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Canadian Journal of Microbiology

Ligong Zhai, Junjie Li, Tingting Tao, Zhaoxin Lu, Fengxia Lv, Xiaomei Bie
Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg causes foodborne infections and is a major threat to the food chain and public health. In this study, we aimed to develop a rapid molecular typing approach to identify S. enterica serovar Heidelberg. Using comparative genomics, four serovar-specific gene fragments were identified, and a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with propidium monoazide (PMA) pretreatment method was developed for simultaneous detection of viable Salmonella sp. (invA) and S. Heidelberg(SeHA C3258)...
March 13, 2019: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Lori Graham, Stephanie E Feero
The antimicrobial activity of metal based compounds, including metal oxides, has resulted in numerous agricultural, industrial and medical applications. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to gram positive and gram negative bacteria as well as to some fungi. In this study we assess the sensitivity of <i>Campylobacter fetus</i>, a gram negative bacterial pathogen of humans and animals, to ZnO nanoparticles and determine whether the S layer protects <i>C. fetus</i> from the antibacterial action of these nanoparticles...
March 13, 2019: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Qingxin Meng, Xiuhong Xu, Wenhao Zhang, Mengqi Men Men, Benshu Xu, Liting Deng, Ayodeji Bello, Xin Jiang, Siyuan Sheng, Xiaotong Wu
This study applied high throughput sequencing technology and phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved state (PICRUSt) to examine the microbial population dynamics during the composting of dairy manure and rice straw in a static (without turning) composting system. The results showed that the composition of bacterial community varied significantly during the composting process. The dominant phyla included Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi...
March 12, 2019: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Louise Haubert, Maiara Lindemann Zehetmeyr, Wladimir Padilha Silva
Resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) has been observed in many <i>Listeria monocytogenes</i> strains worldwide, and has association to cadmium chloride (CC) resistance. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the susceptibility to BC and CC, to detect the presence of resistance genes, and investigate the possible role of efflux pumps in BC and CC resistance in <i>L. monocytogenes</i> isolates from food and food processing environments in southern Brazil...
February 5, 2019: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Ying Shan, Yajie Liu, Ziqi Liu, Guowei Li, Cong Chen, Hao Luo, Yunlu Chen, Ningning Guo, Xingfen Shi, Xian Zhang, Weihuan Fang, Xiaoliang Li
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) that causes severe infectious diseases in all ages of swine, leads to serious economic losses. Serologic tests are widely accepted and used to detect anti-PEDV antibodies which could reflect PEDV infection or vaccination. In this study, recombinant PEDV S1 (rS1) was expressed by Bac-to-Bac system and purified by nickel-affinity chromatography column. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on rS1 (rS1-ELISA) was then developed and optimized by checkerboard assays with serial dilutions of antigen and serum...
February 1, 2019: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Siyuan Tao, Zhansheng Wu, Mengmeng Wei, Xiaochen Liu, Yanhui He, Bang-Ce Ye
The use of microbial fertilizers can help to avoid the harmful effects of traditional agricultural fertilizers and pesticides; however, there are many constraints on the practical application of such fertilizers. In this study, microbial biochar formulations (MBFs) were obtained by loading biochar, created from agricultural waste, with Bacillus subtilis SL-13. The effects of the MBF on pepper plant growth and soil fertility were studied in pot experiments. The MBF improved the soil texture and environment, and favored plant growth...
January 31, 2019: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Dinesh Chandra, Rashmi Srivastava, Vadakattu Vsr Gupta, Christopher M M Franco, Anil Kumar Sharma
Application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPB) is an environmentally sustainable option to reduce the effects of abiotic and biotic stresses on plant growth and productivity. Bacteria isolated from rainfed agriculture field soils in the Central Himalaya Kumaun region, India were evaluated for the production of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase. Those producing ACC deaminase in high amounts were evaluated for their potential to improve wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plant growth under irrigated and water-stress conditions in two glasshouse experiments...
