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Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767192/advocating-for-improvements-to-building-codes-for-the-population-s-health
#1
Nancy Edwards, James Chauvin, Rosanne Blanchet
Construction codes are a major component of building codes. They provide normative standards by which buildings are designed, built, altered, inspected, and assessed. Persistently high, fall-related injury rates on stairs and in bathrooms indicate that public health advocacy is needed to enhance the passive protection of these codes. Targets and strategies for code improvement advocacy by public health professionals, organizations, and associations are discussed. Approaches pertinent to describing the problem, proposing solutions, and framing the message are considered...
February 14, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767191/postpartum-depression-prevalence-and-risk-factors-among-indigenous-non-indigenous-and-immigrant-women-in-canada
#2
Nihaya Daoud, Kristen O'Brien, Patricia O'Campo, Sarah Harney, Evelyn Harney, Kerry Bebee, Cheryllee Bourgeois, Janet Smylie
OBJECTIVES: The social position of different minority groups in contemporary societies suggests different risk factors for postpartum depression (PPD). In this study, we used two cut-offs of the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) to examine prevalence and risk factors for PPD among mothers participating in the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey (MES), and to compare Indigenous, Canadian-born non-Indigenous and immigrant mothers. METHODS: We used cross-sectional nationwide data from the 2006 MES (unweighted N = 6237, weighted N = 74,231) and conducted multivariate logistic regression models for EPDS ≥ 10 and EPDS ≥ 13 to explore risk factors for the total sample of mothers and in each study group...
February 14, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759307/potential-harms-from-legalization-of-recreational-cannabis-use-in-canada
#3
Sarah B Windle, Kristina Wade, Kristian B Filion, Jonathan Kimmelman, Brett D Thombs, Mark J Eisenberg
With the recent legalization of recreational cannabis use in Canada, questions remain concerning optimal regulation to minimize harms and ensure public health and safety. Patterns of use are subject to change following legalization, and it is important to consider the potential adverse effects that this may have on public health. Important areas of consideration are methods of consumption (e.g., vaping, edibles) and product proliferation; acute and long-term health and behavioural effects (including impaired driving); and use in vulnerable groups, such as children and youth, pregnant women, individuals with mental illness, individuals with low socio-economic status, and Indigenous populations...
February 13, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747348/annual-trends-in-prevalence-and-incidence-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-manitoba-preschoolers-and-toddlers-2004-2015
#4
Amani F Hamad, Silvia Alessi-Severini, Salaheddin M Mahmud, Marni Brownell, I Fan Kuo
OBJECTIVES: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are among the leading causes of disabilities in children. We examined the annual prevalence and incidence rate of ASD between 2004 and 2015 in children aged 1 to 5 years residing in Manitoba. METHODS: A population-based study was conducted using the Manitoba Population Research Data Repository. The study included children aged 1 to 5 years residing in Manitoba between 2004 and 2015. Standard identification algorithm was used to identify ASD cases from hospital abstracts and medical claims...
February 11, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737723/a-buck-a-beer-but-at-what-cost-to-public-health
#5
Kevin D Shield, Charlotte Probst, Jürgen Rehm
Alcohol use leads to a substantial number of hospitalizations, and to increased health and social harms as well as economic costs in Ontario and across Canada. The effects of alcohol price changes on consumption and resulting harms have been firmly established; changes in the minimum price of alcohol have the greatest effect on consumption among people who for reasons of affordability consume low-priced alcoholic beverages, typically adolescents, people with lower socio-economic status, and people with harmful alcohol use...
February 8, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734246/-it-s-not-a-food-issue-it-s-an-income-issue-using-nutritious-food-basket-costing-for-health-equity-advocacy
#6
Elaine Power, Susan Belyea, Patricia Collins
OBJECTIVES: Ontario's public health units (PHUs) face considerable challenges in addressing the social determinants of health, even though "reducing health inequities" is a primary population health outcome in the Ontario Public Health Standards (OPHS). Since 1998, the OPHS mandated PHUs to use the Nutritious Food Basket (NFB) protocol to document food costs, a requirement that was removed in 2018. This study examined how the NFB advanced health equity advocacy by Ontario PHUs, and why some have used this tool more strategically than others...
February 7, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734245/the-relationship-between-bullying-behaviours-in-childhood-and-physician-diagnosed-internalizing-disorders
#7
Julia C H Kontak, Sara F L Kirk, Lynne Robinson, Arto Ohinmaa, Paul J Veugelers
OBJECTIVE: Bullying and its potential consequence for poor mental health constitutes a public health concern, yet there is a dearth of longitudinal studies examining the topic. This study examines the temporal relationship between childhood bullying behaviours (being a victim, being a bully, or being a bully and a victim) and physician-diagnosed internalizing disorders over a 7-year timespan. METHODS: Data from the 2003 Children's Lifestyle and School performance Study (CLASS), a population-based health survey of grade 5 students in Nova Scotia, Canada were linked to administrative health-care records to examine the relationship between bullying behaviours and services where a physician diagnosis of an internalizing disorder (ID) was received...
