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Developmental Biology

Rafael Krämer, Sandra Rode, Sebastian Rumpf
Neurons, with their distinct neurites, require elaborate membrane trafficking pathways and regulation to uphold neurite identity and to be able to respond to neuronal or developmental stimuli. In a survey of trafficking regulators required for developmental dendrite pruning in Drosophila sensory neurons, we identified the small GTPase Rab11, a regulator of recycling endosomes. Dendrite pruning requires the developmentally regulated degradation of the cell adhesion molecule Neuroglian, and loss of Rab11 causes defects in the developmental degradation of Neuroglian and another target, the ion channel Ppk26...
March 11, 2019: Developmental Biology
Claudia Quiñonez-Silvero, Kathleen Hübner, Wiebke Herzog
To ensure tissue homeostasis the brain needs to be protected from blood-derived fluctuations or pathogens that could affect its function. Therefore, the brain capillaries develop tissue-specific properties to form a selective blood-brain barrier (BBB), allowing the passage of essential molecules to the brain and blocking the penetration of potentially harmful compounds or cells. Previous studies reported the presence of this barrier in zebrafish. The intrinsic features of the zebrafish embryos and larvae in combination with optical techniques, make them suitable for the study of barrier establishment and maturation...
March 9, 2019: Developmental Biology
Natalia Arbouzova, Alexander D Fulford, Hongtao Zhang, Helen McNeill
Development of an organism requires accurate coordination between growth of a tissue and orientation of cells within the tissue. The large cadherin Fat has been shown to play a role in both of these processes. Fat is involved in establishment of planar cell polarity and regulates growth through the Hippo pathway, a developmental cascade that controls proliferation and apoptosis. Both Fat and the Hippo pathway are known to regulate transcription of four-jointed, although the nature of this regulation is unknown...
March 8, 2019: Developmental Biology
Jacquelyn Chou, Alex C Ferris, Teresa Chen, Ruth Seok, Denise Yoon, Yuichiro Suzuki
Many organisms both undergo dramatic morphological changes during post-embryonic development and also regenerate lost structures, but the roles of epigenetic regulators in such processes are only beginning to be understood. In the present study, the functions of two histone modifiers were examined during metamorphosis and larval limb regeneration in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Polycomb (Pc), a member of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), and Enhancer of zeste (E(z)), a member of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), were silenced in larvae using RNA interference...
March 6, 2019: Developmental Biology
Xiang Li, Fangzhou Liu, Chao Wu, Jing Zhao, Wanlun Cai, Hongxia Hua
The decapentaplegic (dpp) gene plays a variety of roles in diverse cellular and molecular processes of the growth and development. In insects, dpp is mainly required for dorsal-ventral patterning and appendage formation. The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, a major pest of rice, possesses two distinct wing morphs described as long-winged (LW) and short-winged (SW) morphs. With our lab-maintained stable strains of LW and SW BPH, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to research the functions of N. lugens dpp (Nldpp) on wing development...
March 4, 2019: Developmental Biology
Steven D Harris
In filamentous fungi, the formation of hyphal branches is a critical process that supports the ability of mycelia to radiate across and colonize growth substrates. Branching can occur at hyphal tips (apical branching) or from subapical hyphal compartments (lateral branching). The primary focus of this review is on lateral branching. Current understanding of the physiological and molecular mechanisms that underlie the formation of lateral branches is summarized. This includes emphasis on the spatial regulation of branch formation as well as the roles of the morphogenetic machinery in branch emergence...
March 1, 2019: Developmental Biology
Shreyasi Das, Pankaj Kumar, Aakanksha Verma, Tushar K Maiti, Sam J Mathew
Missense mutations in the MYH3 gene encoding myosin heavy chain-embryonic (MyHC-embryonic) have been reported to cause two skeletal muscle contracture syndromes, Freeman Sheldon Syndrome (FSS) and Sheldon Hall Syndrome (SHS). Two residues in MyHC-embryonic that are most frequently mutated, leading to FSS, R672 and T178, are evolutionarily conserved across myosin heavy chains in vertebrates and Drosophila. We generated transgenic Drosophila expressing myosin heavy chain (Mhc) transgenes with the FSS mutations and characterized the effect of their expression on Drosophila muscle structure and function...
