may complement immunotherapies. A new approach includes iron oxide-loaded nano-vaccines (IONVs), having supremacy for the traits of the tumour microenvironment (TME) to deliver specific antigens through improving the immunostimulatory capacity by molecular disintegration and reversible covalent bonds that target the tumour cells and induce ferroptosis...
April 2, 2024: Immunology
Mengting Zheng, Zhonglong Liu, Yue He
Radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is a severe chronic complication of radiotherapy (RT) manifested by excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) components deposition within the irradiated area. The lung, heart, skin, jaw, pelvic organs and so on may be affected by RIF, which hampers body functions and quality of life. There is accumulating evidence suggesting that the immune microenvironment may play a key regulatory role in RIF. This article discussed the synergetic or antagonistic effects of immune cells and mediators in regulating RIF's development...
April 1, 2024: Immunology
Yi Yun Liang, Xiao Yan Liao, Jun Jun Jia, Yi Zhen Yin, Yue Hua Zhang, Feng Guang Gao
To explore the effect of K33 only mutant ubiquitin (K33O) on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells' (BMDCs') maturity, antigen uptake capability, surface molecule expressions and BMDC-mediated CTL priming, and further investigate the role of PI3K-Akt engaged in K33O-increased BMDC maturation, antigen uptake and presentation, surface molecule expressions and BMDC-based CTL priming. BMDCs were conferred K33O and other ubiquitin mutants (K33R, K48R, K63R-mutant ubiquitin) incubation or LY294002 and wortmannin pretreatment...
March 28, 2024: Immunology
Hanxiao Sun, Jie Shu, Jupei Tang, Yue Li, Jinxin Qiu, Zhaoyun Ding, Binbin Xuan, Minghui Chen, Chenxin Gan, Jinpiao Lin, Ju Qiu, Huiming Sheng, Chuanxin Wang
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), which are drugs used for treating type 2 diabetes, have been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the mechanism of which remains elusive. Here, we report that GLP-1RAs ameliorate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in both wild-type and T/B-cell-deficient mice through modulating group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s), a subset of innate lymphoid cells that regulate intestinal immunity. GLP-1RAs promote IL-22 production by ILC3, and the protective effect of GLP-1RAs on DSS-induced colitis was abrogated in ILC3-deficient RORgtgfp/gfp mice...
March 27, 2024: Immunology
Zhi-Xiong Huang, Dian-Chao Lin, Hua-Ying Zhang, Meng-Jie Yang, Jia-Hao Chen, Xin-Yu Ding, Song-Juan Dai, Yi-Huang Hong, Gui-Shuang Liang, Qi-Yuan Li, Qiong-Hua Chen
Endometriosis is defined as an oestrogen-dependent and inflammatory gynaecological disease of which the pathogenesis remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the cellular heterogeneity and reveal the effect of CD8+ T cells on the progress of endometriosis. Three ovarian endometriosis patients were collected, and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) progressed and delineated the cellular landscape of endometriosis containing five cell clusters. The endometrial cells (EMCs) were the major component, of which the mesenchymal cells were preponderant and characterized with increased inflammation and oestrogen synthesis in endometriosis...
March 27, 2024: Immunology
Silviya Bradyanova, Iliyan Manoylov, Gabriela Boneva, Lidiya Kechidzhieva, Andrey Tchorbanov, Kalina Nikolova-Ganeva
The aetiology and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) resulted from a complex sequence of events generated both from genetic and epigenetic processes. In the current research, the effect of methyl-supplemented nutrition on the development of SLE was studied in the pristane-induced mouse model of the disease. The results clearly demonstrated decreased anti-dsDNA antibody and proteinuria levels, modulation of cytokines and protected renal structures in the group of treated mice. An additional increase in the DNA methylation of mouse B lymphocytes was also observed...
