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Experimental Cell Research

Zheng Wu, Ji-Long Liu
CTP synthase (CTPsyn) is a metabolic enzyme essential for the de novo synthesis of CTP the nucleotide. CTPsyn can be compartmented into filamentous structures named cytoophidia. Cytoophidia are conserved in a wide range of species and are highly abundant in Drosophila ovaries. Here we report that cytoophidia elongate upon nutrient deprivation, CTPsyn overexpression or heat shock in Drosophila ovaries. We also show that the curvature of cytoophidia changes during apoptosis. Moreover, cytoophidia can be transported from nurse cells to the oocyte via ring canals...
February 12, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Elena Kassianidou, Joanna Kalita, Roderick Y H Lim
Cells integrate mechanical and biochemical signals via a process called mechanotransduction to generate essential gene expression patterns in space and time. This is vital for cell migration and proliferation as well as tissue morphogenesis and remodeling. While the force-sensing and force-transducing mechanisms are generally known, it remains unclear how mechanoresponsive transcription factors (TFs) are selectively translocated into the nucleus upon force-activation. Such TFs include Yes-Associated Protein (YAP), Myocardin Related Transcription Factor (MRTF), Hypoxia Induced Factors (HIF) and others...
February 12, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Ping Chen, Weiwu Zhan, Bin Wang, Peidong You, Qing Jin, Diyu Hou, Xiaoting Wang, Ruolan You, Hong Zou, Yuanzhong Chen, Huifang Huang
Relapse of minimal residual disease (MRD) is a major problem after conventional chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The bone marrow stroma can protect AML cells from insults of chemotherapy, partly contributing to AML relapse. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is the main component of arsenical traditional Chinese medicines and has been widely used for the treatment of hematologic malignancies particularly acute promyelocytic leukemia over the past three decades. ATO acts through a direct arsenic binding to cysteine residues in zinc fingers located in promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), thus killing the leukemia stem cells (LSCs)...
February 11, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Wang Zhang, Yuntao Zhang, Yuxian He, Xiying Wang, Qiang Fang
Macrophages are dynamic cells whose phenotypes and functions are regulated by surrounding inflammatory mediators after pathogenic infection. Imbalanced polarization of classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages is closely associated with infection-related complications and their severity. The pathway of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (Tim-3) / galectin-9 (Gal-9) plays an important role in infection by regulating macrophage function. However, the effects of Tim-3/Gal-9 signalling on M1/M2 macrophage polarization are unclear...
February 11, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Uma Thanigai Arasu, Kai Härkönen, Arto Koistinen, Kirsi Rilla
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their interactions with recipient cells constitute a rapidly growing research area. However, due to the limitations in current methodologies, the mechanisms of these interactions are still unclear. Microscopic studies of EVs are challenging, because their typical diameter is near the resolution limit of light microscopy, and electron microscopy has restricted possibilities for protein labelling. The objective of this study was to combine these two techniques to demonstrate in detail the interactions of EVs by recipient cells...
February 11, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Mengmeng Li, Dongmei Zhang, Xin Ge, Xiangyang Zhu, Yong Zhou, Yi Zhang, Xiao Peng, Aiguo Shen
Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), a member of the alkaline-leucine zipper family, is widely expressed in various tissues, and reportedly involved in inflammatory responses to various irritates, but its role in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the expression and biological function of ATF2 in CNS inflammation. Utilizing the LPS-induced neuroinflammation model on mice, we first found ATF2 up-regulation and its co-localization with microglia in inflamed mice brain...
February 11, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Kazuya Takahashi, Eisuke Itakura, Kazunori Takano, Takeshi Endo
Ras-activated ERK pathway (Raf-MEK-ERK phosphorylation cascade) regulates a variety of cellular responses including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. DA-Raf1 (DA-Raf) is a splicing variant of A-Raf and contains the Ras-binding domain but lacks the kinase domain. Accordingly, DA-Raf antagonizes the Ras-ERK pathway in a dominant-negative manner. Here we show that DA-Raf plays essential roles in skeletal myocyte differentiation including myoblast fusion and in apoptosis, which are suppressed by the Ras-ERK pathway...
