Wei Shi, Zhenzhen Tong, Shuang Chen, Qianqian Qiu, Jiaqi Zhou, Hai Qian
Vaccines based on tumour-specific antigens are a promising approach for immunotherapy. However, the clinical efficacy of tumour-specific antigens is still challenging. Twelve conjugates with self-assembly properties were designed and synthesized using MAGE-A1 peptide and TLR2 agonist, combined with different covalent bonds. All the developed conjugates formed spherical nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 150 nm, and enhanced the efficacy of the peptide vaccines with the better targeting of lymph nodes...
March 22, 2023: Immunology
Xuechen Yin, Lingfeng He, Zhigang Guo
Tumour immunotherapy has achieved good therapeutic effects in clinical practice and has received increased attention. Cytotoxic T cells undoubtedly play an important role in tumour immunotherapy. As a revolutionary tumour immunotherapy approach, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T-cell) therapy has made breakthroughs in the treatment of haematological cancers. However, T cells are easily exhausted in vivo, especially after they enter solid tumours. The exhaustion of T cells can lead to poor results of CAR-T-cell therapy in the treatment of solid tumours...
March 20, 2023: Immunology
Tingting Wang, Wei Qiao, Yang Xie, Jingchang Ma, Wei Hu, Lu Yang, Xuemei Li, Chujun Duan, Shuwen Wu, Yuling Wang, Kun Cheng, Yuan Zhang, Ran Zhuang
Intestinal mucosal immunity plays a pivotal role in host defence. In this study, we found that cluster of differentiation 226 (CD226) gene knockout (KO) led to more severe atopic dermatitis (AD)-related skin pathologies and bowel abnormalities in a 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like mouse model. Following DNCB administration, the expression of CD226 was elevated in intestinal mucosal tissues, including group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) and CD4+ T cells of Peyer's patches (PPs). CD226 deficiency led to an overactive intestinal immune response in the AD-like mice, as evidenced by increased inflammation and Th1/Th2-related cytokine levels as well as increased Paneth cell numbers and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) expression, which was likely due to the higher interleukin (IL)-22 production in the lamina propria...
March 20, 2023: Immunology
Qin Zhang, Yanrong Zhu, Changjun Lv, Yulai Fang, Minhui Liao, Yufeng Xia, Zhifeng Wei, Yue Dai
Several aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists have been reported to promote the generation of regulatory T cells (Treg cells), and the action mechanisms need to be identified. In this study, we addressed the underlying mechanism of AhR activation to induce the generation of Treg cells in the view of cellular metabolism. Naïve CD4+ T cells were purified with mouse CD4+ CD62L+ T Cells Isolation Kits. The proportions of Treg cells were detected by flow cytometry. The value of oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of CD4+ T cells was detected by the Seahorse XFe 96 analyzer...
March 17, 2023: Immunology
Anton S Smirnov, Anastasia V Rudik, Dmitry A Filimonov, Alexey A Lagunin
The search for the relationships between CDR3 TCR sequences and epitopes or MHC types is a challenging task in modern immunology. We propose a new approach to develop the classification models of structure-activity relationships (SAR) using molecular fragment descriptors MNA (Multilevel Neighbourhoods of Atoms) to represent CDR3 TCR sequences and the naïve Bayes classifier algorithm. We have created the freely available TCR-Pred web application ( to predict the interactions between α chain CDR3 TCR sequences and 116 epitopes or 25 MHC types, as well as the interactions between β chain CDR3 TCR sequences and 202 epitopes or 28 MHC types...
March 16, 2023: Immunology
Anna Kula, Edyta Makuch, Marta Lisowska, Patryk Reniewicz, Tomasz Lipiński, Jakub Siednienko
Viral infection activates the innate immune system, which recognizes viral components by a variety of pattern recognition receptors and initiates signaling cascades leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. To date, signaling cascades triggered after virus recognition are not fully characterized and are investigated by many research groups. The critical role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Pellino3 in antibacterial and antiviral response is now widely accepted, but the precise mechanism remains elusive...
March 2, 2023: Immunology
Yin Yao, Yiyin Hu, Fei Wang
Despite the clinical success of monoclonal and bispecific antibodies, there are still limitations in the therapeutic effect of malignant tumours, such as low response rate, treatment resistance, and so on, inspiring the exploration of trispecific antibodies (TsAbs). TsAbs further improve the safety and efficacy and has great clinical potential through three targets combination and formats optimization. This article reviews the development history and the target combination features of TsAbs. Although there are still great challenges in the clinical application of TsAbs, it is undeniable that TsAbs may be a breakthrough in the development of antibody drugs...
