journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38634687/serum-gfap-levels-correlate-with-astrocyte-reactivity-post-mortem-brain-atrophy-and-neurofibrillary-tangles
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Pascual Sánchez-Juan, Elizabeth Valeriano-Lorenzo, Alicia Ruiz-González, Ana Belén Pastor, Hector Rodrigo Lara, Francisco López-González, María Ascensión Zea-Sevilla, Meritxell Valentí, Belen Frades, Paloma Ruiz, Laura Saiz, Iván Burgueño-García, Miguel Calero, Teodoro Del Ser, Alberto Rábano
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a proxy of astrocyte reactivity, has been proposed as biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. However, there is limited information about the correlation between blood biomarkers and post-mortem neuropathology. In a single-centre prospective clinicopathological cohort of 139 dementia patients, for which the time-frame between GFAP level determination and neuropathological assessment was exceptionally short (on average 139 days), we analysed this biomarker, measured at three time points, in relation to proxies of disease progression such as cognitive decline and brain weight...
April 18, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38634672/blood-gfap-reflects-astrocyte-reactivity-to-alzheimer-s-pathology-in-post-mortem-brain-tissue
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Christian Limberger, Eduardo R Zimmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38630618/genetics-of-immune-response-to-epstein-barr-virus-prospects-for-multiple-sclerosis-pathogenesis
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jesse Huang, Katarina Tengvall, Izaura Bomfim Lima, Anna Karin Hedström, Julia Butt, Nicole Brenner, Alexandra Gyllenberg, Pernilla Stridh, Mohsen Khademi, Ingemar Ernberg, Faiez Al Nimer, Ali Manouchehrinia, Jan Hillert, Lars Alfredsson, Oluf Andersen, Peter Sundström, Tim Waterboer, Tomas Olsson, Ingrid Kockum
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been advocated as a prerequisite for developing multiple sclerosis (MS) and possibly the propagation of the disease. However, the precise mechanisms for such influences are still unclear. A large-scale study investigating the host genetics of EBV serology and related clinical manifestations, such as infectious mononucleosis (IM), may help us better understand the role of EBV in MS pathogenesis. This study evaluates the host genetic factors that influence serological response against EBV and history of IM and cross-evaluates them with MS risk and genetic susceptibility in the Swedish population...
April 17, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38620012/subtitled-speech-the-neural-mechanisms-of-ticker-tape-synaesthesia
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Fabien Hauw, Benoît Béranger, Laurent Cohen
Reading acquisition modifies areas of the brain associated with vision, with language, and their connections. Those changes enable reciprocal translation between orthography, and word sounds and meaning. Individual variability in the pre-existing cerebral substrate contributes to the range of eventual reading abilities, extending to atypical developmental patterns, including dyslexia and reading-related synesthesias. The present study is devoted to the little-studied but highly informative ticker-tape synesthesia (TTS), in which speech perception triggers the vivid and irrepressible perception of words in their written form in the mind's eye...
April 15, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38608149/adaptive-coding-of-reward-in-schizophrenia-its-change-over-time-and-relation-to-apathy
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Mariia Kaliuzhna, Fabien Carruzzo, Noémie Kuenzi, Philippe N Tobler, Matthias Kirschner, Tal Geffen, Teresa Katthagen, Kerem Böge, Marco M Zierhut, Florian Schlagenhauf, Stefan Kaiser
Adaptive coding of reward is the process by which neurons adapt their response to the context of available compensations. Higher rewards lead to a stronger brain response, but the increase of the response depends on the range of available rewards. A steeper increase is observed in a narrow range, and a more gradual slope in a wider range. In schizophrenia, adaptive coding appears affected in different domains, and in the reward domain in particular. Here we tested adaptive coding of reward in a large group of patients with schizophrenia (N = 86) and controls (N = 66)...
