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Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution

Emmanuel F A Toussaint, Seth M Bybee, Robert Erickson, Fabien L Condamine
The convergent evolution of analogous features is an evolutionary process occurring independently across the tree of life. From the evolution of echolocation, prehensile tail, viviparity or winged flight, environmental factors often drive this astonishing phenomenon. However, convergent evolution is not always conspicuous or easily identified. Giant damselflies count among the largest flying insects on Earth, and have astonishing ecologies including orb-web spider plucking and oviposition in phytotelmata. One species occurs in the Afrotropics and 18 species are found in the Neotropics...
February 8, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Miguel A Acevedo, Forrest P Dillemuth, Andrew J Flick, Matthew J Faldyn, Bret D Elderd
The virulence-transmission trade-off hypothesis proposed more than 30 years ago is the cornerstone in the study of host-parasite co-evolution. This hypothesis rests on the premise that virulence is an unavoidable and increasing cost because the parasite uses host resources to replicate. This cost associated with replication ultimately results in a deceleration in transmission rate because increasing within-host replication increases host mortality. Empirical tests of predictions of the hypothesis have found mixed support, which cast doubt about its overall generalizability...
February 8, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Salomé Bourg, Laurent Jacob, Frédéric Menu, Etienne Rajon
Recent empirical evidence suggest that trade-off relationships can evolve, challenging the classical image of their high entrenchment. For energy reliant traits, this relationship should depend on the endocrine system that regulates resource allocation. Here we model changes in this system by mutating the expression and conformation of its constitutive hormones and receptors. We show that the shape of trade-offs can indeed evolve in this model through the combined action of genetic drift and selection, such that their evolutionarily expected curvature and length depend on context...
February 8, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Michaela Kolker, Shai Meiri, Roi Holzman
The morphology of organisms reflects a balance between their evolutionary history, functional demands, and biomechanical constraints imposed by the immediate environment. In many fish species, a marked shift in the selection regime is evident when pelagic larvae, which swim and feed in the open ocean, settle in their adult benthic habitat. This shift is particularly dramatic in coral-reef fishes, where the adult habitat is immensely complex. However, whether the adult trophic ecotype affects the morphology of early life stages is unclear...
February 5, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Meredith Cenzer, Leithen K M'Gonigle
The distribution of resources in space has important consequences for the evolution of dispersal-related traits. Dispersal moderates patterns of gene flow and, consequently, the potential for local adaptation to spatially differentiated resource types. We lack both models and experiments that evaluate how dispersal evolves in landscapes with multiple resources. Here, we investigate the evolution of dispersal in landscapes that contain two resource types that differ in their spatial autocorrelations. Individuals may possess ecological traits that give them a fitness advantage on one or the other resource...
February 5, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Heath Blackmon, Joshua Justison, Itay Mayrose, Emma E Goldberg
Chromosome number is perhaps the most basic characteristic of a genome, yet generalizations that can explain the evolution of this trait across large clades have remained elusive. Using karyotype data from over 1,000 mammals, we developed and applied a phylogenetic model of chromosome evolution that links chromosome number changes with karyotype morphology. Using our model, we infer that rates of chromosome number evolution are significantly lower in species with karyotypes that consist of either all bibrachial or all monobrachial chromosomes than in species with a mix of both types of morphologies...
January 28, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Graham J Slater, Anthony R Friscia
Simpson's "early burst" model of adaptive radiation was intended to explain the early proliferation of morphological and functional variation in diversifying clades. Yet, despite much empirical testing, questions remain regarding its frequency across the tree of life. Here, we evaluate the support for an early burst model of adaptive radiation in 14 ecomorphological traits plus body mass for the extant mammalian order Carnivora and its constituent families. We find strong support for early bursts of dental evolution, suggesting a classic Simpsonian adaptive radiation along dietary resource axes...
January 28, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Milan Dolezal, Jewel Lipps
Do convergent phenotypes arise from the same evolutionary pathways, or might different pathways produce convergent morphology? Bergmann and Morinaga (2018) found different evolutionary pathways underlie morphology among six clades of lizards and snakes. Their findings provide evidence for the role of historical contingency in evolution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 25, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Thiago G Lima, Ronald S Burton, Christopher S Willett
The evolution of intrinsic postzygotic isolation can be explained by the accumulation of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities (DMI). Asymmetries in the levels of hybrid inviability and hybrid sterility are commonly observed between reciprocal crosses, a pattern that can result from the involvement of uniparentally inherited factors. The mitochondrial genome is one such factor that appears to participate in DMI in some crosses but the frequency of its involvement versus biparentally inherited factors is unclear...
January 24, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Catalina Pimiento, Juan L Cantalapiedra, Kenshu Shimada, Daniel J Field, Jeroen B Smaers
Through elasmobranch (sharks and rays) evolutionary history, gigantism evolved multiple times in phylogenetically distant species, some of which are now extinct. Interestingly, the world's largest elasmobranchs display two specializations found never to overlap: filter feeding and mesothermy. The contrasting lifestyles of elasmobranch giants provide an ideal case study to elucidate the evolutionary pathways leading to gigantism in the oceans. Here, we applied a phylogenetic approach to a global dataset of 459 taxa to study the evolution of elasmobranch gigantism...
