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Daniel Ramos Gonzalez, Amaia Caro Aramendia, Angus Davison
Although the land snail Cepaea nemoralis is one of the most thoroughly investigated colour polymorphic species, there have been few recent studies on the inheritance of the shell traits. Previously, it has been shown that the shell polymorphism is controlled by a series of nine or more loci, of which five make a single 'supergene' containing tightly linked colour and banding loci and more loosely linked pigmentation, spread band and punctate loci. However, one limitation of earlier work was that putative instances of recombination between loci within the supergene were not easily verified...
February 14, 2019: Heredity
Zhe Zhang, Morten Kargo, Aoxing Liu, Jørn Rind Thomasen, Yuchun Pan, Guosheng Su
Genotype-by-environment (G × E) interactions could play an important role in cattle populations, and it should be considered in breeding programmes to select the best sires for different environments. The objectives of this study were to study G × E interactions for female fertility traits in the Danish Holstein dairy cattle population using a reaction norm model (RNM), and to detect the particular genomic regions contributing to the performance of these traits and the G × E interactions. In total 4534 bulls were genotyped by an Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip...
February 13, 2019: Heredity
Rosane G Collevatti, Evandro Novaes, Orzenil B Silva-Junior, Lucas D Vieira, Matheus S Lima-Ribeiro, Dario Grattapaglia
The role of natural selection in shaping patterns of diversity is still poorly understood in the Neotropics. We carried out the first genome-wide population genomics study in a Neotropical tree, Handroanthus impetiginosus (Bignoniaceae), sampling 75,838 SNPs by sequence capture in 128 individuals across 13 populations. We found evidences for local adaptation using Bayesian correlations of allele frequency and environmental variables (32 loci in 27 genes) complemented by an analysis of selective sweeps and genetic hitchhiking events using SweepFinder2 (81 loci in 47 genes)...
February 12, 2019: Heredity
Mi-Li Liu, Yan-Ling He, Jordi López-Pujol, Yun Jia, Zhong-Hu Li
Historical geological and climatic events are the most important drivers of population expansions/contractions, range shifts, and interspecific divergence in plants. However, the species divergence and spatiotemporal population dynamics of alpine cold-tolerant herbal plants in the high-altitude Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjacent areas remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated population evolutionary history of four endangered Notopterygium herb species in the QTP and adjacent regions...
February 11, 2019: Heredity
Andrew Dj Overall, Richard Ga Faragher
Mutation accumulation is one of the major genetic theories of ageing and predicts that the frequencies of deleterious alleles that are neutral to selection until post-reproductive years are influenced by random genetic drift. The effective population size (Ne ) determines the rate of drift and in age-structured populations is a function of generation time, the number of newborn individuals and reproductive value. We hypothesise that over the last 50,000 years, the human population survivorship curve has experienced a shift from one of constant mortality and no senescence (known as a Type-II population) to one of delayed, but strong senescence (known as a Type-I population)...
February 8, 2019: Heredity
Konrad Rawlik, Oriol Canela-Xandri, Albert Tenesa
Phenotypic correlations among partners for traits such as longevity or late-onset disease have been found to be comparable to phenotypic correlations in first-degree relatives. How these correlations arise in late life is poorly understood. Here we introduce a novel paradigm to establish the presence of indirect assortment on factors correlated across generations, by examining correlations between parents of couples, i.e., in-laws. Using correlations in additive genetic values we further corroborate the presence of indirect assortment on heritable factors...
February 5, 2019: Heredity
Simon Dellicour, Jérôme G Prunier, Sylvain Piry, Marie-Christine Eloy, Sabine Bertouille, Alain Licoppe, Alain C Frantz, Marie-Christine Flamand
Red deer and wild boar are two major game species whose populations are managed and live in areas impacted by human activities. Measuring and understanding the impact of landscape features on individual movements and spatial patterns of genetic variability in these species is thus of importance for managers. A large number of individuals sampled across Wallonia (Belgium) for both species have been genotyped using microsatellite markers (respectively > 1700 and > 1200 genotyped individuals) and some individuals have also been followed using a capture-mark-recapture (CMR) protocol...
