Yana Syvolos, Ola E Salama, Aleeza Gerstein
Boric acid is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial used to treat vulvovaginal candidiasis when patients relapse on the primary azole drug fluconazole. Candida albicans is the most common cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis, colloquially referred to as a "vaginal yeast infection". Little is known about the propensity of C. albicans to develop BA resistance or tolerance (the ability of a subpopulation to grow slowly in high levels of drug). We evolved 96 replicates from eight diverse C. albicans strains to increasing BA concentrations to test the evolvability of BA resistance and tolerance...
May 16, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Taylor L Virgin, Prinpida Sonthiphand, Sara Coyotzi, Michael W Hall, Jason J Venkiteswaran, Richard J Elgood, Sherry L Schiff, Josh D Neufeld
The Grand River watershed is the largest catchment in southern Ontario. The river's northern and southern sections are influenced by agriculture, whereas central regions receive wastewater effluent and urban runoff. To characterize in-river microbial communities, as they relate to spatial and environmental factors, we conducted two same-day sampling events along the entire 300 km length of the river, representing contrasting flow seasons (high flow spring melt and low flow end of summer). Through high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, we assessed the relationship between river microbiota and spatial and physicochemical variables...
May 15, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Marie-Stéphanie Fradette, Sandrinne L Bourque, Manuel J Rodriguez, Steve J Charette
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites responsible for gastrointestinal illnesses in humans and in animal species. The main way these parasites are transmitted is by ingestion of their (oo)cysts in drinking water. Monitoring (oo)cysts in water sources is beneficial to evaluate the quality of raw water supplying treatment plants. Currently, the only standardized protocol to enumerate these parasites from water samples is United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1623.1. With this method, we monitored three major water sources in Quebec over a year to assess temporal and geographical variations of these parasite (oo)cysts...
May 3, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Sanie E-Zehra Zaidi, Rahat Zaheer, Athanaisos Zovoilis, Tim A McAllister
The rapid increase of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in humans and livestock is concerning. Antimicrobials are essential for the treatment of disease in modern day medicine and their misuse in humans and food animals has contributed to an increase in the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. Globally, antimicrobial resistance is recognized as an One-health problem affecting humans, animals and environment. Enterococcal species are gram positive bacteria that are widely distributed in nature. Their occurrence, prevalence and persistence across the One-health continuum make them an ideal candidate to study antimicrobial resistance from a One-health perspective...
May 2, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Paul B L George, Luke Hillary, Samantha Leclerc, Emily C Cooledge, Joanie Lemieux, Caroline Duchaine, David L Jones
Wastewater treatment plants are well known point sources of emissions of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) into the environment. Although most work to date has focused on ARG dispersal via effluent, aerial dispersal in bioaerosols is a poorly understood, but likely important vector for ARG dispersal. Recent evidence suggests that ARG profiles of the conifer needle phyllosphere could be used to measure bioaerosol dispersal from anthropogenic sources. Here we assessed airborne dispersal of ARGs from wastewater treatment plants in Wales, UK and Quebec, Canada, using conifer needles as passive bioaerosol monitors...
April 12, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Jordyn S Meaney, Aakanx K Panchal, Aiden J Wilcox, George C diCenzo, Bogumil Karas
Ammonia availability has a crucial role in agriculture as it ensures healthy plant growth and increased crop yields. Since diazotrophs are the only organisms capable of reducing dinitrogen to ammonia, they have a great ecological importance and potential to mitigate the environmental and economic costs of synthetic fertilizer use. Rhizobia are especially valuable being that they can engage in nitrogen-fixing symbiotic relationships with legumes, and they demonstrate great diversity and plasticity in genomic and phenotypic traits...
April 2, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Domenica Farci, Dario Piano
The cell envelope of the poly-extremophile bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is renowned for its highly organized structure and unique functional characteristics. In this bacterium, a precise regularity characterizes not just the S-layer, but it also extends to the underlying cell envelope layers, resulting in a dense and tightly arranged configuration. This regularity is attributed to a minimum of three protein complexes located at the outer membrane level. Together, they constitute a recurring structural unit that extends across the cell envelope, effectively tiling the entirety of the cell body...
March 25, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
James C Kosmopoulos, Rebecca Doyle, Katy D Heath
The ecologically and economically vital symbiosis between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and leguminous plants is often thought of as a bi-partite interaction, yet studies increasingly show the prevalence of non-rhizobial endophytes (NREs) that occupy nodules alongside rhizobia. Yet, what impact these NREs have on plant or rhizobium fitness remains unclear. Here, we investigated four NRE strains found to naturally co-occupy nodules of the legume Medicago truncatula alongside Sinorhizobium meliloti in native soils...
March 20, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Sophie Boutin, Ema Lussier, Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe
The phyllosphere, a reservoir of diverse microbial life associated with plant health, harbors microbial communities that are subject to various complex ecological processes acting at multiple scales. In this study, we investigated the determinants of the spatiotemporal variation in bacterial and fungal communities within the apple tree phyllosphere, employing 16S and ITS amplicon sequencing. Our research assessed the impact of key factors - plant compartment, site, time, and cultivar - on the composition and diversity of leaf and flower microbial communities...
March 7, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Aylin Uskudar Guclu, Sezin Unlu, Hanife Salih Doğan, Suleyman Yalcin, Ahmet Basustaoglu
Bacteriophages have emerged as promising candidates for the treatment of difficult-to-treat bacterial infections. The aim of this study is to isolate and characterize phages infecting carbapenem-resistant (CR) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producer K.pneumoniae isolates. Water samples were taken for the isolation of bacteriophages. One-step growth curve, the optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI), thermal and pH stabilities, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of phages were determined, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was conducted...