June 2024: Immunology
Sophie E Sage, Tosso Leeb, Vidhya Jagannathan, Vinzenz Gerber
Severe equine asthma (SEA) is a complex respiratory condition characterized by chronic airway inflammation. It shares many clinical and pathological features with human neutrophilic asthma, making it a valuable model for studying this condition. However, the immune mechanisms driving SEA have remained elusive. Although SEA has been primarily associated with a Th2 response, there have also been reports of Th1, Th17, or mixed-mediated responses. To uncover the elusive immune mechanisms driving SEA, we performed single-cell mRNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) on cryopreserved bronchoalveolar cells from 11 Warmblood horses, 5 controls and 6 with SEA...
April 2024: Immunology
Lingli Cai, Anqi Chen, Dong Tang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a frequent gastrointestinal malignancy with high rates of morbidity and mortality; 85% of these tumours are proficient mismatch repair (pMMR)-microsatellite instability-low (MSI-L)/microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC known as 'cold' tumours that are resistant to immunosuppressive drugs. Monotherapy with programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors is ineffective for treating MSS CRC, making immunotherapy for MSS CRC a bottleneck. Recent studies have found that the multi-pathway regimens combined with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors can enhance the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in MSS CRC by increasing the number of CD8+ T cells, upregulating PD-L1 expression and improving the tumour microenvironment...
March 22, 2024: Immunology
Ane Calvo-Apalategi, Marta López Nevado, Luz Yadira Bravo-Gallego, Luis Ignacio González-Granado, Luis M Allende, Rebeca Rodríguez Pena, Eduardo López-Granados, Hugh T Reyburn
Analysis of genetically defined immunodeficient patients allows study of the effect of the absence of specific proteins on human immune function in real-world conditions. Here we have addressed the importance of type I interferon signalling for human NK cell development by studying the phenotype and function of circulating NK cells isolated from patients suffering primary immunodeficiency disease due to mutation of either the human interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) or the signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) genes...
March 21, 2024: Immunology
Ushashi Banerjee, Salik Miskat Borbora, Madhura Guha, Vikas Yadav, V Sanjay, Amit Singh, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji, Nagasuma Chandra
Treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is faced with several challenges including the long treatment duration, drug toxicity and tissue pathology. Host-directed therapy provides promising avenues to find compounds for adjunctively assisting antimycobacterials in the TB treatment regimen, by promoting pathogen eradication or limiting tissue destruction. Eicosanoids are a class of lipid molecules that are potent mediators of inflammation and have been implicated in aspects of the host response against TB. Here, we have explored the blood transcriptome of pulmonary TB patients to understand the activity of leukotriene B4, a pro-inflammatory eicosanoid...
March 19, 2024: Immunology
Eric Edward Irons, Sajina Gc, Joseph T Y Lau
Sialic acid is a unique sugar moiety that resides in the distal and most accessible position of the glycans on mammalian cell surface and extracellular glycoproteins and glycolipids. The potential for sialic acid to obscure underlying structures has long been postulated, but the means by which such structural changes directly affect biological processes continues to be elucidated. Here, we appraise the growing body of literature detailing the importance of sialic acid for the generation, differentiation, function and death of haematopoietic cells...
March 19, 2024: Immunology
Chen Liu, Xingyue Zeng, Ziqi Xiong, Ayibaota Bahabayi, Ainizati Hasimu, Tianci Liu, Mohan Zheng, Liwei Ren, Xiayidan Alimu, Songsong Lu
Although the roles of E proteins and inhibitors of DNA-binding (Id) in T follicular helper (TFH) and T follicular regulatory (TFR) cells have been previously reported, direct models demonstrating the impact of multiple E protein members have been lacking. To suppress all E proteins including E2A, HEB and E2-2, we overexpressed Id1 in CD4 cells using a CD4-Id1 mouse model, to observe any changes in TFH and TFR cell differentiation. Our objective was to gain better understanding of the roles that E proteins and Id molecules play in the differentiation of TFH and TFR cells...