February 1, 2019: Heredity
Tahani El Ayari, Najoua Trigui El Menif, Bojan Hamer, Abigail E Cahill, Nicolas Bierne
The Almeria-Oran Front (AOF) is a recognised hotspot of genetic differentiation in the sea, with genetic discontinuities reported in more than 50 species. The AOF is a barrier to dispersal and an ecological boundary; both can determine the position of these genetic breaks. However, the maintenance of genetic differentiation is likely reinforced by genetic barriers. A general drawback of previous studies is an insufficient density of sampling sites at the transition zone, with a conspicuous lack of samples from the southern coastline...
January 23, 2019: Heredity
Marie-Joe Karam, Dima Souleman, M Sol Schvartzman, Sophie Gallina, Julien Spielmann, Charles Poncet, Olivier Bouchez, Maxime Pauwels, Marc Hanikenne, Hélène Frérot
Anthropogenic activities are among the main drivers of global change and result in drastic habitat modifications, which represent strong evolutionary challenges for biological species that can either migrate, adapt, or disappear. In this context, understanding the genetics of adaptive traits is a prerequisite to enable long-term maintenance of populations under strong environmental constraints. To examine these processes, a QTL approach was developed here using the pseudometallophyte Arabidopsis halleri, which displays among-population adaptive divergence for tolerance to metallic pollution in soils...
January 22, 2019: Heredity
Margaux Jullien, Miguel Navascués, Joëlle Ronfort, Karine Loridon, Laurène Gay
Predominantly selfing populations are expected to have reduced effective population sizes due to nonrandom sampling of gametes, demographic stochasticity (bottlenecks or extinction-recolonization), and large scale hitchhiking (reduced effective recombination). Thus, they are expected to display low genetic diversity, which was confirmed by empirical studies. The structure of genetic diversity in predominantly selfing species is dramatically different from outcrossing ones, with populations often dominated by one or a few multilocus genotypes (MLGs) coexisting with several rare genotypes...
January 22, 2019: Heredity
Qun-Hua Han, Ru-Na Sun, Hai-Qiong Yang, Zhen-Wei Wang, Qiu-Hong Wan, Sheng-Guo Fang
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has several important roles in kin recognition, pathogen resistance and mate selection. Research in fish, birds and mammals has suggested that individuals optimise MHC diversity, and therefore offspring fitness, when choosing mates. In reptiles, however, it is unclear whether female mate choice is based on genome-wide genetic characteristics such as microsatellite DNA loci, particular functional-trait loci (e.g., MHC) or both, and MHC's effects on mate choice remain relatively understudied...
January 22, 2019: Heredity
Jake Morris, Nicolas Navarro, Pasi Rastas, Lauren D Rawlins, Joshua Sammy, James Mallet, Kanchon K Dasmahapatra
Unravelling the genetic basis of adaptive traits is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Doing so informs our understanding of evolution towards an adaptive optimum, the distribution of locus effect sizes, and the influence of genetic architecture on the evolvability of a trait. In the Müllerian co-mimics Heliconius melpomene and Heliconius erato some Mendelian loci affecting mimicry shifts are well known. However, several phenotypes in H. melpomene remain to be mapped, and the quantitative genetics of colour pattern variation has rarely been analysed...
January 22, 2019: Heredity
Alessio Iannucci, Marie Altmanová, Claudio Ciofi, Malcolm Ferguson-Smith, Massimo Milan, Jorge Claudio Pereira, James Pether, Ivan Rehák, Michail Rovatsos, Roscoe Stanyon, Petr Velenský, Petr Ráb, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Martina Johnson Pokorná
Despite their long history with the basal split dating back to the Eocene, all species of monitor lizards (family Varanidae) studied so far share the same chromosome number of 2n = 40. However, there are differences in the morphology of the macrochromosome pairs 5-8. Further, sex determination, which revealed ZZ/ZW sex microchromosomes, was studied only in a few varanid species and only with techniques that did not test their homology. The aim of this study was to (i) test if cryptic interchromosomal rearrangements of larger chromosomal blocks occurred during the karyotype evolution of this group, (ii) contribute to the reconstruction of the varanid ancestral karyotype, and (iii) test homology of sex chromosomes among varanids...
