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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

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December 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Gayle A Brazeau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Nancy Fjortoft, Jacob Gettig, Melinda Verdone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Anna Ratka
Empathy, the most important human attribute that matters in every aspect of life, is essential in health care. Provision of patient-centered care requires empathic health care practitioners. The correlation between empathy of health care providers and improved patient adherence, satisfaction, and treatment outcomes is well-established. Scholarly evidence shows positive correlations between empathy and affective domains and confirms that soft skills are grounded in empathy. Empathic students have stronger affective skills and are capable to acquire, develop, reinforce, and display strong affective behaviors, abilities, and attitudes...
December 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Jennifer Danielson, Mayumi Willgerodt
Experts in the field of interprofessional education (IPE) have called for the use of theory in curriculum design to produce better results with measurable outcomes. While evidence of this practice is growing in the IPE literature, publications about using theoretical approaches to inform curricular design in pharmacy education is nonexistent. This paper describes the process used at the University of Washington for developing a theoretically grounded framework to anchor and guide curriculum design. Faculty charged with implementing IPE at other institutions may learn from our team's approach to co-creating an inclusive framework, developing a common philosophy, and applying appropriate theory in building a framework to guide curriculum development and IPE implementation...
December 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Mary Elizabeth Ray, Kimberly K Daugherty, Lisa Lebovitz, Michael J Rudolph, Veronica P Shuford, Margarita V DiVall
Examinations are typically used in higher education to objectively assess student learning, and they are also used as a frequent assessment tool in the Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum. This paper describes best practices and provides examples for faculty to build reliable and valid examinations, ensure examination security and deter academic misconduct, and enhance student learning and achievement of course objectives. Colleges and schools of pharmacy can incorporate these concepts into comprehensive examination policies and focus faculty development efforts on improving the examination purpose, design, and experience for both faculty and students...
December 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Cynthia J Boyle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Zachary R Noel, Craig J Beavers, Steven P Dunn, Anne Marie Schullo-Feulner, Lauren Caldas, Dave L Dixon
Minimum competencies for diagnostic tools, such as the electrocardiogram, are not well-defined in current standards or publications. The electrocardiogram has significant pharmacotherapeutic implications that pharmacists should have an adequate understanding of. This commentary highlights the importance of pharmacists' understanding of key elements of the electrocardiogram and drafts a set of recommended minimum competencies for graduating pharmacy students.
December 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Ashley E Woodruff, Nicole P Albanese, William A Prescott
Objective. To compare pharmacotherapy instruction in Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) programs with the 2009 and 2016 American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) pharmacotherapy toolkits. Methods. A survey was sent to representatives at US schools and colleges with PharmD programs. The survey consisted of questions pertaining to pharmacotherapy credit-hours, contact time spent for each therapeutic subject area, and pedagogical methods used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results. Representatives from 75 of 129 PharmD programs responded (response rate 58%)...
December 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Sarah Ray, Jessica Bellone, Nicholas Zupec, Kassandra Bartelme
Objective. To assess pharmacy students' ability to incorporate laptop computers into simulated patient encounters (SPEs) in the second professional year (P2) and assess their ability to retain these skills into the next professional year. Students' awareness and confidence in using computers was also assessed. Methods. P2 students were surveyed about their awareness of and confidence in incorporating a computer into an SPE. Their performance using a computer in an SPE was evaluated using a blinded rubric. Next, they received formal education on this skill...
December 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Dalia Bajis, Rebekah Moles, Dip Hosp, Betty Chaar
Objective. To explore pharmacy stakeholders' perspectives in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) on pharmacy education and quality assurance. Method. Thirty-two interviews were conducted with professionals from 15 EMR countries, exploring pharmacy education in the region. Themes were mapped to the five pillars of the International Pharmaceutical Federation's Global Framework on Quality Assurance of Pharmacy Education. Results. Nine challenges were identified across the framework on country-, institution-, and faculty-level...
