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Ergonomics

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777506/posture-normalization-of-3d-body-scans
#1
Femke Danckaers, Toon Huysmans, Ann Hallemans, Guido De Bruyne, Steven Truijen, Jan Sijbers
For product developers that design near-body products, virtual mannequins that represent realistic body shapes, are valuable tools. With statistical shape modeling, the variability of such body shapes can be described. Shape variation captured by statistical shape models (SSMs) is often polluted by posture variations, leading to less compact models. In this paper, we propose a framework that has low computational complexity to build a posture invariant SSM, by capturing and correcting the posture of an instance...
February 19, 2019: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773103/comparison-of-visual-fatigue-caused-by-head-mounted-display-for-virtual-reality-and-two-dimensional-display-using-objective-and-subjective-evaluation
#2
Masakazu Hirota, Hiroyuki Kanda, Takao Endo, Tomomitsu Miyoshi, Suguru Miyagawa, Yoko Hirohara, Tatsuo Yamaguchi, Makoto Saika, Takeshi Morimoto, Takashi Fujikado
This study aimed to evaluate objective and subjective visual fatigue experienced before and after performing a visual task, while using a head-mounted display for virtual reality (VR-HMD) and two-dimensional (2D) display. Binocular fusion maintenance (BFM) was measured using a binocular open-view Shack-Hartmann wavefront aberrometer equipped with liquid crystal shutters. Twelve healthy subjects performed the BFM test and completed a questionnaire regarding subjective symptoms before and after performing a visual task that induces low visually induced motion sickness (VIMS)...
February 18, 2019: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763145/are-hybrid-sit-stand-postures-a-good-compromise-between-sitting-and-standing
#3
Mamiko Noguchi, Michal Glinka, Graham R Mayberry, Kimihiro Noguchi, Jack P Callaghan
Potential alternatives for conventional sitting and standing postures are hybrid sit-stand postures (i.e., perching). The purposes of this study were i) to identify where lumbopelvic and pelvic angles deviate from sitting and standing and ii) to use these breakpoints to define three distinct postural phases: sitting, perching, and standing, in order to examine differences in muscle activations and ground reaction forces between phases. Twenty-four participants completed 19 one-minute static trials, from sitting (90°) to standing (180°), sequentially in 5°trunk-thigh angle increments...
February 14, 2019: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762479/medium-term-effects-of-a-two-desk-sit-stand-workstation-on-cognitive-performance-and-workload-for-healthy-people-performing-sedentary-work-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Bernhard Schwartz, Jay M Kapellusch, Arnold Baca, Barbara Wessner
Implementing sit/stand workstations in sedentary work environments is a common way to reduce sedentary time, but their medium-term effect on cognitive performance is unclear. To address this circumstance, eighteen office workers participated in a two-arm, randomised controlled cross-over trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02825303), either working at a traditional (sit) or an interventional (sit/stand) workplace for 23 weeks. Cognitive performance (working speed, reaction time, concentration performance, accuracy), workload and relevant covariates (salivary cortisol level, heart rate, physical activity, sitting time) were measured pre- and post-intervention under laboratory conditions...
February 14, 2019: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30724659/training-visual-attention-in-a-naturalistic-visual-environment
#5
Ying-Yin Huang, Marino Menozzi, Guido Beldi, Yves Brand
The efficiency of training visual attention in the central and peripheral visual field was investigated by means of a visual detection task that was performed in a naturalistic visual environment including numerous, time-varying visual distractors. We investigated the minimum number of repetitions of the training required to obtain the top performance and whether intra-day trainings improved performance as efficiently as inter-day trainings. Additionally, our research aimed to find out whether exposure to a demanding task such as a microsurgical intervention may cancel out the effects of training...
February 6, 2019: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716019/using-a-smart-textile-system-for-classifying-occupational-manual-material-handling-tasks-evidence-from-lab-based-simulations
#6
Mohammad Iman Mokhlespour Esfahani, Maury A Nussbaum, Zhenyu James Kong
Physical monitoring systems represent potentially powerful assessment devices to detect and describe occupational physical activities. A promising technology for such use is smart textile systems (STSs). Our goal in this exploratory study was to assess the feasibility and accuracy of using two STSs to classify several manual material handling (MMH) tasks. Specifically, commercially-available "smart" socks and a custom "smart" shirt were used individually and in combination. Eleven participants simulated nine separate MMH tasks while wearing the STSs, and task classification accuracy was quantified subsequently using several common models...