January 22, 2019: Heredity
Smaragda Tsairidou, O Anacleto, J A Woolliams, A Doeschl-Wilson
Infectious diseases have a huge impact on animal health, production and welfare, and human health. Understanding the role of host genetics in disease spread is important for developing disease control strategies that efficiently reduce infection incidence and risk of epidemics. While heritable variation in disease susceptibility has been targeted in livestock breeding, emerging evidence suggests that there is additional genetic variation in host infectivity, but the potential benefits of including infectivity into selection schemes are currently unknown...
January 16, 2019: Heredity
Robert Horvath, Benjamin Laenen, Shohei Takuno, Tanja Slotte
Gene-body methylation (gbM) refers to an increased level of methylated cytosines specifically in a CG sequence context within genes. gbM is found in plant genes with intermediate expression level, which evolve slowly, and is often broadly conserved across millions of years of evolution. Intriguingly however, some plants lack gbM, and thus it remains unclear whether gbM has a function. In animals, there is support for a role of gbM in reducing erroneous transcription and transcription noise, but so far most studies in plants have tested for an effect of gbM on expression level, not noise...
January 16, 2019: Heredity
Gemma Palomar, Anti Vasemägi, Freed Ahmad, Alfredo G Nicieza, José Manuel Cano
The evolution of complex traits is often shaped by adaptive divergence. However, very little is known about the number, effect size, and location of the genomic regions influencing the variation of these traits in natural populations. Based on a dense linkage map of the common frog, Rana temporaria, we have localized, for the first time in amphibians, three significant and nine suggestive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for metabolic rate, growth rate, development time, and weight at metamorphosis, explaining 5...
January 10, 2019: Heredity
Jinliang Wang
Marker genotype data could suffer from a high rate of errors such as false alleles and allelic dropouts (null alleles) in situations such as SNPs from low-coverage next-generation sequencing and microsatellites from noninvasive samples. Use of such data without accounting for mistyping properly could lead to inaccurate or incorrect inferences of family relationships such as parentage and sibship. This study shows that markers with a high error rate are still informative. Simply discarding them could cause a substantial loss of precious information, and is impractical in situations where virtually all markers (e...
January 10, 2019: Heredity
Frances R Thistlethwaite, Blaise Ratcliffe, Jaroslav Klápště, Ilga Porth, Charles Chen, Michael U Stoehr, Yousry A El-Kassaby
Here, we perform cross-generational GS analysis on coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), reflecting trans-generational selective breeding application. A total of 1321 trees, representing 37 full-sib F1 families from 3 environments in British Columbia, Canada, were used as the training population for (1) EBVs (estimated breeding values) of juvenile height (HTJ) in the F1 generation predicting genomic EBVs of HTJ of 136 individuals in the F2 generation, (2) deregressed EBVs of F1 HTJ predicting deregressed genomic EBVs of F2 HTJ, (3) F1 mature height (HT35) predicting HTJ EBVs in F2 , and (4) deregressed F1 HT35 predicting genomic deregressed HTJ EBVs in F2 ...
January 10, 2019: Heredity
Allie M Graham, Kevin G McCracken
During periods of reduced O2 supply, the most profound changes in gene expression are mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factors that play a key role in cellular responses to low-O2 tension. Using target-enrichment sequencing, we tested whether variation in 26 genes in the HIF signaling pathway was associated with high altitude and therefore corresponding O2 availability in three duck species that colonized the Andes from ancestral low-altitude habitats in South America. We found strong support for convergent evolution in the case of two of the three duck species with the same genes (EGLN1, EPAS1), and even the same exons (exon 12, EPAS1), exhibiting extreme outliers with a high probability of directional selection in the high-altitude populations...
January 10, 2019: Heredity
I E Alvial, H A Vargas, M Marinov, C Esquivel, J Araya, R Araya-Donoso, I Vila, D Véliz
Although low levels of genetic structure are expected in highly widespread species, geographical and/or ecological factors can limit species distributions and promote population structure and morphological differentiation. In order to determine the effects of geographical isolation on population genetic structure and wing morphology, 281 individuals of the cosmopolitan odonate Pantala flavescens were collected from four continental (Central and South America) and five insular sites (Polynesian islands and the Maldives)...
December 12, 2018: Heredity
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