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British Journal of Psychology

Heinrich René Liesefeld, Hermann J Müller
Visual working memory (VWM) is a core construct in the cognitive (neuro-)sciences, assumed to serve as a hub for information exchange and thus supporting a multitude of cognitive functions related to processing visual information. Here, we give an introduction into key terms and paradigms and an overview of ongoing debates in the field, to which the articles collected in this Special Issue on 'Current Directions in Visual Working Memory Research' contribute. Our aim is to extract, from this overview, some 'emerging' theoretical insights concerning questions such as the optimal way to examine VWM, which types of mental representations contribute to performance on VWM tasks, and how VWM keeps features from the same object together and apart from features of concurrently maintained objects (the binding problem)...
February 8, 2019: British Journal of Psychology
Belinda M Craig, Emily M Thorne
Young adults recognize other young adult faces more accurately than older adult faces, an effect termed the own-age bias (OAB). The categorization-individuation model (CIM) proposes that recognition memory biases like the OAB occur as unfamiliar faces are initially quickly categorized. In-group faces are seen as socially relevant which motivates the processing of individuating facial features. Outgroup faces are processed more superficially with attention to category-specific information which hinders subsequent recognition...
January 24, 2019: British Journal of Psychology
Sophie von Stumm, Hannah Scott
Imagination refers to creating mental representations of concepts, ideas, and sensations that are not contemporaneously perceived by the senses. Although it is key to human individuality, research on imagination is scarce. To address this gap, we developed here a new psychometric test to assess individual differences in imagination and explored the role of imagination for learning, creativity, and schizotypal beliefs. In a laboratory-based (N = 180) and an online study (N = 128), we found that imagination is only weakly associated with learning achievement and creativity, accounting for 2-8% of the variance...
January 10, 2019: British Journal of Psychology
Nicholas Martin, Colin J Davis
Although visual-word recognition is often assumed to proceed on the basis of case-invariant letter representations, previous research has shown a role for letter-case in recognizing brand names. One recent study reported early effects of letter-case in a brand-decision task using masked primes (Perea et al., 2015, British Journal of Psychology, 106, 162). The present study attempts to replicate this finding using brand names typically presented in all lowercase (e.g., adidas), all uppercase (e.g., IKEA), or titlecase (e...
January 4, 2019: British Journal of Psychology
Younes Adam Tabi, Masud Husain, Sanjay G Manohar
Visuospatial working memory allows us to hold multiple visual objects over short delays. It is typically tested by presenting an array of objects, then after a delay showing a 'probe' indicating which memory item to recall or reproduce by adjusting a target feature. However, recent studies demonstrate that information at the time of probe can disrupt recall. Here, in three experiments we test whether traditional memory probes, which contain features that compete with the feature to be recalled, may themselves interfere with performance...
January 2, 2019: British Journal of Psychology
Lindsey A Short, Catherine J Mondloch, Julia deJong, Harmonie Chan
Adults' face processing may be specialized for the dimensions of young adult faces. For example, young and older adults exhibit increased accuracy in normality judgments and greater agreement in attractiveness ratings for young versus older adult faces. The present study was designed to examine whether there is a similar young adult face bias in facial age estimates. In Experiment 1, we created a face age continuum by morphing an averaged young adult face with an averaged older adult face in 5% increments, for a total of 21 faces ranging from 0 to 100% old...
December 28, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Enrico Toffalini, Chiara Mirandola, Gianmarco Altoè, Erika Borella
Emotional events have been shown to protect individuals against false memory when remembering scripted material. Whether the same is true also for older adults, however, is unclear, and it has been investigated in the present study. Seventy-six older adults (age range 65-89 years) were presented with a series of photographs depicting scripted events. Each event included the consequence of an action whose corresponding cause was not presented; the consequence was either neutral, negative, or positive. False recognitions of unseen causes of the consequences (i...
December 28, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Elisabeth H Bos, Peter de Jonge, Ralf F A Cox
How can depression be associated with both instability and inertia of affect? Koval et al. (2013, Emotion, 13, 1132) showed that this paradox can be solved by accounting for the statistical overlap between measures of affect dynamics. Nevertheless, these measures are still often studied in isolation. The present study is a replication of the Koval et al. study. We used experience sampling data (three times a day, 1 month) of 462 participants from the general population and a subsample thereof (N = 100) selected to reflect a uniform range of depressive symptoms...
December 26, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Guido Corradi, Jaume Rosselló-Mir, Javier Vañó, Erick Chuquichambi, Marco Bertamini, Enric Munar
Objects with curved contours are generally preferred to sharp-angled ones. In this study, we aim to determine whether different presentation times influence this preference. We used images of real objects (experiment 1) and meaningless novel patterns (experiment 2). Participants had to select one of two images from a contour pair, curved and sharp-angled versions of the same object/pattern. With real objects, the preference for curved versions was greatest when presented for 84 ms, and it faded when participants were given unlimited viewing time...
December 7, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Heinrich René Liesefeld, Anna M Liesefeld, Hermann J Müller
Visual working memory (VWM) is a central bottleneck in human information processing. Its capacity is most often measured in terms of how many individual-item representations VWM can hold (k). In the standard task employed to estimate k, an array of highly discriminable colour patches is maintained and, after a short retention interval, compared to a test display (change detection). Recent research has shown that with more complex, structured displays, change-detection performance is, in addition to individual-item representations, supported by ensemble representations formed as a result of spatial subgroupings...