February 8, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Hongjian Guan, Nan Li, Xinyue Wang, Xinyu Shan, Zhuhu Li, Zhenhua Lin
Poly (A)-binding protein-interacting protein 1 (Paip1) was discovered as a modulator of translation initiation as a result of binding to PABP. Increasing evidence suggested that Paip1 has been implicated in several pathogenic roles. However, its clinical significance and underlying molecular mechanisms in Pancreatic cancer (PC) remain uncertain. In our present study, we found that Paip1 was over-expressed in human PC tissues. As well as poor survival, the over-expression of Paip1 was associated with lymph node (LN) metastasis of the PC samples analyzed...
February 4, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Hailong Ruan, Lin Bao, Zhengshuai Song, Keshan Wang, Qi Cao, Junwei Tong, Gong Cheng, Tianbo Xu, Xuanyu Chen, Di Liu, Hongmei Yang, Ke Chen, Xiaoping Zhang
Renal cell carcinomas are a group of most common renal malignancies whose clinical intervention is complicated by the lack of early diagnosis and reliable prognosis biomarkers, insensitive radiotherapy and chemotherapy and expensive molecular-targeted drugs. Transcriptional coactivator TAZ has been implicated in the formation and development of various malignancies. However, the biological characteristics and function of TAZ in renal cell carcinoma are still unclear. We attempted to evaluate the potential of TAZ as a promising diagnostic and prognostic molecular marker for renal cell carcinoma...
February 4, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Zhigang He, Cheng Ma, Tianyu Yu, Jian Song, Jing Leng, Xianbin Gu, Jiyu Li
Mast cells (MCs) are tissue resident effector cells that form an important part of the immune system's first-line of defence against various pathogenic challenges. They are well known for their roles in anaphylaxis and allergy; however, increasing evidence implicates MCs in a wide range of pathologies. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury elicits an inflammatory response and triggers the program of tissue damage and restoration, as well as immune regulation. MCs are uniquely distributed around microvasculature and potentially the first responders to early or specific aspects of IR pathogenesis through the release of preformed mediators of MC granule...
February 1, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Qi Cui, Jinhao Xing, Yajuan Gu, Xu Nan, Wenping Ma, Yingyu Chen, Hongshan Zhao
Glucoside xylosyltransferase2 (GXYLT2), a member of the human α-1,3-D-xylosyltransferases, functions to modify the first xylose to the O-Glucose residue on epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats of Notch receptors. It is well-established that the Notch signaling pathway plays a critical role in proper development and homeostasis. However, the regulatory role of EGF xylosylation in Notch signaling and different cell activities in human cells remains unknown. In this study, we showed that knockdown of GXYLT2 suppressed human cell proliferation and induced G1/S phase cell cycle arrest...
February 1, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Kei Yamamoto, Kohei Otomo, Tomomi Nemoto, Seiichiro Ishihara, Hisashi Haga, Akira Nagasaki, Yota Murakami, Masayuki Takahashi
Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) plays an important role in cytokinesis by constricting a contractile ring. However, it is poorly understood how NMII isoforms contribute to cytokinesis in mammalian cells. Here, we investigated the roles of the two major NMII isoforms, NMIIA and NMIIB, in cytokinesis using a WI-38 VA13 cell line (human immortalized fibroblast). In this cell line, NMIIB tended to localize to the contractile ring more than NMIIA. The expression level of NMIIA affected the localization of NMIIB. Most NMIIB accumulated at the cleavage furrow in NMIIA-knockout (KO) cells, and most NMIIA was displaced from this location in exogenous NMIIB-expressing cells, indicating that NMIIB preferentially localizes to the contractile ring...
January 31, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Xufu Wang, Jiao Li, Chenghui Lu, Guoqiang Wang, Zenghua Wang, Xinfeng Liu, Bin Liu, Guoming Wang, Qin Zhang, Qingbo Yang
Despite having favorable prognosis, patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) still suffer from reduced lifespan due to recurrences, metastasis, and dedifferentiation. Regulatory B (Breg) cells are essential to the maintenance of peripheral tolerance, but upregulated Breg response may impede the clearance of pathogens and tumor cells. Here, we found that in PBMCs, the frequency of IL-10+ circulating B cells ex vivo and following stimulation was similar between DTC patients and healthy controls. However, in resected tumor, the frequency of IL-10+ B cells was significantly elevated and was positively correlated with the frequency of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells...