January 24, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Glen R Hood, Linyi Zhang, Elaine G Hu, James R Ott, Scott P Egan
All organisms exist within a complex network of interacting species, thus evolutionary change may have reciprocal effects on multiple taxa. Here, we demonstrate "cascading reproductive isolation," whereby ecological differences that reduce gene flow between populations at one trophic level affect reproductive isolation (RI) among interacting species at the next trophic level. Using a combination of field, laboratory and common-garden studies and long-term herbaria records, we estimate and evaluate the relative contribution of temporal RI to overall prezygotic RI between populations of Belonocnema treatae, a specialist gall-forming wasp adapted to sister species of live oak (Quercus virginiana and Q...
January 22, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Sam Van Wassenbergh, Simon Baeckens
Is feeding ecology the main driver of beak diversification in modern birds? Taking a broad-scale interspecific comparative approach, Navalón et al. (2019) found a relationship between feeding ecology (diet and feeding behavior) and beak morphology (shape and leverage), although much of the observed variation remained unexplained. This low explanatory power may suggest that variation in the multitude of non-feeding functions of the beak also influences its evolution. This article is protected by copyright...
January 22, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Wendy Lichtenauer, Martijn van de Pol, Andrew Cockburn, Lyanne Brouwer
Extra-pair paternity (EPP) has been suggested to improve the genetic quality of offspring, but evidence has been equivocal. Benefits of EPP may be only available to specific individuals or under certain conditions. Red-winged fairy-wrens have extremely high levels of EPP, suggesting fitness benefits might be large and available to most individuals. Furthermore, extreme philopatry commonly leads to incestuous social pairings, so inbreeding avoidance may be an important selection pressure. Here, we quantified the fitness benefits of EPP under varying conditions and across life-stages...
January 22, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Nichola J Hawkins
Plants and their pathogens are in a co-evolutionary arms race. Some pathogens, such as anther smuts, use their host plants' pollinators for spore dispersal. In the plant Dianthus pavonius, gynodioecy (having female and hermaphroditic plants) has evolved to reduce flowering durationg and therefore limit exposure to anther smut pathogens. Bruns et al. (2018) show that this shift in breeding system has evolved as a disease escape mechanism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 21, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Hugo Gruson
To what extent do plumage properties and behavior interact to produce visual signals? Simpson and McGraw (2018) propose an elegant and novel experimental set-up to dissociate behavior and color and assess their relative effects in the resulting iridescent signal. They find that modification of either component leads to a modification of the resulting signal as seen by the receiver, suggesting that sexual selection acts simultaneously on both signal components. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
January 20, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Daniel L Goldberg, Joseph A Landy, Joseph Travis, Mark S Springer, David N Reznick
Exaggerated male traits under sexual selection are often used for both competition and courtship, raising the question of whether ornaments evolved simultaneously for both functions, or if use in one context preceded use in another. Here, we apply a phylogenetic approach to study the evolution of ornamental dorsal fins in male poeciliid fish of the subgenera Mollienesia and Limia, which exhibit convergent development of an enlarged dorsal fin, and often direct erect-fin displays to male and female conspecifics...
January 17, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Yevgeniy Raynes, Paul D Sniegowski, Daniel M Weinreich
Mutator alleles that elevate the genomic mutation rate may invade non-recombining populations by hitchhiking with beneficial mutations. Mutators have been repeatedly observed to take over adapting laboratory populations and have been found at high frequencies in both microbial pathogen and cancer populations in nature. Recently, we have shown that mutators are only favored by selection in sufficiently large populations and transition to being disfavored as population size decreases. This population size-dependent sign inversion in selective effect suggests that population structure may also be an important determinant of mutation rate evolution...
January 11, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Santiago Montero-Mendieta, Arjun Dheer
How can taxonomists best resolve the challenge of curating and analyzing large phylogenomic datasets that produce incongruent but highly supported topologies? Betancur-R et al. (2018) used a recently established hypothesis-testing procedure on a large dataset of genes and species to study the evolutionary relationships of characiform fishes, finding that past conclusions of non-monophyly may have been problematic and establishing monophyly with high confidence. The new findings highlight the importance of using dense taxon sampling to resolve conflicting relationships with phylogenomic data...
January 8, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Sheng Pei Wang, David M Althoff
Phenotypic plasticity can allow organisms to respond to environmental changes by producing better matching phenotypes without any genetic change. Because of this, plasticity is predicted to be a major mechanism by which a population can survive the initial stage of colonizing a novel environment. We tested this prediction by challenging wild Drosophila melanogaster with increasingly extreme larval environments and then examining expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and its relationship to larval survival in the first generation of encountering a novel environment...
January 8, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Rolando Rodríguez-Muñoz, Jelle J Boonekamp, Liu Xingping, Ian Skicko, David Fisher, Paul Hopwood, Tom Tregenza
The disposable soma theory of ageing predicts that when organisms invest in reproduction they do so by reducing their investment in body maintenance, inducing a trade-off between reproduction and survival. Experiments on invertebrates in the lab provide support for the theory by demonstrating the predicted responses to manipulation of reproductive effort or lifespan. However, experimental studies in birds and evidence from observational (non-manipulative) studies in nature do not consistently reveal trade-offs...
December 31, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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