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British Journal of Radiology

Marina Takatsuji-Nagaso, Tosiaki Miyati, Naoki Ohno, Mitsuhito Mase, Harumasa Kasai, Yuta Shibamoto, Satoshi Kobayashi, Toshifumi Gabata, Kiyohide Kitagawa
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the cause of higher water fluctuation of the brain in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), we assessed change in hemodynamic-independent apparent diffusion coefficient during the cardiac cycle (ΔADC) in iNPH. METHODS: Electrocardiographically synchronized single-shot diffusion echo-planer (b = 0, 500, and 1000  s/mm2 ) was performed in healthy volunteers, atrophic ventricular dilation group, and iNPH group, respectively. The ΔADC (b = 0  and 1000  s/mm2 ) and maximum ADC (b = 0  and 500  s/mm2 ) in the cardiac cycles were measured at the frontal white matter in the brain...
February 13, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Azin Shayganfar, Maede Khodayi, Shadi Ebrahimian, Zhale Tabrizi
OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease that is not recognized in many elderly people. To determine the cause of low back pain, lumbosacral MRI is done for a large population who may not have gone under dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The aim of this study was to predict bone density using lumbar spine signals in lumbosacral MRI in high risk patients for osteoporosis including post-menopausal females and calculate a threshold for a new quantitative MRI-based score to be used in estimation of lumbar spine bone mass density...
February 13, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Stefan J van Hoof, Joana B Verde, Frank Verhaegen
OBJECTIVE: Using synchronized three-dimensional stage translation and multiangle radiation delivery to improve conformality and homogeneity of radiation delivery to complexly shaped target volumes for precision preclinical radiotherapy. METHODS: A CT image of a mouse was used to design irradiation plans to target the spinal cord and an orthotopic lung tumour. A dose painting method is proposed that combines heterogeneous two-dimensional area irradiations from multiple beam directions...
February 12, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Martin Thirkettle, Mandela Thyoka, Nadiah Fernandes, Padmini Gopalan, Tom Stafford, Amaka Offiah
OBJECTIVE: Expert radiologists exhibit high levels of visual diagnostic accuracy from review of radiological images, doing so after accumulating years of training and experience. To train new radiologists, learning interventions must focus on the development of these skills. By developing a web-based measure of image assessment, a key part of visual diagnosis, we aimed to capture differences in the performance of expert, trainee and non-radiologists. METHODS: Twelve consultant paediatric radiologists, twelve radiology registrars, and thirty-nine medical students were recruited to the study...
February 7, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Luca Saba, Silvia Ajossa, Giuseppe Ledda, Antonella Balestrieri, Federica Schirru, Carlo Nicola De Cecco, Jasjit S Suri, Gian Benedetto Melis, Francesco Lavra, Stefano Guerriero
OBJECTIVE: Some recent studies have explored how the experience in the observers change their performance in the endometriosis detection using MRI but the effects of the clinical information remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the clinical information in the diagnostic confidence in the MRI diagnosis of endometriosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Institutional Review Board was obtained. This study is compliant to STARD method. 80 patients (mean age 32 years; range 19 - 46 years) who had undergone MRI study and surgery for suspected endometriosis were retrospectively evaluated...
February 7, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Ju Hee Ahn, Seung Ho Kim, Jung Hee Son, Sung Jae Jo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the added value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to T 2 weighted imaging (T 2 WI) for detection of extramural venous invasion (EMVI) in patients with primary rectal cancer. METHODS: 79 patients (50 men, 29 females, mean age 67.4 years, range 37-87 years) who had undergone rectal MRI and subsequently received surgical resection were included. The rectal MRI consisted of T 2 WI in three planes and axial DWI (b-values, 0, 1000 s mm-2 ). Two radiologists blinded to the pathologic results independently reviewed the T 2 WI first, and then the combined T 2 WI and DWI 4 weeks later...
January 30, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Gregory Smyth, Philip M Evans, Jeffrey C Bamber, James L Bedford
This paper gives an overview of recent developments in non-coplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Modern linear accelerators are capable of automating motion around multiple axes, allowing efficient delivery of highly non-coplanar radiotherapy techniques. Novel techniques developed for C-arm and non-standard linac geometries, methods of optimization, and clinical applications are reviewed. The additional degrees of freedom are shown to increase the therapeutic ratio, either through dose escalation to the target or dose reduction to functionally important organs at risk, by multiple research groups...