January 31, 2019: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Scott T Wushke, Alan Froese, Brian Fristensky, Xiang Li Zhang, Victor Spicer, Oleg Krokhin, David B Levin, Richard Sparling
Caldibacillus debilis strains GB1 and Tf display distinct phenotypes. C. debilis GB1 is capable of anaerobic growth and can synthesize ethanol while C. debilis Tf cannot. Comparison of the GB1 and Tf genome sequences revealed that the genomes were highly similar in gene content and showed a high level of synteny. At the genome scale, there were several large sections of DNA that appeared to be from lateral gene transfer into the GB1 genome. Tf did have unique genetic content but at a much smaller scale; 300 genes in Tf verses 857 genes in GB1 that matched at ≤90% sequence similarity...
January 29, 2019: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Sandhya Dhiman, Ramesh Chand Dubey, Dinesh Kumar Maheshwari, Sandeep Kumar
This communication is aimed to harness the benefits of sulphur oxidising beneficial bacteria from buffalo dung to improve the crop (Foeniculum vulgare) yield. A total of 61 bacterial isolates were screened from buffalo dung, out of which 40 isolates exhibited plant growth promoting attributes, such as phosphate solubilisation, IAA production and HCN production. Out of them, four bacterial isolates viz., BUFF12, BUFF14, BUFF23 and BUFF38 were found the most potent having plant growth promoting and sulphur oxidising properties...
January 18, 2019: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Huixue Liu, Yafang Wang, Dayu Sun, Haizhu Jiang, Fan Yang
To date, there have been comparatively few reports addressing the correlation between biochar treatments, crop species and microbiome shifts. In this study, the shifts in soil bacterial community were investigated four years after a single incorporation of biochar in soybean- and maize-planted soils. Clear changes in bacterial community composition and structure were detected in the soybean-planted soil amended with low-titer biochar (7.89 t/ha), whereas such changes in the maize-planted soil were not observed at the same biochar amendment rate, suggesting a more sensitive influence on bacterial community in the soybean-planted soil than that in the maize-planted soil...
January 16, 2019: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Martha Mounir Naguib, Ahmed Samir Khairalla, Ahmed El-Gendy, Walid Elkhatib
An important microbial resistance mechanism to mercury is its reduction into elemental mercury (facilitated by the merA gene). Thirty eight microbial isolates from a variety of wastewater sources in Egypt were collected. Approximately 14 of these isolates exhibited not only a high degree of tolerance to mercury (up to 160 ppm), but also a high resistance to other tested heavy metals. From them, the 10 most resistant isolates were selected for further study and were found to include 9 Gram-negative and 1 Gram-positive bacterial strains...
January 11, 2019: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Alan Froese, John Schellenberg, Richard Sparling
<i>Ruminiclostridium thermocellum</i> is one of the most promising candidates for consolidated bioprocessing of low-cost lignocellulosic materials to biofuels but still shows poor performance in its ability to deconstruct untreated lignocellulosic substrates. One promising approach to increase <i>R. thermocellum</i>'s rate of hydrolysis is to coculture this cellulose-specialist with partners that possess synergistic hydrolysis enzymes and metabolic capabilities. We have created cocultures of <i>R...
January 4, 2019: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Rosha Pashang, Farhan Yusuf, Simon Zhao, Shadi Deljoomanesh, Kimberley Gilbride
To elucidate how widespread antibiotic resistance is in the surface water environment, we studied the prevalence of antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) at four locations in southern Ontario. We found that the percentage of bacteria resistant to the antibiotic tetracycline was higher at the river site, which flows through agricultural land, and lower at the lake sites. A total of 225 colonies were selected for further antibiotic disc susceptibility testing to 8 different antibiotics to calculate the multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) and the antibiotic resistance index (ARI) for each site...
December 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Yaoming Li, Lili Jiang, Wangwang Lv, Shujuan Cui, Lirong Zhang, Qi Wang, Fandong Meng, Bowen Li, Peipei Liu, Ji Suonan, Wangmu Renzeng, Xine Li, Caiyun Luo, Zhenhua Zhang, Tsechoe Dorji, Yanfen Wang, Shiping Wang
Intact Tibetan meadows provide significant defense against soil-borne pathogen dispersal. However, dramatic meadow degradation has been observed due to climate change and pika damage and their impacts on soil-borne pathogens are still unclear. With approximately 40% of the world's population living in Tibetan plateau and its downstream watersheds, this lack of knowledge should be of great concern. Here, we used Illumina amplicon sequencing to characterize the changes in potential human, domestic animal, plant, and zoonotic bacterial and fungal pathogens in non-degraded, desertified and pika burrowing meadows...