March 19, 2024: Immunology
Raunak Kar, Somdeb Chattopadhyay, Anjali Sharma, Kirti Sharma, Shreya Sinha, Gopalakrishnan Aneeshkumar Arimbasseri, Veena S Patil
Latent human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection can pose a serious threat of reactivation and disease occurrence in immune-compromised individuals. Although T cells are at the core of the protective immune response to hCMV infection, a detailed characterization of different T cell subsets involved in hCMV immunity is lacking. Here, in an unbiased manner, we characterized over 8000 hCMV-reactive peripheral memory T cells isolated from seropositive human donors, at a single-cell resolution by analysing their single-cell transcriptomes paired with the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoires...
March 19, 2024: Immunology
Xiaoxuan Li, Huiyan Wang, Wujiang Lai, Jinrong Liao, Wenyu Mo, Keke Huang, Liqing He, Xiaomei Liang, Zhibin Yu, Jiang Xu, Xianwu Hua, Fujun Hou, Jun Ding, William Wei-Guo Jia, Kuan Zhang, Yifeng Wang
Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with multiple malignancies. Developing therapeutic vaccines to eliminate HPV-infected and malignant cells holds significant value. In this study, we introduced a lipid nanoparticle encapsulated mRNA vaccine expressing tHA-mE7-mE6. Mutations were introduced into E6 and E7 of HPV to eliminate their tumourigenicity. A truncated influenza haemagglutinin protein (tHA), which binds to the CD209 receptor on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs), was fused with mE7-mE6 in order to allow efficient uptake of antigen by antigen presenting cells...
March 12, 2024: Immunology
Fengqi Nie, Yuli Chen, Yanming Hu, Peng Huang, Xuefei Shi, Jingsheng Cai, Mantang Qiu, Enxiu Wang, Kaihua Lu, Ming Sun
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), recognized as the most aggressive subtype of lung cancer, presents an extremely poor prognosis. Currently, patients with small cell lung cancer face a significant dearth of effective alternative treatment options once they experience recurrence and progression after first-line therapy. Despite the promising efficacy of immunotherapy, particularly immune checkpoint inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and various other tumours, its impact on significantly enhancing the prognosis of SCLC patients remains elusive...
March 12, 2024: Immunology
Alma Hodzic, Bernd Gesslbauer, Valery Bochkov, Olga V Oskolkova
Inflammation is initiated and driven by a mixture of mediators, which modify effects of each other. This study analysed in vitro pro-inflammatory activity of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-1β) in a combination with a lipid DAMP molecule, oxidized palmitoyl-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine (OxPAPC). The study was performed on endothelial and monocytic cell lines. The cells were treated with different concentrations of TNFα or IL-1β, OxPAPC and their combinations, either in the presence or absence of drugs regulating inflammation...
March 11, 2024: Immunology
Tiandan Xiang, Xufeng Quan, Hang Jia, Hua Wang, Boyun Liang, Sumeng Li, Xiaoyan Wang, Huadong Li, Xuemei Feng, Lei Fan, Ling Xu, Tong Wang, Shue Xiong, Dongliang Yang, Jia Liu, Xin Zheng
This study longitudinally evaluated the immune response in individuals over a year after receiving three doses of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, focusing on reactions to Omicron breakthrough infections. From 63 blood samples of 37 subjects, results showed that the third booster enhanced the antibody response against Alpha, Beta, and Delta VOCs but was less effective against Omicron. Although antibody titres decreased post-vaccination, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses, both CD4+ and CD8+ , remained stable...
March 10, 2024: Immunology
Yan Wang, Guang Xu, Jincai Wen, Xiaomei Zhao, Huanying Zhao, Guiji Lv, Yingjie Xu, Ye Xiu, Junjie Li, Simin Chen, Qing Yao, Yuanyuan Chen, Lina Ma, Xiaohe Xiao, Junling Cao, Zhaofang Bai
Hyperactivation of the cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signalling pathway has been shown to be associated with the development of a variety of inflammatory diseases, and the discovery of an inhibitor of the cGAS-STING signalling pathway holds great promise in the therapeutic interventions. Epimedium flavonoid (EF), a major active ingredient isolated from the medicinal plant Epimedium, has been reported to have good anti-inflammatory activity, but its exact mechanism of action remains unclear...
March 7, 2024: Immunology
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