January 29, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Aishvarya Vasishta, Abhimanyu Kelkar, Priscilla Joshi, Renuka Hapse
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the association between tendon stiffness on sonoelastography and grades of tendinopathy on MRI in patients with supraspinatus tendinopathy. METHODS: 25 consecutive adult patients with clinically suspected supraspinatus tendinopathy and no prior history of trauma referred for MRI of the shoulder were selected for this study. The supraspinatus tendinopathy was graded in consonance with MRI findings (Grade I, normal; Grade II, mild tendinopathy; Grade III, moderate tendinopathy; and Grade IV, marked tendinopathy)...
January 28, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Naeem Ahmed, Priya Sriskandarajah, Christian Burd, Angela Riddell, Kevin Boyd, Martin Kaiser, Christina Messiou
OBJECTIVE: Current therapies for multiple myeloma, which include corticosteroids, increase risk of avascular necrosis. The aim of this study was to assess incidental detection of femoral head avascular necrosis on routine whole body MRI including diffusion weighted MRI. METHODS: All whole body MRI studies, performed on patients with known multiple myeloma between 1 January 2010 to 1 May 2017 were assessed for features of avascular necrosis. RESULTS: 650 whole body MR scans were analysed...
January 24, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Angela U Pathmanathan, Helen A McNair, Maria A Schmidt, Douglas H Brand, Louise Delacroix, Cynthia L Eccles, Alexandra Gordon, Trina Herbert, Nicholas J van As, Robert A Huddart, Alison C Tree
OBJECTIVE: With increasing incorporation of MRI in radiotherapy, we investigate two MRI sequences for prostate delineation in radiographer-led image guidance. METHODS: Five therapeutic radiographers contoured the prostate individually on CT, T 2 weighted (T 2 W) and T 2 * weighted (T 2 *W) imaging for 10 patients. Contours were analysed with Monaco ADMIRE (research v. 2.0) to assess interobserver variability and accuracy by comparison with a gold standard clinician contour...
January 24, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Pietro Zucchetta, Marco Branchini, Alessandra Zorz, Valentina Bodanza, Diego Cecchin, Marta Paiusco, Franco Bui
OBJECTIVE: The study performs a comprehensive analysis of image metrics to objectively support the reduction of injected activity in pediatric oncology 18 F-FDG PET/MR (18 F-fludeoxyglucose PET/MR) examinations. Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR), Normalized Noise (NN), tumor burden, and standardized uptake value (SUV) parameters stability were investigated to robustly define the acceptable reduced activity level that preserves the clinical utility of images, considering different PET applications...
January 23, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Justin Cohen, Akbar Anvari, Santanu Samanta, Yannick Poirier, Sandrine Soman, Allen Alexander, Maida Ranjbar, Ramilda Pavlovic, Andrew Zodda, Isabel L Jackson, Javed Mahmood, Zeljko Vujaskovic, Amit Sawant
OBJECTIVE: Non-ablative or mild hyperthermia (HT) has been shown in preclinical (and clinical) studies as a localized radiosensitizer that enhances the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Most pre-clinical in vivo HT studies use subcutaneous tumor models which do not adequately represent clinical conditions (e.g. proximity of normal/critical organs) or replicate the tumor microenvironment - both of which are important factors for eventual clinical translation. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate proof-of-concept of locoregional radiosensitization with superficially applied, radiofrequency (RF)-induced HT in an orthotopic mouse model of prostate cancer...
January 23, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Michael Messerli, Fotis Kotasidis, Irene A Burger, Daniela A Ferraro, Urs J Muehlematter, Corina Weyermann, David Kenkel, Gustav K von Schulthess, Philipp A Kaufmann, Martin W Huellner
OBJECTIVE: Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18F-fluordeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) is an established imaging modality for tumor staging in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There is a growing interest in using 18 F-FDG PET for therapy response assessment in NSCLC which relies on quantitative PET parameters such as standardized uptake values (SUV). Different reconstruction algorithms in PET may affect SUV. We sought to determine the variation of SUV in patients with NSCLC when using ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and block sequential regularized expectation maximization (BSREM) in latest-generation digital PET/CT, including a subanalysis for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma...