December 2, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Katrin Lunke, Beat Meier
The aim of the present study was to test the relationship between different types of synaesthesia and their involvement in art, creative, and visual abilities. We tested 20 grapheme-colour, 18 sound-colour, 19 grapheme-colour-and-sound-colour, 20 sequence-space synaesthetes, and the same number of controls matched by age, gender, and education. We assessed the number of artistic professions, involvement in art, and the performance in psychometric tests of divergent and convergent creativity, as well as visual and visuo-spatial abilities...
November 28, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Romina Palermo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: British Journal of Psychology
Marius Leckelt, David Richter, Carsten Schröder, Albrecht C P Küfner, Markus M Grabka, Mitja D Back
Beyond money and possessions, how are the rich different from the general population? Drawing on a unique sample of high-net-worth individuals from Germany (≥1 million Euro in financial assets; N = 130), nationally representative data (N = 22,981), and an additional online panel (N = 690), we provide the first direct investigation of the stereotypically perceived and self-reported personality profiles of high-net-worth individuals. Investigating the broad personality traits of the Big Five and the more specific traits of narcissism and locus of control, we find that stereotypes about wealthy people's personality are accurate albeit somewhat exaggerated and that wealthy people can be characterized as stable, flexible, and agentic individuals who are focused more on themselves than on others...
November 22, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Bertus F Jeronimus, Evelien Snippe, Ando C Emerencia, Peter de Jonge, Elisabeth H Bos
People can experience disasters vicariously (indirectly) via conversation, social media, radio, and television, even when not directly involved in a disaster. This study examined whether vicarious exposure to the MH17-airplane crash in Ukraine, with 196 Dutch victims, elicited affective and somatic responses in Dutch adults about 2,600 km away, who happened to participate in an ongoing diary study. Participants (n = 141) filled out a diary three times a day for 30 days on their smartphones. Within-person changes in positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) and somatic symptoms after the crash were studied...
November 18, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Jasmine J Hooper, Clare A M Sutherland, Louise Ewing, Robyn Langdon, Nathan Caruana, Emily Connaughton, Nikolas Williams, Jayden Greenwell-Barnden, Gillian Rhodes
Facial impressions of trustworthiness guide social decisions in the general population, as shown by financial lending in economic Trust Games. As an exception, autistic boys fail to use facial impressions to guide trust decisions, despite forming typical facial trustworthiness impressions (Autism, 19, 2015a, 1002). Here, we tested whether this dissociation between forming and using facial impressions of trustworthiness extends to neurotypical men with high levels of autistic traits. Forty-six Caucasian men completed a multi-turn Trust Game, a facial trustworthiness impressions task, the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, and two Theory of Mind tasks...
November 13, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Kinga Morsanyi, Bianca M C W van Bers, Teresa McCormack, Jemma McGourty
Mathematics difficulties are common in both children and adults, and they can have a great impact on people's lives. A specific learning disorder in mathematics (SLDM or developmental dyscalculia) is a special case of persistent mathematics difficulties, where the problems with maths cannot be attributed to environmental factors, intellectual disability, or mental, neurological or physical disorders. The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence rate of SLDM, any gender differences in SLDM, and the most common comorbid conditions...
November 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Jeanne Bovet, Eva Raiber, Weiwei Ren, Charlotte Wang, Paul Seabright
Both parents and offspring have evolved mating preferences that enable them to select mates and children-in-law to maximize their inclusive fitness. The theory of parent-offspring conflict predicts that preferences for potential mates may differ between parents and offspring: individuals are expected to value biological quality more in their own mates than in their offspring's mates and to value investment potential more in their offspring's mates than in their own mates. We tested this hypothesis in China using a naturalistic 'marriage market' where parents actively search for marital partners for their offspring...
November 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Rebecca Chamberlain, Nicola Brunswick, Joseph Siev, I C McManus
Conflicting empirical and theoretical accounts suggest that dyslexia is associated with either average, enhanced, or impoverished high-level visuospatial processing relative to controls. Such heterogeneous results could be due to the presence of wider variability in dyslexic samples, which is unlikely to be identified at the single study level, due to lack of power. To address this, this study reports a meta-analysis of means and variances in high-level visuospatial ability in 909 non-dyslexic and 956 dyslexic individuals...
November 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Mila Mileva, A Mike Burton
Unfamiliar face matching is a surprisingly difficult task, yet we often rely on people's matching decisions in applied settings (e.g., border control). Most attempts to improve accuracy (including training and image manipulation) have had very limited success. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that using smiling rather than neutral pairs of images brings about significant improvements in face matching accuracy. This is true for both match and mismatch trials, implying that the information provided through a smile helps us detect images of the same identity as well as distinguishing between images of different identities...
November 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Pedro Macizo, Alejandro Álvarez
In this study, we evaluated whether the naming of Arabic digits required access to semantic information. Participants named pictures and Arabic digits blocked by category or intermixed with exemplars of other categories while behavioural and electrophysiological measures were gathered. Pictures were named slower and Arabic digits faster in the blocked context relative to the mixed context. Around 350-450 ms after the presentation of pictures and Arabic digits, brain waves were more positive in anterior regions and more negative in posterior regions when the blocked context was compared with the mixed context...
November 2018: British Journal of Psychology
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