April 12, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38606777/apilimod-dimesylate-in-c9orf72-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-randomized-phase-2a-clinical-trial
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Suma Babu, Katharine A Nicholson, Jeffrey D Rothstein, Andrea Swenson, Paul J Sampognaro, Pravin Pant, Eric A Macklin, Susan Spruill, Sabrina Paganoni, Tania F Gendron, Mercedes Prudencio, Leonard Petrucelli, Darrell Nix, Sean Landrette, Esther Nkrumah, Keith Fandrick, Joan Edwards, Peter R Young
Apilimod dimesylate is a first-in-class phosphoinositide kinase, FYVE-type zinc finger containing (PIKfyve) inhibitor with favourable clinical safety profile and has demonstrated activity in preclinical C9orf72 and TDP-43 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis models. In this amyotrophic lateral sclerosis clinical trial, the safety, tolerability, CNS penetrance, and modulation of pharmacodynamic target engagement biomarkers were evaluated. This Phase 2a, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, biomarker-endpoint clinical trial was conducted in four USA centres (ClinicalTrials...
April 12, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38598531/correction-to-disrupted-daily-activity-rest-cycles-in-relation-to-daily-cortisol-rhythms-of-home-dwelling-patients-with-early-alzheimer-s-dementia
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38593179/potassium-seeks-a-role-in-the-drama-of-neurodegeneration
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Charles Nicholson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38588052/more-than-185-cag-repeats-a-point-of-no-return-in-huntington-s-disease-biology
#9
EDITORIAL
Jillian Belgrad, Anastasia Khvorova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 8, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38584513/gdf5-as-a-rejuvenating-treatment-for-age-related-neuromuscular-failure
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Traoré Massiré, Noviello Chiara, Vergnol Amélie, Gentil Christel, Halliez Marius, Saillard Lucile, Gelin Maxime, Forand Anne, Lemaitre Mégane, Guesmia Zoheir, Cadot Bruno, Caldas Eriky, Marty Benjamin, Mougenot Nathalie, Messéant Julien, Strochlic Laure, Sadoine Jeremy, Slimani Lofti, Jolly Ariane, De la Grange Pierre, Hogrel Jean-Yves, Pietri-Rouxel France, Falcone Sestina
Sarcopenia involves a progressive loss of skeletal muscle force, quality and mass during ageing, which results in increased inability and death; however, no cure has been established thus far. Growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) has been described to modulate muscle mass maintenance in various contexts. For our proof of concept, we overexpressed GDF5 by AAV vector injection in Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle of adult aged (20 months) mice and performed molecular and functional analysis of skeletal muscle. We analysed human Vastus Lateralis muscle biopsies from adult young (21-42 years) and aged (77-80 years) donors, quantifying the molecular markers modified by GDF5 overexpression (OE) in mouse muscle...
April 8, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38584499/neurocomputational-model-of-compulsivity-deviating-from-an-uncertain-goal-directed-system
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Taekwan Kim, Sang Wan Lee, Silvia Kyungjin Lho, Sun-Young Moon, Minah Kim, Jun Soo Kwon
Despite a theory that an imbalance in goal-directed versus habitual systems serve as building blocks of compulsions, research has yet to delineate how it occurs during an arbitration process between the two systems in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Inspired by a brain model that the inferior frontal cortex selectively gates the putamen to guide goal-directed or habitual actions, this study aimed to examine whether disruptions in the arbitration process via the fronto-striatal circuit would underlie the imbalanced decision-making and compulsions in patients...
April 8, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38577773/tiam1-mediated-maladaptive-plasticity-underlying-morphine-tolerance-and-hyperalgesia
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Changqun Yao, Xing Fang, Qin Ru, Wei Li, Jun Li, Zeinab Mehsein, Kimberley F Tolias, Lingyong Li
Opioid pain medications, such as morphine, remain the mainstay for treating severe and chronic pain. Prolonged morphine use, however, triggers analgesic tolerance and hyperalgesia (OIH), which can last for a long period after morphine withdrawal. How morphine induces these detrimental side effects remains unclear. Here, we show that morphine tolerance and OIH are mediated by Tiam1-coordinated synaptic structural and functional plasticity in the spinal nociceptive network. Tiam1 is a Rac1 GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that promotes excitatory synaptogenesis by modulating actin cytoskeletal dynamics...