December 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
G Douglas Inglis, Grant M Duke, Mark S Goettel, J Todd Kabaluk, Rodrigo Ortega-Polo
The biogeography and genotype diversity of <i>Metarhizium</i> species in northwestern North American soils was examined; twenty ecoregions were sampled, including 58 agricultural and 80 natural habitat subsites, and areas that were glaciated during the Pleistocene epoch. One hundred and twenty nine isolates of <i>M. brunneum</i>, 26 isolates of <i>M. robertsii</i>, four isolates of <i>M. guizhouense</i>, one isolate of <i>M. flavoviride</i>, and 55 isolates of <i>Beauveria</i> were recovered...
December 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Mauricéia Oliveira, Caroline Rizzi, Vanessa Galli, Graciela Volz Lopes, Louise Haubert, Odir Dellagostin, Wladimir Padilha Silva
The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of genes associated with adhesion (<i>cadF</i>), invasion (<i>ciaB</i>), and cytotoxin production (<i>cdtA, cdtB</i> and <i>cdtC</i>) among <i>C. jejuni</i> isolates from a poultry slaughterhouse and investigate the effect of different temperatures on the expression of these virulence-associated genes. A total of 88 <i>C. jejuni</i> isolates from cecum, liver, chicken carcasses, chilled water, and scalding water were submitted to PCR assay for detection of virulence genes...
December 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Zhigui He, Renjun Mao, Juan'e Dong, Zongsuo Liang, Haihua Zhang, Lin Liu
Pinellia ternata is a traditional Chinese herb that suffers from continuous cropping (CC), which significantly decreases both yield and quality. The influence of CC on microbiome in P. ternata rhizosphere and the effects of remediation on microbiota by rotational cropping (CR) were assessed by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. CC tends to decrease the α-diversities along with cultivation time, whereas CR tends to increase them. Differentially abundant analysis showed that microbial structure was important in maintaining the health status of P...
December 3, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Atilio Tomazini, Sadhana Lal, Riffat Munir, Matthew Stott, Bernard Henrissat, Igor Polikarpov, Richard Sparling, David B Levin
The phylum Chloroflexi is phylogenetically diverse and is a deeply branching lineage of bacteria that express a broad spectrum of physiological and metabolic capabilities. Members of the order Ktedonobacteriales, including the families Ktedonobacteriaceae, Thermosporotrichaceae, and Thermogemmatisporaceae, all have flexible aerobic metabolisms capable of utilizing a wide range of carbohydrates. A number of species within these families are considered cellulolytic and are capable of using cellulose as a sole carbon and energy source...
December 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Nilmini Mendis, Hana Trigui, Mariam Saad, Adrianna Tsang, Sébastien P Faucher
The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila (Lp) is a strict aerobe, surviving and replicating in environments where it frequently encounters reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the nutrient-poor water environment and its replicative niche inside host cells. In many proteobacteria, the LysR-type regulator OxyR controls the oxidative stress response; however, the importance of the OxyR homologue in Lp is still unclear. Therefore, we undertook the characterization of phenotypes associated with the deletion of oxyR in Lp...
December 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Jishun Li, Yuanzheng Wu, Kai Chen, Yilian Wang, Jindong Hu, Yanli Wei, Hetong Yang
During a biodiversity survey of Trichoderma (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae) in coastal and lake wetlands of China, a new species, Trichoderma cyanodichotomus, was isolated from Dongting Lake wetland of Hunan province. The strain TW21990-1 was characterized as having two types of conidia and producing a distinct blue-green pigment on potato dextrose agar and cornmeal dextrose agar. The taxonomic position was analyzed using three molecular markers, internal transcribed spacer rDNA, translation elongation factor 1-alpha, and RNA polymerase II subunit B, revealing less than 95...
December 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
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