January 31, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Zhiyong Sheng, Yun Xu, Fuxin Li, Shu Wang, Tieqiu Huang, Peng Lu
CSN5 is a critical subunit of the COP9 signalosome (CSN) and has been involved in various cellular processes, but little is known about the role of CSN5 in cardiac disease. In the present study, we found that the expression of CSN5 was increased in Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophic mice hearts and Ang II-treated cardiomyocytes. We also observed that overexpression of CSN5 significantly inhibited Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy, whereas CSN5 silence exhibited the opposite phenotypes. Further investigation demonstrated that CSN5 maintained the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in cardiomyocyte by enhancement of LKB1...
January 30, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Otto Väyrynen, Pirjo Åström, Pia Nyberg, Ilkka Alahuhta, Emma Pirilä, Suvi-Tuuli Vilen, Mari Aikio, Ritva Heljasvaara, Maija Risteli, Meeri Sutinen, Tuula Salo
Pro-tumorigenic activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 have been linked to many cancers, but recently the tumour-suppressing role of MMP9 has also been elucidated. The multifaceted evidence on this subject prompted us to examine the role of MMP9 in the behaviour of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) cells. We used gelatinase-specific inhibitor, CTT2, and short hairpin (sh) RNA gene silencing to study the effects of MMP9 on proliferation, motility and invasion of an aggressive OTSCC cell line, HSC-3...
January 30, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Katsuhiro Uzawa, Atsushi Kasamatsu, Tomoaki Saito, Akihiro Kita, Yuki Sawai, Yuriko Toeda, Kazuyuki Koike, Dai Nakashima, Yosuke Endo, Masashi Shiiba, Yuichi Takiguchi, Hideki Tanzawa
Cetuximab, an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor that is used widely to treat human cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), has characteristic side effects of skin rash and hypomagnesemia. However, the mechanisms of and therapeutic agents for skin rashes and hypomagnesemia are still poorly understood. Our gene expression profiling analyses showed that cetuximab activates the p38 MAPK pathways in human skin cells (human keratinocyte cell line [HaCaT]) and inhibits c-Fos-related signals in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)...
January 25, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
ShiRong Li, Bo Ren, Shi Yue, Hang Gao, JianWei Wang, Ying Xin, Bo Huang, SuChan Liao, YanPing Yang, ZhiXiang Xu, Yulin Li, Qinghua Zeng
The expression of Notch1 plays an important role in the occurrence and development of various tumors. Previous studies have shown that Notch1 plays a negative regulatory role in response to radiation-induced DNA damage responses. It also has been reported that Notch1 was highly expressed in cervical cancer. It is well known that the first-line chemotherapy drug for treating cervical cancer, cisplatin, targets double-stranded DNA and induces apoptosis in the cells. However, the tolerability of cisplatin is an issue to overcome in the treatment of cervical cancer...
January 25, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Wen-Bin Wang, Hai-Peng Li, Jing Yan, Fei Zhuang, Min Bao, Ji-Ting Liu, Ying-Xin Qi, Yue Han
Cyclic stretch regulates proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) during hypertension-induced vascular remodeling, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be studied. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been reported associated with several cellular function such as proliferation,migration and adhesion. Herein, the role of CTGF in VSMCs was investigated in response to mechanical cyclic stretch. Here we show that CTGF is up-regulated both in vivo and in vitro during hypertension. Overexpression of CTGF markedly promoted VSMC proliferation, whereas CTGF knockdown attenuated cyclic stretch-induced proliferation...
January 25, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Xiao Fang, Hua Yin, Hanqing Zhang, Fan Wu, Yin Liu, Yi Fu, Liang Zong, Duonan Yu
Aneuploidy refers to aberrancies in cellular chromosome count, which is prevalent in most human cancers. Chemotherapy is an effective cancer treatment; however, the development of drug resistance is a major concern of conventional chemotherapy. The chemotherapy agent hydroxyurea (HU) targets proliferating cells and has long been applied to treat various human cancers. It remains elusive whether aneuploidy affects the drug sensitivity of hydroxyurea. By generating an inducible aneuploidy model, we found that aneuploid colon cancer cells were resistant to HU treatment compared to euploid controls...
January 23, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Kaitlyn R Ammann, Katrina J DeCook, Maxwell Li, Marvin J Slepian
Wound closure, as a result of collective cell growth, is an essential biological response to injury. In the field of vascular biology, the response of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) to injury and substrate surface is important in therapeutic clinical treatment interventions such as angioplasty and atherectomy. Specifically, the mechanism by which cells close wounds (i.e. proliferation versus migration) in response to injury stimuli is of interest to better modulate recurrent vascular stenosis, prevent thrombus formation, occlusion, and life-threatening cardiovascular events...
January 17, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
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