March 6, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Fatema Akter Nisha, Janice Tagoe, Amanda Pease, Shelley M Horne, Angel Ugrinov, Barney Geddes, Birgit Pruess
This study characterizes seedling exudates of peas, tomatoes and cucumbers at the level of chemical composition and functionality. A plant experiment confirmed that Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 enhanced growth of pea shoots, while Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 supported growth of pea, tomato, and cucumber roots. Chemical analysis of exudates after one day of seedling incubation in water yielded differences between the exudates of the three plants. Most remarkably, cucumber seedling exudate did not contain detectable sugars...
March 1, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Jezreel Dalmieda, Megan Hitchcock, Jianping Xu
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). However, the global population structure remains largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of genetic variation of S. pneumoniae based on archived multilocus sequence typing data from Our analyses demonstrated both shared and unique distributions of sequence types (STs) and allele types among regional populations. Among the 17,915 global STs, 36 representing 15,263 isolates were broadly shared among all six continents, consistent with recent clonal dispersal and expansion of this pathogen...
February 29, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Xue Li, Wei Lian, Miaomiao Zhang, Xi Luo, Yiquan Zhang, Renfei Lu
Vibrio parahaemolyticus , the leading cause of seafood-associated gastroenteritis, has a strong capacity to form biofilms on surfaces, which is strictly regulated by the CpsS-CpsR-CpsQ regulatory cascade. OpaR, a master regulator of quorum sensing, is a global regulator that controls multiple cellular pathways including biofilm formation and virulence. QsvR is an AraC-type regulator that works coordinately with OpaR to control biofilm formation and virulence gene expression of V. parahaemolyticus . QsvR and OpaR activate cpsQ transcription...
February 28, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Nicole A Lerminiaux, Ken Fakharuddin, Michael Mulvey, Laura Mataseje
The best whole genome assemblies are currently built from a combination of highly accurate short-read sequencing data and long-read sequencing data that can bridge repetitive and problematic regions. Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) produce long-read sequencing platforms and they are continually improving their technology to obtain higher-quality read data that is approaching the quality obtained from short-read platforms such as Illumina. As these innovations continue, we evaluated how much ONT read coverage produced by the Rapid Barcoding Kit v14 (SQK-RBK114) is necessary to generate high-quality hybrid and long-read-only genome assemblies for a panel of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales bacterial isolates...
February 14, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Antoine-Olivier Lirette, Ya-Jou Chen, Nastasia J Freyria, Esteban Góngora, Charles Greer, Lyle Whyte
Global warming-induced sea ice loss in the Canadian Northwest Passage (NWP) will result in more shipping traffic, increasing the risk of oil spills. Microorganisms inhabiting NWP beach sediments may degrade hydrocarbons, offering a potential bioremediation strategy. In this study, the characterization and genomic analyses of 22 hydrocarbon-biodegradative bacterial isolates revealed that they contained a diverse range of key alkane and aromatic hydrocarbon-degradative genes as well as cold and salt tolerance genes indicating they are highly adapted to the extreme Arctic environment...
February 13, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Yaping Wang, Jian Wang, Xiaochong Zhu, Wei Wang
Trichoderma harzianum is a well-known biological control strain and a mycoparasite of Rhizoctonia solani . To explore the mechanisms of mycoparasitism, the genome and transcriptome of T. harzianum T4 were both assembled and analyzed in this study. The genome of T. harzianum T4 was assembled into 106 scaffolds, sized 41.25 Mb, and annotated with a total of 8118 predicted genes. We analyzed the transcriptome of T. harzianum T4 against R. solani in a dual culture in three culture periods: before contact (BC), during contact (C), and after contact (AC)...
February 5, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Luis Enrique Chaves-González, Daniela Jaikel-Víquez, Stefany Lozada-Alvarado, Fabio Granados-Chinchilla
Fungal species in the Nectriaceae, such as Fusarium spp. (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) are etiologic agents of hyalohyphomycosis capable of producing violaceous or yellowish pigments under certain conditions, while Curvularia spp. (Pleosporales: Pleosporaceae) are agents of phaeohyphomycosis and typically produce melanin in their cell walls. In nectriaceous and pleosporaceous fungi, these pigments are mainly constituted by polyketides (e.g., azaphilones, naphthoquinones, hydroxyanthraquinones). Considering the importance of pigments synthesized by these genera, this work focused on the selective extraction of pigments produced by eight Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) and one Curvularia verruculosa isolate recovered from dermatomycosis specimens, their separation, purification, and posterior chemical analysis...
January 17, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Corrie V Vincent, Dawn Bignell
Streptomyces have a uniquely complex developmental life cycle that involves the coordination of morphological differentiation with the production of numerous bioactive specialized metabolites. The majority of Streptomyces spp. are soil dwelling saprophytes, while plant pathogenicity is a rare attribute among members of this genus. Phytopathogenic Streptomyces are responsible for economically important diseases such as common scab, which affects potato and other root crops. Following the acquisition of genes encoding virulence factors, Streptomyces pathogens are expected to have specifically adapted their regulatory pathways to enable transition from a primarily saprophytic to a pathogenic lifestyle...
January 8, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Flore Oudouhou, Claire Morin, Mickael Bouin, Christiane Gaudreau, Christian Baron
Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem and it increasingly leads to treatment failure. While the bacterium is present worldwide, the severity of clinical outcomes is highly dependent on the geographical origin and genetic characteristics of the strains. One of the major virulence factors identified in H. pylori is the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), which encodes a type IV secretion system used to translocate effectors into human cells. Here, we investigated the genetic variability of the cagPAI among 13 antibiotic-resistant H...
January 4, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
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January 1, 2024: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
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