February 4, 2019: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30698075/directed-forgetting-in-organisations-the-positive-effects-of-decision-support-systems-on-mental-resources-and-well-being
#7
Guido Hertel, Sarah M Meessen, Dennis M Riehle, Meinald T Thielsch, Christoph Nohe, Jörg Becker
Decision-makers in organisations are often overtaxed by huge amounts of information in daily business processes. As a potential support strategy, this study examined 'directed forgetting' (Bjork, 1970) in a simulated sales planning scenario. We assumed that the availability of a computer-based decision support system (DSS) triggers forgetting of decision-related background information. Such directed forgetting should not only release memory capacities for additional tasks but also enhance decision quality and decrease strain of decision makers...
January 30, 2019: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696384/sex-differences-in-upper-limb-3d-joint-contributions-during-a-lifting-task
#8
Romain Martinez, Jason Bouffard, Benjamin Michaud, André Plamondon, Julie N Côté, Mickaël Begon
Sex-related differences in work technique may contribute to increase the risk of musculoskeletal joint disorders among women. In lifting tasks, sex differences have been reported for the trunk and lower limb, although women present a higher prevalence of shoulder disorders. We investigated sex differences in the upper limb technique during a lifting task. Trunk and upper limb kinematics were recorded in 27 women and 27 men lifting a box (6 or 12 kg) from hip to eye level. Work technique was quantified through the three-dimensional contribution of each joint to overall box height...
January 30, 2019: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30689525/movement-time-and-guidance-accuracy-in-teleoperation-of-robotic-vehicles
#9
Alan H S Chan, Errol R Hoffmann, Jeremy C H Ho
Two experiments are reported on the steering of a tracked vehicle through straight-line courses and corners to determine the relationships between movement time and control accuracy with the geometry of the course, such as the vehicle width, the track width and the type of corner. For straight line tracking, Drury's law in which movement time (MT) is linear with the tracking task difficulty measure [A/(W-d)] is found to hold, where A is the distance traveled, 'W' is the track width and 'd' is the vehicle width...
January 28, 2019: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30689519/the-challenges-of-automation-in-the-automobile
#10
Colleen Emmenegger, Don Norman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2019: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30644336/expert-evaluation-of-traffic-signs-conventional-vs-alternative-designs
#11
Tamar Ben-Bassat, David Shinar, Raquel Almqvist, Jeff K Caird, Robert E Dewar, Esko Lehtonen, Paul M Salmon, Marion Sinclair, Lidia Zakowska, Gabriel Liberman
Traffic sign comprehension is significantly affected by their compliance with ergonomics design principles. Despite the UN Convention, designs vary among countries. The goal of this study was to establish theoretical and methodological bases for evaluating the design of conventional and alternative signs. Thirty-one conventional signs and 1-3 alternatives for each conventional sign were evaluated for their compliance with three ergonomics guidelines for sign design: physical and conceptual compatibility, familiarity, and standardization...
January 15, 2019: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30638144/predicting-slips-based-on-the-stm-603-whole-footwear-tribometer-under-different-coefficient-of-friction-testing-conditions
#12
Kurt E Beschorner, Arian Iraqi, Mark S Redfern, Rakié Cham, Yue Li
Assessing footwear slip-resistance is critical to preventing slip and fall accidents. The STM603 (SATRA Technology) is commonly used to assess footwear friction but its ability to predict human slips while walking is unclear. This study aimed to assess this apparatus' ability to predict slips across footwear designs and to determine if modifying the test parameters alters predictions. The available coefficient of friction (ACOF) was measured with the device for nine different footwear designs using twelve testing conditions with varying force, speed and shoe angle...
January 13, 2019: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30628542/retention-of-a-standard-operating-procedure-under-the-influence-of-social-stress-and-refresher-training-in-a-simulated-process-control-task
#13
Annette Kluge, Mike Silbert, Uta S Wiemers, Barbara Frank, Oliver T Wolf
In a simulated process control task, we investigated the effects of refresher training and acute social stress on performing a standard operating procedure (SOP) containing a production and monitoring task and knowledge recall after a retention interval of two weeks. In a 2 × 2 between-group design (Factor 1: induced social stress, Factor 2: refresher training), 76 engineering students performed an SOP at t1 in week 1 and at t2 in week 3. A MANOVA in week three (t2) indicated a main effect of the refresher training for the SOP execution containing a production and a monitoring task and an impairing effect of stress on the monitoring task...