December 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Joyce S Jih, Robert P Shrewsbury
Objective. To determine if students who self-analyzed their own nonsterile preparations had increased confidence in their compounding skill. Methods. Self-efficacy surveys were given to P1 and P3 students at the beginning and conclusion of a semester in which they completed their regularly scheduled compounding course. The survey assessed their confidence in general compounding skills and their perception if an additional self-analytical component to determine the potency of their nonsterile preparations would improve their confidence level score...
December 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Allison B Blackmer, Megan Thompson, Jason M Brunner, Toral Patel, Joseph J Saseen
Objective. To provide a novel culminating experience that assesses student competence and achievement of five curricular outcomes during the P4 year. Methods. This two-week Intersession course provided faculty assessment of student competence after completing five of seven Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs). Students completed written pre-work assignments generated from real-world experiences from APPEs. Faculty assessed and provided feedback to improve students' competency on curricular outcomes related to four course components: clinical case, drug information, clinical pearl and reflection...
December 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Kerry Wilbur, Kyle J Wilby, Shane Pawluk
Objective. To report the findings of how Canadian preceptors perceive and subsequently evaluate diverse levels of trainees during pharmacy clerkships. Methods. Using modified Delphi technique, 17 Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) preceptors from across Canada categorized 16 student narrative descriptions pertaining to their perception of described student performance: exceeds, meets, or falls below their expectations. Results. Twelve (75%) student narratives profiles were categorized unanimously in the final round, six of which were below expectations...
December 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Beatrice C Wigmore, Jack C Collins, Carl R Schneider, Daniel Arias, Rebekah J Moles
Objective. To ascertain how pharmacy students (novices) and pharmacy staff (experts) respond to a childhood fever scenario. Methods. Data were collected from 65 second year students and 51 fourth (final) year students in an over-the-counter fever scenario during assessment tasks. Data from pharmacy staff were collected via mystery shopping conducted over nine weeks between March and October 2015. All encounters were immediately scored by the trained simulated client, and immediate feedback was provided for pharmacy staff and fourth year students...
December 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Fadi M Alkhateeb, Steve Arkle, Sharon L K McDonough, David A Latif
Objective. To compare the different philosophies, emphases and processes of national and international accreditation paths available to pharmacy programs in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. To identify engagement of GCC pharmacy programs with International Pharmacy Accreditation or Certification (IPAC) and the outcome advantages of IPAC compared to other national accreditation standards. Findings. National quality standards across the GCC countries are similarly structured but in different stages of development...
December 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
T Joseph Mattingly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Allison Mari Dering-Anderson
Pharmacy educators, whether in didactic classes, laboratory settings, or experiential opportunities, search for ways to incorporate "real life" patient questions and concerns into the educational process. This practice not only enhances the educational opportunities for students, it also prepares them for questions and concerns that they will inevitably face as practicing professionals. This commentary describes listener calls from 500, live, call-in radio shows. There is no accurate way to directly assess information that patients do not know or understand...
November 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Abeer M Al-Ghananeem, Daniel R Malcom, Samira Shammas, Talal Aburjai
Globally, pharmacy education is evolving to reflect a more patient-centered, interprofessional approach to clinical practice. In the 22 countries of the Arab world, advancements in regulatory support for pharmacy practice and changes to the health care system have been slower than in Europe, Asia, and the Americas. Significant cultural, logistical, and legal barriers exist in many countries, and a consensus approach to accreditation, educational outcomes, and curricula design is lacking. This commentary briefly examines the current state of both pharmacy education and practice in the Arab world, and it highlights recent reports of curricular reform and innovation...
November 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Daniel S Longyhore, Dave L Dixon, Zachary R Noel
Doctor of Pharmacy department heads are responsible for determining the breadth and depth of content within courses. While the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) provides standards for what content, skills, and abilities should be included in PharmD education, the process that schools and colleges use to determine the degree to which these measured outcomes are taught is variable. As new topics and content for instruction are identified, schools and colleges are faced with either extending the PharmD curriculum length, removing other content, or diminishing the depth that other content is covered to make room for new content...
November 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
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