March 1, 2023: Immunology
Laura Otto Walter, Chandra Chiappin Cardoso, Íris Mattos Santos-Pirath, Heloisa Zorzi Costa, Rafaela Gartner, Isabel Werle, Eduarda Talita Bramorski Mohr, Julia Salvan da Rosa, Tainá Larissa Lubschinski, Mariano Felisberto, Iara Fabricia Kretzer, Ivete Ioshiko Masukawa, Patrícia de Almeida Vanny, Magali Chaves Luiz, Ana Carolina Rabello de Moraes, Eduardo Monguilhott Dalmarco, Maria Claudia Santos-Silva
BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a respiratory tract infection caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. An adequate T-cell response is essential not only for fighting disease but also for creation of immune memory. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the T cells of patients with moderate, severe, and critical COVID-19 not only at the time of illness but also two months after diagnosis to observe whether changes in this compartment persist. METHODS: In this study, 166 COVID-19 patients were stratified into moderate/severe and critical disease categories...
February 28, 2023: Immunology
Daniel Sharygin, Leonidas G Koniaris, Clark Wells, Teresa A Zimmers, Tewfik Hamidi
The cell surface antigen CD14 is primarily understood to act as a co-receptor for toll-like receptors (TLRs) to activate innate immunity responses to pathogens and tissue injury in macrophages and monocytes. However, roles for CD14 are increasingly being uncovered in disease responses in epithelial and endothelial cells. Consistent with these broader functions, CD14 expression is altered in a variety of non-immune cell types in response to a several of disease states. Moreover, soluble CD14 activated by factors from both pathogens and tissue damage may initiate signaling in a variety of non-immune cells...
February 25, 2023: Immunology
Ling Qi, Li Wang, Mengru Jin, Mingxia Jiang, Lisha Li, Yanjing Li
Cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (caspase)-6 belongs to the caspase family and plays a vital role in mediating cell death. Under certain conditions, three pathways of programmed cell death (PCD), including apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis (PANoptosis), transform one way into another, with enormous therapeutic potential. Initially, scholars reported that caspase-6 is a caspase executor that mediates apoptosis. With the ceaseless exploration of the PCD types, studies have demonstrated that caspase-6 mediates pyroptosis by regulating gasdermin D and mediates necroptosis by regulating mixed lineage kinase domain-like...
February 22, 2023: Immunology
Kai Fu Jhuang, Man Lun Hsu, Yu-Chia Chen, Jan-Growth Chang, Moncef Zouali
B lymphocytes can engage in either a rapid T cell-independent pathway (TI) or a delayed long-lasting T cell-independent (TD) response through highly ordered transcriptional programs, yet the detailed underlying mechanisms are unclear. Since DNA methylation plays a key role in controlling gene expression and lineage specification, we explored the dynamics of whole-genome cytosine modifications during the ex vivo response of human B cells isolated from normal individuals by negative selection. We found that B cell differentiation following TI and TD signaling is accompanied by extensive remodeling of the epigenome, including global gain and loss of DNA methylation...
February 10, 2023: Immunology
Carlos A Fuzo, Thais F C Fraga-Silva, Sandra R Maruyama, Víctor A F Bastos, Luana A Rogerio, Nayore T Takamiya, Pedro V da Silva-Neto, Vinícius E Pimentel, Diana M Toro, Malena M Pérez, Jonatan C S de Carvalho, Ingryd Carmona-Garcia, Camilla N S Oliveira, Augusto M Degiovani, Fátima M Ostini, Leticia F Constant, Alessandro P de Amorim, Fernando C Vilar, Marley R Feitosa, Rogerio S Parra, José J R da Rocha, Omar Feres, Gilberto G Gaspar, Angelina L Viana, Ana P M Fernandes, Isabel K F M Santos, Elisa M S Russo, Cristina R B Cardoso, Carlos A Sorgi, Lúcia H Faccioli, Vânia L D Bonato, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi
COVID-19 has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations associated with the host immune response heterogeneity. Despite the advances in COVID-19 research, it is still crucial to seek a panel of molecular markers that enable accurate stratification of COVID-19 patients. Here, we performed a study that combined analysis of blood transcriptome, demographic data, clinical aspects, and laboratory findings from sixty-six participants classified into different degrees of COVID-19 severity and healthy subjects. We identified a perturbation in blood-leukocyte transcriptional profile associated with COVID-19 aggravation, which was mainly related to processes that disfavored lymphocyte activation and favored neutrophil activation...
February 5, 2023: Immunology
Sushmita Chakraborty, Jakob Schneider, Dipendra Kumar Mitra, Katharina F Kubatzky
Interleukin (IL)-9 is an emerging player in the pathogenesis of various chronic inflammatory diseases including bone disorders like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis. Recently, IL-9 was shown to enhance the osteoclast formation and their function in RA. However, the mechanisms by which IL-9 influences osteoclastogenesis are not known. Therefore, in this study we aimed to unravel the direct and indirect ways by which IL-9 can influence osteoclast formation. We used mouse bone marrow precursor cells for checking the effect of IL-9 on osteoclast differentiation and its function...