January 10, 2019: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30604652/the-effects-of-seat-width-load-factor-and-passenger-demographics-on-airline-passenger-accommodation
#14
Elizabeth L Miller, Samuel M Lapp, Matthew B Parkinson
The objective of this work is to demonstrate a method for examining the competing effects of secular trends in body size, seat size and configuration, and the increased load factor of airplanes. The method uses statistical modeling and virtual fit testing to provide a flexible environment for exploring the impact of various parameters on passenger accommodation. A case study demonstrates the method by exploring the effect of seat width on the accommodation of US civilians (based on seated hip breadth). The case study demonstrates that recent trends of decreasing seat widths and increasing load factors lead to higher disaccommodation...
January 3, 2019: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601105/editorial-ergonomics-and-human-factors-in-aviation
#15
Neville A Stanton, Wen-Chin Li, Don Harris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2019: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30587084/learning-while-multitasking-short-and-long-term-benefits-of-brain-stimulation
#16
B Frank, S Harty, A Kluge, R Cohen Kadosh
We employed a simulated production task that mimics the real-world skill acquisition required of operators working in control rooms of power plants to assess short and long-term effects of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS). tRNS has shown potential for enhancing learning and performance of cognitive skills. 40 subjects (24 female) learned how to execute the simulated production task during the training phase and were required to perform a secondary task during the skill acquisition phase, while they received active (12 minutes) or sham tRNS on DLPFC...
December 27, 2018: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30575442/mobile-touch-screen-device-use-and-associations-with-musculoskeletal-symptoms-and-visual-health-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-singaporean-adolescents
#17
Siao Hui Toh, Pieter Coenen, Erin K Howie, Swarup Mukherjee, David A Mackey, Leon M Straker
This study aimed to describe contemporary technology use, especially smartphones and tablets (mobile touch screen devices), and examine associations with musculoskeletal symptoms and visual health among adolescents in Singapore. A representative sample of 1884 adolescents (50.4% girls) from grades primary 5 to post-secondary (10-18 years old), recruited from 13 schools, completed an online questionnaire in class. Total technology use was high, with smartphone duration being highest (mean =264 (SD =243) minutes/day)...
December 21, 2018: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30560711/biomechanical-response-of-the-human-foot-when-standing-in-a-natural-position-while-exposed-to-vertical-vibration-from-10-200hz
#18
Katie A Goggins, Marco Tarabini, W Brent Lievers, Tammy R Eger
Exposure to foot-transmitted vibration (FTV) can lead to pain and numbness in the toes and feet, increased cold sensitivity, blanching in the toes, and joint pain. Prolonged exposure can result in a clinical diagnosis of vibration-induced white foot (VIWFt). Data on the biomechanical response of the feet to FTV is limited; therefore, this study seeks to identify resonant frequencies for different anatomical locations on the human foot, while standing in a natural position. A laser Doppler vibrometer was used to measure vertical (z-axis) vibration on 21 participants at 24 anatomical locations on the right foot during exposure to a sine sweep from 10-200Hz with a peak vertical velocity of 30 mm/s...
December 18, 2018: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30556785/staying-on-your-feet-the-effectiveness-of-posture-and-handles-in-counteracting-balance-perturbation
#19
Jernej Čamernik, Morteza Azad, Luka Peternel, Zrinka Potocanac, Jan Babič
Stairways, public transport, and inclined walkways are often considered as sites with higher likelihood of falls due to a sudden loss of balance. Such sites are usually marked with warning signs, equipped with non-slip surfaces and handles or handrails to avert or decrease this likelihood. Especially handles are supposed to provide additional support in cases of a sudden loss of balance. However, the mechanisms of using handles for balance at different heights were not yet fully disclosed. We simulated full body perturbations by applying an anterior force to the waist and investigated effectiveness and mechanisms of balance recovery in five different postures: step stance and normal stance with or without holding to handles at different heights...
December 17, 2018: Ergonomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30526423/evaluating-sociotechnical-dynamics-in-a-simulated-remotely-piloted-aircraft-system-a-layered-dynamics-approach
#20
Jamie C Gorman, Mustafa Demir, Nancy J Cooke, David A Grimm
As coordination mechanisms change and technology failures occur, a sociotechnical system must reorganize itself across human and technological layers to maintain effectiveness. We present a study examining reorganization across communication, controls, and vehicle layers of a remotely-piloted aircraft system (RPAS) using a layered dynamics approach. Team members (pilot; navigator; photographer) performed 5 simulated RPAS missions using different operator configurations, including all-human and human-autonomy teams...
December 8, 2018: Ergonomics
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