February 7, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30725386/supervised-inhalation-is-an-important-part-of-supervised-consumption-services
#8
Stacey Bourque, Em M Pijl, Erin Mason, Jill Manning, Takara Motz
SETTING: The first regulated supervised inhalation site (safer smoking room) in North America has opened in Lethbridge, Alberta, as part of a supervised consumption site addressing all routes of consumption. When designing the service, we felt it was important to accommodate not just injection drug use but also inhalation because (1) it is not the method of drug use that kills but the drug itself, (2) all people who use drugs deserve service regardless of their mode of use, and (3) people who use drugs should have the opportunity to use the method with the lowest risk...
February 6, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719696/the-challenge-of-pollution-and-health-in-canada
#9
Niladri Basu, Bruce P Lanphear
The Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health, which conducted a comprehensive assessment of the health and economic impacts of key forms of toxic pollutants in air, water, and soil, estimated that 9 million people die annually from the impact of pollution, which represents 16% of all deaths worldwide. Over 90% of these pollution-related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. While Canada ranks seventh lowest in the world, the burden is still too high; many pollutants were not considered in the Commission's work, and vulnerable populations-including the poor, women, children, and Indigenous peoples-are disproportionally affected by pollution in Canada...
February 4, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710245/stay-in-or-play-out-the-influence-of-weather-conditions-on-physical-activity-of-grade-5-children-in-canada
#10
Sholeh Rahman, Katerina Maximova, Valerie Carson, Gian S Jhangri, Paul J Veugelers
OBJECTIVES: Regular physical activity (PA) in children is essential for their development and prevention of overweight and obesity. Little is known about the effect of day-to-day variations in weather conditions on PA levels in school-aged children, particularly with regard to school compared to non-school days and girls compared to boys. METHODS: Daily step count (7:00 a.m.-9:00 p.m.) from 972 grade 5 students aged 10-11 years from 60 schools across Alberta, Canada, was collected using time-stamped pedometers (minimum wear time of two school and one non-school days) during March-June 2013...
February 1, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706437/assessing-the-strength-of-secondary-school-tobacco-policies-of-schools-in-the-compass-study-and-the-association-to-student-smoking-behaviours
#11
Adam G Cole, Sarah Aleyan, Wei Qian, Scott T Leatherdale
OBJECTIVES: The school environment is an ideal setting to introduce policies to prevent smoking behaviour. However, there may be variability in the strength of school board and secondary school tobacco policies, which may affect student smoking behaviours. This study assessed the strength of a sample of school board and secondary school tobacco policies and examined the association with student smoking behaviours. METHODS: Tobacco policies from school boards (n = 21/26) and secondary schools (n = 43/81) that participated in the COMPASS study during 2015-2016 were obtained online...
January 31, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30701413/towards-smart-cities-as-healthy-cities-health-equity-in-a-digital-age
#12
Morgan Mouton, Ariel Ducey, Judith Green, Lorian Hardcastle, Steven Hoffman, Myles Leslie, Melanie Rock
The advent of 'smart' technologies has already transformed urban life, with important consequences for physical, mental, and social well-being. Population health and equity have, however, been conspicuously absent from much of the 'smart cities' research and policy agenda. With this in mind, we argue for a re-conceptualization of 'digital divides' in terms of socio-economic gradients at the individual level, and we draw attention to digitally mediated connections as crucial elements for health promotion at an institutional level and for remedying inequities...
January 30, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30701412/the-calorie-counter-intuitive-effect-of-restaurant-menu-calorie-labelling
#13
Laura McGeown
As of January 1, 2017, the Healthy Menu Choices Act mandates that food service premises with 20 or more locations in Ontario must display the number of calories in every food item sold on menus. The impetus for this legislation was to enable Ontarians to become aware of the calorie content of foods and beverages consumed outside the home, and make healthier dietary choices while dining out. Though arising as an initiative to attenuate the development of obesity and current obesity rates, evidence suggests menu labelling does not significantly alter individuals' food choices...
January 30, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694447/staying-true-to-rowan-s-law-how-changing-sport-culture-can-realize-the-goal-of-the-legislation
#14
Melissa D McCradden, Michael D Cusimano
Rowan's Law was recently introduced into Ontario legislation following the death of Rowan Stringer, a young rugby player for whom a string of head injuries culminated in her death. The law mandates the removal from play of any youth athlete suspected to have a concussion and makes concussion education mandatory for certain individuals involved with youth sport. This commentary addresses the larger issues within sport culture that may limit the effectiveness of the law, and describes how awareness alone is not sufficient to generate change...