February 28, 2019: Developmental Biology
Gustavo A Gomez, Maneeshi S Prasad, Nabjot Sandhu, Patrick B Shelar, Alan W Leung, Martin I García-Castro
The developmental biology of neural crest cells in humans remains unexplored due to technical and ethical challenges. The use of pluripotent stem cells to model human neural crest development has gained momentum. We recently introduced a rapid chemically defined approach to induce robust neural crest by WNT/β-CATENIN activation. Here we investigate the temporal requirements of ectopic WNT activation needed to induce neural crest cells. By altering the temporal activation of canonical WNT/β-CATENIN with a GSK3 inhibitor we find that a 2 Day pulse of WNT/β-CATENIN activation via GSK3 inhibition is optimal to generate bona fide neural crest cells, as shown by their capacity to differentiate to neural crest specific fates including peripheral neurons, glia, melanoblasts and ectomesenchymal osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes...
February 28, 2019: Developmental Biology
Mu-Hui Wang, Cheng-Han Wu, Ting-Yu Huang, Hung-Wei Sung, Ling-Ling Chiou, Shau-Ping Lin, Hsuan-Shu Lee
Axolotls have amazing abilities to regenerate their lost limbs. Nerve and wound epidermis have great impacts on this regeneration. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been shown to play roles in the regeneration of amphibian tails and limbs. In this study, a bi-phasic up-regulation of HDAC1 was noted before early differentiation stage of axolotl limb regeneration. Limb regeneration was delayed in larvae incubated with an HDAC inhibitor MS-275. Local injection of MS-275 or TSA, another HDAC inhibitor, into amputation sites of the juveniles did not interfere with wound healing but more profoundly inhibited local HDAC activities and blastema formation/limb regeneration...
February 28, 2019: Developmental Biology
Piyush Joshi, Andrew J Darr, Isaac Skromne
The progressive maturation of cells down differentiation lineages is controlled by collaborative interactions between networks of extracellular signals and intracellular transcription factors. In the vertebrate spinal cord, FGF, Wnt and Retinoic Acid signaling pathways regulate the progressive caudal-to-rostral maturation of neural progenitors by regulating a poorly understood gene regulatory network of transcription factors. We have mapped out this gene regulatory network in the chicken pre-neural tube, identifying CDX4 as a dual-function core component that simultaneously regulates gradual loss of cell potency and acquisition of differentiation states: in a caudal-to-rostral direction, CDX4 represses the early neural differentiation marker Nkx1...
February 27, 2019: Developmental Biology
Rebecca Ward, Zaheer Ali, Kayleigh Slater, Alison L Reynolds, Lasse D Jensen, Breandán N Kennedy
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is rare, autosomal dominant disorder, characterised by hypervascularised tumour formation in multiple organ systems. Vision loss associated with retinal capillary hemangioblastomas remains one of the earliest complications of VHL disease. The mortality of Vhl-/- mice in utero restricted modelling of VHL disease in this mammalian model. Zebrafish harbouring a recessive germline mutation in the vhl gene represent a viable, alterative vertebrate model to investigate associated ocular loss-of-function phenotypes...
February 27, 2019: Developmental Biology
G Krasovec, K Robine, E Quéinnec, A Karaiskou, J P Chambon
At the onset of the Ciona intestinalis metamorphosis, the first event is tail regression characterized, by a contraction, an apoptotic wave and Primordial Germ Cells (PGC) movement. All these cell behaviors originate from the posterior tail tip and progress to the anterior. Interestingly, earlier in Ciona development, the antero-posterior (A/P) patterning of the tailbud epidermis depends on two antagonist gradients, respectively FGF/MAPK at the posterior and retinoic acid (RA) at the anterior part of the tail...
