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Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju

Dina Skroza, Jelena Macan
Prema podacima iz Registra profesionalnih bolesti Hrvatskoga zavoda za zaštitu zdravlja i sigurnost na radu, u posljednjih deset godina (2008. ‒ 2017.) prijavljeno je samo 20 slučajeva profesionalne astme od ukupno 2234 prijavljene profesionalne bolesti. To upućuje na značajne nedostatke u prepoznavanju toga poremećaja u našoj radnoj populaciji. Cilj ovoga rada bio je opisati standardnu metodu praćenja vršnog ekspiratornog protoka zraka (eng. peak expiratory flow, PEF) i predložiti praktičnu smjernicu za korištenje te dijagnostičke metode u ambulantama medicine rada i sporta...
December 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Nikola Unković, Ivica Dimkić, Slaviša Stanković, Aleksa Jelikic, Dragan Stanojević, Slađana Popović, Miloš Stupar, Jelena Vukojević, Milica Ljaljević Grbić
The main purpose of this study was to isolate airborne fungi and assess seasonal variations in air contamination with their particulates by determining the levels of their propagules in the nave and exonarthex of a church. We also monitored indoor microclimate as a determining factor for fungal proliferation on wall paintings, spore release, and transmission through the air. The temperature and relative humidity of the nave favoured fungal growth. A total of 33 fungi were isolated, mainly of the phylum Ascomycota, and to the lesser extent of the phyla Zygomycota and Basidiomycota...
December 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Jasenka Petrić, Bojan Šarkanj, Ibrahim Mujić, Aida Mujić, Michael Sulyok, Rudolf Krska, Drago Šubarić, Stela Jokić
The aim of this explorative study was to investigate how effective drying preservation methods are in reducing mycotoxin content in figs. Dried autochthonous varieties of white and dark figs (Petrovača Bijela and Šaraguja, respectively) were analysed for mycotoxins using an LC-MS/MS "dilute and shoot" method capable of determining 295 fungal and bacterial secondary metabolites. Before drying in a cabinet dryer the figs were preserved with 0.5 % citric acid solution or 0.5 % ascorbic acid solution or 0...
December 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Hasan Kovačević, Julijana Franinović Marković
We report a unique and well-documented case of a type II decompression sickness (DCS) with a latency interval of 70 hours. It may raise divers' awareness and help medical practitioners to keep suspect divers under close observation longer than before and identify and treat DCS accordingly.
December 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Carla Viegas, Ana Monteiro, Edna Ribeiro, Liliana Aranha Caetano, Elisabete Carolino, Ricardo Assunção, Susana Viegas
Literature about occupational health in small-animal veterinary practices is scarce, but most of it has recognised a number of risks to be considered, including organic dust exposure. The aim of this pilot study was to assess organic dust, bacterial, and fungal contamination in the indoor environment of a typical Portuguese veterinary clinic but also to screen for azoleresistant fungi. To complement these findings we also analysed workers' nasal exudates for resistant bacteriota. Particles measurements included mass concentrations (PMC) of five particle sizes (PM0...
December 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Dean Karaica, Davorka Breljak, Jovica Lončar, Mila Lovrić, Vedran Micek, Ivana Vrhovac Madunić, Hrvoje Brzica, Carol M Herak-Kramberger, Jana Ivković Dupor, Marija Ljubojević, Tvrtko Smital, Željka Vogrinc, Gerhard Burckhardt, Birgitta C Burckhardt, Ivan Sabolić
Chloride/formate exchanger (CFEX; SLC26A6) mediates oxalate transport in various mammalian organs. Studies in Cfex knockout mice indicated its possible role in development of male-dominant hyperoxaluria and oxalate urolithiasis. Rats provide an important model for studying this pathophysiological condition, but data on Cfex (rCfex) localisation and regulation in their organs are limited. Here we applied the RT-PCR and immunochemical methods to investigate rCfex mRNA and protein expression and regulation by sex hormones in the pancreas, small intestine, liver, and kidneys from intact prepubertal and adult as well as gonadectomised adult rats treated with sex hormones...