February 2, 2023: Immunology
Wenbing Zhu, Jun Li, Zhongxiang Wu, Hui Li, Zhixiao Zhang, Xiaoyong Zhu, Ming Sun, Shaozhong Dong
The reported EVA71 vaccines and immunoglobin G (IgG) antibodies have no cross-antiviral efficacy against other enterovirus A(EV-A) which caused hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Here we constructed an IgM antibody (20-IgM) based on our previous discovery to address the resistance encountered by IgG-based immunotherapy. Although binding to the same conserved neutralizing epitope within the GH loop of EV-As VP1, the antiviral breath and potency of 20-IgM are still higher than its parental 20-IgG1. 20-IgM blocks the interaction between the EV-As and its receptors, scavenger receptor class B, member 2(SCARB2) and Kringle-containing transmembrane protein 1(KREMEN1) of the host cell...
February 1, 2023: Immunology
Lih-Chyang Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Hsin-An Lin, Wu-Chien Chien, Kuen-Jou Tsai, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Jui-Yang Wang, Chien-Chou Chen, Nan-Shih Liao, Chieh-Tien Shih, Yi-Ying Lin, Chi-Ning Huang, David M Ojcius, Kuo-Yang Huang, Hsin-Chung Lin
The NLRP3 inflammasome plays a crucial role in innate immunity and is involved in the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases. Glycolysis regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. However, how lactic acid fermentation and pyruvate oxidation controlled by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) affect NLRP3 inflammasome activation and autoinflammatory disease remains elusive. We found that inactivation of MPC with genetic depletion or pharmacological inhibitors, MSDC-0160 or pioglitazone, increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion in macrophages...
January 28, 2023: Immunology
Ananda D Lopes, Nayane A L Galdino, Amanda B Figueiredo, Rafael C Brianese, Katia L P Morais, Marina De Brot, Cynthia A B T Osório, Andrea Teixeira-Carvalho, Vinicius F Calsavara, Guilherme F B Evangelista, Natalia S Alves, Fabiana B Makdissi, Solange M Sanches, Vladmir C Cordeiro de Lima, Dirce M Carraro, Kenneth J Gollob
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive form of breast cancer. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has proven efficacy in its treatment, and a pathological complete response (pCR) to therapy is predictive of improved long-term survival. The immune response is key to successful neoadjuvant chemotherapy, as indicated by the relation between the percentage of stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in pre-treated tumor tissue samples and the likelihood of achieving pCR. Here we studied systemic immune mediators from volunteer TNBC patients before undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy to determine the systemic response association with TIL intensity, treatment response and survival...
January 26, 2023: Immunology
Xiao Li, Xinyuan Sun, Zhongyi Yan, Zhenxiang Zhao, Zhaojun Pang, Han Yang, Xiaoxin Ji, Yi Lei, Zixiang Zhu, Xiangqian Guo, Xin Mu
The pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) sense exogenous molecular patterns most commonly derived from invading pathogens, to active the interferon (IFN) signaling. In the cytoplasm, the viral double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) are sensed by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) or melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), depending on the length and chemical properties. Through the binding and oligomerizing onto the RNAs, they form filament to initiate the signaling cascade. Regulation of these receptors' activities are essential for manipulating the strength of IFN signaling...
January 22, 2023: Immunology
Janardan P Pandey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2023: Immunology
Lin Chen, Siyuan Liu, Dickson Adah, Qingyang Sun, Zhaoduan Liang, Mitchell Ho, Beicheng Sun
Although the pre-clinical study of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-natural killer (NK) cell was effective against various tumours, immunosuppression mediated by tumour microenvironment hampers their application and several efforts have been explored to improve their effect in combating solid tumours. Glypican 3 (GPC3) is a promising target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and CAR-T cells targeting GPC3 have been tested in clinical trials. Based on an affinity-enhanced antibody (hYP7) targeting GPC3, we constructed GPC3-CAR-NK cells to explore their potential function in the treatment of HCC...
January 14, 2023: Immunology
Sri Wulandari, Hartono, Tri Wibawa
Hyperinflammation characterized by elevated proinflammatory cytokines known as "cytokine storms" is the major cause of high severity and mortality seen in COVID-19 patients. The pathology behind the cytokine storms is currently unknown. Increased HMGB1 levels in serum/plasma of COVID-19 patients were reported by many studies, which positively correlated with the level of proinflammatory cytokines. Dead cells following SARS-CoV-2 infection might release a large amount of HMGB1 and RNA of SARS-CoV-2 into extracellular space...
December 26, 2022: Immunology
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