February 25, 2019: Developmental Biology
Steven Q Irvine, Filomena Ristoratore, Anna Di Gregorio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2019: Developmental Biology
Yi Lu, Tiefeng Zhang, Shan Shan, Shenqi Wang, Wei Bian, Tao Ren, Danrong Yang
Lung resident mesenchymal stem cells (LR-MSCs) contribute to the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying LR-MSCs regulation upon transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 stimulation. We induced fibrogenic differentiation of LR-MSCs isolated from mice by TGF-β1. Several stem cell markers were detected by flow cytometric analysis. Protein expression level was tested by Western blotting and mRNA level was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
February 22, 2019: Developmental Biology
Yanchun Guo, Tatjana Dorn, Susanne J Kühl, Alexander Linnemann, Melanie Rothe, Astrid S Pfister, Seppo Vainio, Karl-Ludwig Laugwitz, Alessandra Moretti, Michael Kühl
Wnt proteins can activate different intracellular signaling pathways. These pathways need to be tightly regulated for proper cardiogenesis. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor Dkk1 has been shown to be sufficient to trigger cardiogenesis in gain-of-function experiments performed in multiple model systems. Loss-of-function studies however did not reveal any fundamental function for Dkk1 during cardiogenesis. Using Xenopus laevis as a model we here show for the first time that Dkk1 is required for proper differentiation of cardiomyocytes, whereas specification of cardiomyocytes remains unaffected in absence of Dkk1...
February 21, 2019: Developmental Biology
Zaheer Ali, Dongmei Cui, Yunlong Yang, Dhani Tracey-White, Gabriela Vazquez-Rodriguez, Mariya Moosajee, Rong Ju, Xuri Li, Yihai Cao, Lasse D Jensen
The choriocapillaris is an exceptionally high density, two-dimensional, sheet-like capillary network, characterized by the highest exchange rate of nutrients for waste products per area in the organism. These unique morphological and physiological features are critical for supporting the extreme metabolic requirements of the outer retina needed for vision. The developmental mechanisms and processes responsible for generating this unique vascular network remain, however, poorly understood. Here we take advantage of the zebrafish as a model organism for gaining novel insights into the cellular dynamics and molecular signaling mechanisms involved in the development of the choriocapillaris...
February 20, 2019: Developmental Biology
Jean Defourny
In mammals, the functional development of the cochlea requires the tight regulation of multiple molecules and signalling pathways including fibroblast growth factors, bone morphogenetic proteins, Wnt and Notch signalling pathways. Over the last decade, the Eph/ephrin system also emerged as a key player of the development and function of the mammalian cochlea. In this review, we discuss the recent advances on the role of Eph/ephrin signalling in patterning the cochlear sensory epithelium and the complex innervation of mechanosensory hair cells by spiral ganglion neurons...
February 13, 2019: Developmental Biology
Abhijeet Sharma, Lauretta A Lacko, Lissenya B Argueta, Michael D Glendinning, Heidi Stuhlmann
A functional placenta develops through a delicate interplay of its vascular and trophoblast compartments. We have identified a previously unknown expression domain for the endothelial-specific microRNA miR-126 in trophoblasts of murine and human placentas. Here, we determine the role of miR-126 in placental development using a mouse model with a targeted deletion of miR-126. In addition to vascular defects observed only in the embryo, loss of miR-126 function in the placenta leads to junctional zone hyperplasia at E15...
February 13, 2019: Developmental Biology
Ke Li, Nicholas E Baker
Regulation of the Drosophila ID protein Extra macrochaetae (Emc) is important because reduced Emc levels have been proposed to favor proneural gene activity and thereby define a prepattern for neurogenesis. Recent studies suggest a major role for post-translational control of Emc levels. To further define the mechanisms of Emc regulation, we identified two redundant cis-regulatory regions by germline transformation-rescue experiments that make use of new molecularly-defined emc mutants. We distinguished the mechanisms by which Daughterless (Da) regulated Emc expression, finding post-translational regulation in most tissues, and additional transcriptional regulation in the eye imaginal disc posterior to the morphogenetic furrow...
February 13, 2019: Developmental Biology
Neta Harari, Lina Sakhneny, Laura Khalifa-Malka, Anke Busch, Klemens J Hertel, Matthias Hebrok, Limor Landsman
The embryonic origin of pericytes is heterogeneous, both between and within organs. While pericytes of coelomic organs were proposed to differentiate from the mesothelium, a single-layer squamous epithelium, the embryonic origin of pancreatic pericytes has yet to be reported. Here, we show that adult pancreatic pericytes originate from the embryonic pancreatic mesenchyme. Our analysis indicates that pericytes of the adult mouse pancreas originate from cells expressing the transcription factor Nkx3.2. In the embryonic pancreas, Nkx3...
February 13, 2019: Developmental Biology
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