December 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Angel M Dzhambov
Previous research has suggested that natural urban environment (green space and blue space) benefit mental health, but only a few longitudinal studies have explored the underlying mechanisms. In this pilot study we aimed to examine mechanisms/variables mediating associations between residential green/blue space and symptoms of anxiety/depression in 109 Bulgarian students from Plovdiv university. The students were followed from the beginning to the end of the school year (October 2017 to May 2018). Residential green space was defined as the mean of the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) in circular buffers of 100, 300, and 500 m around their residences...
December 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Dijana Topalović, Dragana Dekanski, Biljana Spremo-Potparević, Ninoslav Djelić, Vladan Bajić, Lada Živković
Harmful effects of elevated levels of catecholamines are mediated by various mechanisms, including gene transcription and formation of oxidation products. The aim of this study was to see whether the molecular mechanisms underlying the damaging action of adrenaline on DNA are mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). To do that, we exposed human whole blood cells to 10 μmol L-1adrenaline or 50 μmol L-1H2O2(used as positive control) that were separately pre-treated or post-treated with 500 μmol L-1of quercetin, a scavenger of free radicals...
December 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Željka Kuharić, Željko Jakopović, Iva Čanak, Jadranka Frece, Jasna Bošnir, Željka Pavlek, Martina Ivešić, Ksenija Markov
In order to minimise human exposure to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) the levels of this highly carcinogenic mycotoxin in milk, heat-treated milk, and other dairy products have been limited to <0.05 μg kg-1. However, its removal from dairy products presents a challenge for dairy producers, as commercial additives change organoleptic properties, and filtration alone yields poor results. The aim of this study was to find a strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from milk or dairy products that most effectively binds AFM1 and to see whether heat treatment of the selected LAB affects the binding efficiency...
December 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Ivana Vrhovac Madunić, Josip Madunić, Davorka Breljak, Dean Karaica, Ivan Sabolić
Glucose, the key source of metabolic energy, is imported into cells by two categories of transporters: 1) facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) and 2) secondary active sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs). Cancer cells have an increased demand for glucose uptake and utilisation compared to normal cells. Previous studies have demonstrated the overexpression of GLUTs, mainly GLUT1, in many cancer types. As the current standard positron emission tomography (PET) tracer 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (2-FDG) for imaging tumour cells via GLUT1 lacks in sensitivity and specificity, it may soon be replaced by the newly designed, highly sensitive and specific SGLT tracer α-methyl-4-(F-18)fluoro-4-deoxy-Dglucopyranoside (Me-4FDG) in clinical detection and tumour staging...
December 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Milica S Jovetić, Azra S Redžepović, Nebojša M Nedić, Denis Vojt, Slađana Z Đurđić, Ilija D Brčeski, Dušanka M Milojković-Opsenica
To contribute to the development of urban beekeeping, we designed this study to obtain more information about the contamination of urban bee products with toxic metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and pesticides. The samples of honey (N=23), pollen (N=13), and floral nectar (N=6) were collected from the experimental stationary apiary of the Belgrade University Faculty of Agriculture located in centre of Zemun (a municipality of the Belgrade metropolitan area) in 2015 and 2016. Metals (Pb, Cd, As, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, and Hg) were determined with inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS)...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Renata Ecimović Nemarnik, Jelena Macan
Occupational diseases (ODs) often have a chronic, progressive course, resulting in reduced work capacity and quality of life, prolonged sick leaves, unemployment, early retirements, and disability claims. The aim of this retrospective study was to see how diagnosed ODs affected the employment of 95 Croatian workers between 2005 and 2014. To do that, we reviewed archived data and made a telephone survey. The lowest age at which an OD was diagnosed was 20 years in women and 22 in men, while the shortest duration of work before OD diagnosis was one year for both genders...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Susana Viegas, de Ana Cebola Oliveira, Elisabete Carolino, Mário Pádua
Healthcare workers who prepare or administer cytotoxic agents run the risk of exposure, and the risks for health are real even at doses lower than those applied in cancer patients, because, in theory, no dose is safe. The most common and problematic route of exposure is through the skin, especially as work surfaces can remain contaminated even after cleaning. This pilot study aimed to demonstrate the importance of having an effective surface decontamination protocol by determining surface contamination with cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and paclitaxel as the most common cytotoxic drugs in an oncology day service...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Carla Viegas, Ana Monteiro, Elisabete Carolino, Susana Viegas