January 29, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30628044/program-implementation-and-effectiveness-of-a-national-workplace-physical-activity-intervention-upngo-with-participaction
#15
Erica Y Lau, Guy Faulkner
INTERVENTION: UPnGO with ParticipACTION (UPnGO) is a 6-week workplace physical activity (PA) initiative aiming to increase habitual PA (steps) during the workday. Core intervention components included (1) self-monitoring of steps and action planning behaviours using a Web/mobile app with incentives and (2) organizational support, which included senior management's role modeling and endorsement of the program. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the effectiveness and levels of implementation of the UPnGO intervention? What is the relationship between effectiveness and levels of implementation? METHODS: A single-arm, pre-/post-test study design was used...
January 9, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30628043/municipal-transportation-policy-as-a-population-health-intervention-estimating-the-impact-of-the-city-of-ottawa-transportation-master-plan-on-diabetes-incidence
#16
Trevor Arnason, Peter Tanuseputro, Meltem Tuna, Douglas Manuel
INTERVENTION: Physical inactivity is an important behavioral risk factor for chronic disease in Canada. Individual-level strategies are used in clinical medicine to target individuals for preventive intervention based on one or more risk factors. In contrast, this study examines the impact of a population-level intervention: a municipal policy outside the healthcare sector that influences the built and social environment. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the preventive effect of a municipal transportation policy to increase active transportation on a chronic disease outcome measure-diabetes incidence-when it is viewed as a population-level health intervention to increase physical activity? METHODS: The impact of increases in active transportation for regular commuting to work in the city of Ottawa, Ontario was modeled to estimate number of diabetes cases prevented over 10 years...
January 9, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30623358/les-aliments-ultra-transform%C3%A3-s-un-concept-utile-pour-la-sant%C3%A3-publique-ultra-processed-foods-a-useful-concept-for-public-health
#17
EDITORIAL
Louise Potvin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30623357/the-successful-scale-up-of-direct-acting-antiviral-hepatitis-c-treatments-will-benefit-from-concerted-investments-in-implementation-science
#18
Rod Knight, Mint Ti
The introduction of highly efficacious direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment therapeutics presents new opportunities to both directly reduce chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and prevent the onward transmission of HCV. To achieve the equitable scale-up of DAA interventions at the population level, however, reductions in HCV incidence and prevalence must be achieved among entire populations of people living with HCV-all in "real-world" conditions. In this commentary, we describe five problem areas that will benefit from new investments in implementation science in order to inform the scale-up of DAA interventions: (1) New evidence is needed to optimize the integration of DAA treatments into generalist models of care; (2) DAA scale-up needs to be adaptive to the needs of highly diverse and large populations living with HCV who will benefit from DAA interventions; (3) we need to do better at measuring and responding to features of implementation context; (4) costs need to be explicitly assessed in "real time"; and (5) new research-community-practice partnerships are needed to inform evolving HCV testing, treatment and prevention guidelines, policies, and programs...
January 8, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30617991/variability-in-ambient-ozone-and-fine-particle-concentrations-and-population-susceptibility-among-canadian-health-regions
#19
David M Stieb, Jiayun Yao, Sarah B Henderson, Lauren Pinault, Marc H Smith-Doiron, Alain Robichaud, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V Martin, Richard Ménard, Jeffrey R Brook
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of the Canadian population that is more susceptible to adverse effects of ozone (O3 ) and fine particle (PM2.5 ) air pollution exposure and how this varies by health region alongside ambient concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 . METHODS: Using data from the census, the Canadian Community Health Survey, vital statistics and published literature, we generated cross-sectional estimates for 2014 of the proportions of the Canadian population considered more susceptible due to age, chronic disease, pregnancy, outdoor work, socio-economic status, and diet...
January 7, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30617990/why-public-health-matters-today-more-than-ever-the-convergence-of-health-and-social-policy
#20
Lori Baugh Littlejohns, Neale Smith, Louise Townend
We argue that public health matters more today than ever because it is uniquely positioned as a meeting point or fulcrum between health care and social welfare policy perspectives on the social determinants of health. It combines a grounding in the sciences of biomedicine and epidemiology with the moral imperatives of social advocacy. Health cannot be delivered through health care policy alone and neither can social welfare policy ensure the well-being of all citizens on its own. Social policy is at a disadvantage because it does not engender universal consent the way health policy can...
January 7, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
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