January 23, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Hale Aydin
OBJECTIVES: The American College of Radiology updated the terms used for expressing the imaging characteristics of non-mass enhancement (NME) lesions in the fifth edition of the breast imaging-reporting data system (BI-RADS) lexicon. Both the distribution and internal enhancement descriptors were revised for NME lesions. Our aim was to determine the MRI characteristics of NME lesions and to investigate their association with malignancy. METHODS: The MRI results of 129 NME lesions were retrospectively evaluated...
January 23, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Rezarta Frakulli, Milly Buwenge, Gabriella Macchia, Silvia Cammelli, Francesco Deodato, Savino Cilla, Francesco Cellini, Gian C Mattiucci, Silvia Bisello, Giovanni Brandi, Salvatore Parisi, Alessio G Morganti
OBJECTIVE: Stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT) has been used in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) but toxicity and clinical results of SBRT in CC are still limited and sparse. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to analyze the results of SBRT in the setting of advanced CC. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane library using the PRISMA methodology. Studies including at least 10 patients with diagnosis of advanced CC regardless of tumor site and other treatments were included...
January 23, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Rohan Nandurkar, Pimmeke van Leeuwen, Phillip Stricker, Henry Woo, Rajdeep Kooner, Carlo Yuen, Gordon O'Neill, David Ende, Thomas Cusick, Bao Ho, Adam Hickey, Louise Emmett
METHODS: We analysed results of 142 males with staging PSMA prior to radical prostatectomy (RP). Data collected included PSMA PET/CT, bone scan (30/142), mpMRI (112/142), and pathological T stage (pT) stage, Gleason score, surgical margins and lymph node status at RP. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was documented at staging scan, and following surgery (median 45 days (interquartile range 38-59). A PSA of < 0.03 ng ml-1 was classified as surgical response (SR). Logistic regression was performed for association of pre-operative clinical variables and SR...
January 23, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Ansgar Espeland, Nina Dalen
OBJECTIVE: To compare disc and nerve root findings, image quality, and pain between supine lumbar MRI positions with straightened v s flexed hips and knees. METHODS: In this prospective pilot study, 14 adults with sciatica or suspected lumbar radiculopathy underwent MRI supine with their hips and knees flexed and then straightened. For each position, two experienced radiologists assessed disc contour, location/size of disc herniation, nerve root affection, image quality, image evaluation difficulty, and sagittal angles between the vertebral bodies at each disc level L3-S1...
January 17, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Jason Brett Hartman, Hiroko Watase, Jie Sun, Daniel S Hippe, Louis Kim, Michael Levitt, Laligam Sekhar, Niranjan Balu, Thomas Hatsukami, Chun Yuan, Mahmud Mossa-Basha
OBJECTIVES: Identification of aneurysms at risk for rupture is important and challenging. We sought to evaluate if intracranial vessel wall imaging (IVW) characteristics of unruptured aneurysms correlate with clinical risk factors for rupture. METHODS: Patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms were prospectively recruited and underwent a multi contrast 3D IVW protocol between 4/6/16 and 8/29/17. Two independent raters, blinded to aneurysm vulnerability, evaluated each aneurysm for wall enhancement, extent of enhancement in terms of the numbers of quadrants enhancing circumferentially, intensity of enhancement, and qualitative wall thinning...
January 17, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Essam Mohammed Alkhybari, Mark F McEntee, Kathy P Willowson, Patrick C Brennan, Theo Kitsos, Peter L Kench
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to report a local Diagnostic Reference Level (DRL) for paediatric whole-body (WB) fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) computed tomography (CT) examinations. METHOD: The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) national DRL (NDRL) age category (0 - 4 years and 5 - 14 years), the International Commission of Radiological Protection age category (ICRP age) (< 1,> 1 - 5, > 5 - 10, and > 10 - 15 years) , and European guideline weight category (e...
January 17, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Mihaela Ghita, Victoria Dunne, Gerard G Hanna, Kevin M Prise, Jaqueline P Williams, Karl Butterworth
Despite a major paradigm shift in radiotherapy planning and delivery over the past three decades with continuing refinements, radiation induced lung damage (RILD) remains a major dose limiting toxicity in patients receiving thoracic irradiations. Our current understanding of the biological processes involved in RILD which includes DNA damage, inflammation, senescence and fibrosis, is based on clinical observations and experimental studies in mouse models using conventional radiation exposures. Whilst these studies have provided vital information on the pulmonary radiation response, the current implementation of small animal irradiators is enabling refinements in the precision and accuracy of dose delivery to mice which can be applied to studies of RILD...
January 17, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
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