In bakeries, a number of operations such as mixing are associated with exposure to air-suspended flour dust and related bioburden. The aim of this study was to find the best active sampling approach to the assessment of occupational exposure to bioburden in Portuguese bakeries based on the data obtained with the use of specific impaction and impinger devices. We used impaction to collect fungal particles from 100 L air samples onto malt extract agar (MEA) supplemented with chloramphenicol (0.05 %). For growing fungi we also used dichloran glycerol (DG18) agar-based media and for mesophilic bacteria we used tryptic soy agar (TSA) supplemented with nystatin (0...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Aleksandar Perić, Cveta Špadijer Mirković, Danilo Vojvodić
Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) is a small protein mainly produced by non-ciliated Clara cells in the respiratory epithelium. It has an anti-inflammatory role in chronic upper and lower airway eosinophilic inflammations. Decreased levels of CC16 are found in the nasal secretions and plasma of patients with chronic eosinophilic inflammatory disorders, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps, as well as in people exposed to high levels of air pollutants. Intranasal corticosteroid administration suppresses chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa driven by eosinophils and stimulates local CC16 production...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Stefano Dugheri, Alessandro Bonari, Ilenia Pompilio, Pierpaolo Boccalon, Nicola Mucci, Giulio Arcangeli
Cytotoxic antineoplastic drugs (ADs) pose occupational risk and therefore require safe handling practices. We created, optimised, and validated an innovative monitoring protocol for simultaneously assessing 21 ADs in the healthcare environment, and also proposed surface exposure levels (SELs) to facilitate the interpretation of monitoring results, as there are currently no occupational exposure limits for ADs. The environmental AD monitoring data were collected in nine Italian hospitals between 2008 and 2017 and include 74,565 measurements in 4,814 wipe samples...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Martina Bevardi, Marinko Petrović, Ksenija Markov, Jasna Bošnir
Mycotoxin patulin is one of the quality indicators for apple juice. Like other mycotoxins, it raises consumer health concerns. The issue of low quality is particularly relevant for apples provided by small producers, whose quality control may not be standardised. As sulphur dioxide (SO2) is common in fruit preservation against fungi, the aim of this study was to determine how efficient it is in degrading patulin in apple juices stored in real-life conditions. This included refrigerated (4 °C) and non-refrigerated warehouses/environments (30 °C) over 8, 10, 12, and 20 weeks of storage...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Sakine Ebrahimi
A 37-year-old male was referred to us about one hour after deliberate ingestion of two 3-gram aluminium phosphide (ALP) tablets. Three hours after admission, his blood pressure dropped to 85/55 mmHg, his heart rate increased to 120 bpm, O2 saturation dropped to 82 %, and the electrocardiogram showed junctional rhythm. We started whole blood exchange, and gross haematuria and jaundice ensued. However, his blood pressure increased, arrhythmia resolved itself, and he was extubated two days after the transfusion was completed...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Marija Kovač, Drago Šubarić, Mateja Bulaić, Tihomir Kovač, Bojan Šarkanj
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by toxigenic fungi in crops worldwide. In (micro)organisms such as plants, fungi, bacteria, or animals they may be further metabolised and modified, but this is also true for food processing, which may lead to a wide range of masked mycotoxin forms. These often remain undetected by analytical methods and are the culprits for underestimates in risk assessments. Furthermore, once ingested, modified mycotoxins can convert back to their parent forms. This concern has raised the need for analytical methods that can detect and quantify modified mycotoxins as essential for accurate risk assessment...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Vedran Mužinić, Davor Želježić
Humans have used insecticides since ancient times. The spectrum and potency of available insecticidal substances has greatly expanded since the industrial revolution, resulting in widespread use and unforeseen levels of synthetic chemicals in the environment. Concerns about the toxic effects of these new chemicals on non-target species became public soon after their appearance, which eventually led to the restrictions of use. At the same time, new, more environmentally-friendly insecticides have been developed, based on naturally occurring chemicals, such as pyrethroids (derivatives of pyrethrin), neonicotinoids (derivatives of nicotine), and insecticides based on the neem tree vegetable oil (Azadirachta indica), predominantly azadirachtin...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
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