April 5, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38574200/preserved-striatal-innervation-maintains-motor-function-despite-severe-loss-of-nigral-dopaminergic-neurons
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Thomas Paß, Konrad M Ricke, Pierre Hofmann, Roy S Chowdhury, Yu Nie, Patrick Chinnery, Heike Endepols, Bernd Neumaier, André Carvalho, Lionel Rigoux, Sophie M Steculorum, Julien Prudent, Trine Riemer, Markus Aswendt, Birgit Liss, Bent Brachvogel, Rudolf J Wiesner
Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and their striatal axon terminals causes cardinal motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. In idiopathic cases, high levels of mitochondrial DNA alterations leading to mitochondrial dysfunction are a central feature of these vulnerable neurons. Here we present a mouse model expressing the K320E-variant of the mitochondrial helicase Twinkle in dopaminergic neurons, leading to accelerated mitochondrial DNA mutations. These K320E-TwinkleDaN mice showed normal motor function at 20 months of age, although ∼70% of nigral dopaminergic neurons had perished...
April 4, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38573324/predictors-of-cognition-after-glioma-surgery-connectotomy-structure-function-phenotype-plasticity
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Guillaume Herbet, Hugues Duffau, Emmanuel Mandonnet
Determining preoperatively the maximal extent of resection that would preserve cognitive functions is the core challenge of brain tumor surgery. Over the last decade, the methodological framework to achieve this goal has been thoroughly renewed: the population-level topographically-focused voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping has been progressively overshadowed by machine learning (ML) algorithmics, in which the problem is framed as predicting cognitive outcomes in a patient-specific manner from a typically large set of variables...
April 4, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38562097/brain-and-cognitive-changes-in-patients-with-long-covid-compared-with-infection-recovered-control-subjects
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Víctor M Serrano Del Pueblo, Gemma Serrano-Heras, Carlos M Romero Sánchez, Pepa Piqueras Landete, Laura Rojas-Bartolome, Inmaculada Feria, Richard G M Morris, Bryan Strange, Francisco Mansilla, Linda Zhang, Beatriz Castro-Robles, Lourdes Arias-Salazar, Susana López-López, María Payá, Tomás Segura, Mónica Muñoz-López
Between 2.5 and 28% of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 suffer Long COVID or persistence of symptoms for months after acute illness. Many symptoms are neurological, but the brain changes underlying the neuropsychological impairments remain unclear. This study aimed to provide a detailed description of the cognitive profile, the pattern of brain alterations in Long COVID and the potential association between them. To address these objectives, 83 patients with persistent neurological symptoms after COVID-19 were recruited, and 22 now healthy controls chosen because they had suffered COVID-19 but did not experience persistent neurological symptoms...
April 2, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38554393/skin-keratinocyte-derived-sirt1-and-bdnf-modulate-mechanical-allodynia-in-mouse-models-of-diabetic-neuropathy
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jennifer O'Brien, Peter Niehaus, Koping Chang, Juliana Remark, Joy Barrett, Abhishikta Dasgupta, Morayo Adenegan, Mohammad Salimian, Yanni Kevas, Krish Chandrasekaran, Tibor Kristian, Rajeshwari Chellappan, Samuel Rubin, Ashley Kiemen, Catherine Pei-Ju Lu, James W Russell, Cheng-Ying Ho
Diabetic neuropathy is a debilitating disorder characterized by spontaneous and mechanical allodynia. The role of skin mechanoreceptors in the development of mechanical allodynia is unclear. We discovered that mice with diabetic neuropathy had decreased sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity in foot skin, leading to reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and subsequent loss of innervation in Meissner corpuscles, a mechanoreceptor expressing the BDNF receptor TrkB. When SIRT1 was depleted from skin, the mechanical allodynia worsened in diabetic neuropathy mice, likely due to retrograde degeneration of the Meissner-corpuscle innervating Aβ axons and aberrant formation of Meissner corpuscles which may have increased the mechanosensitivity...
March 30, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38551087/cul-4-inhibition-rescues-spastin-levels-and-reduces-defects-in-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia-models
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Francesca Sardina, Claudia Carsetti, Ludovica Giorgini, Gaia Fattorini, Gianluca Cestra, Cinzia Rinaldo
Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are degenerative motor neuron diseases characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness in the lower limbs. The most common form of HSP is due to SPG4 gene haploinsufficiency. SPG4 encodes the microtubule severing enzyme spastin. Although, there is no cure for SPG4-HSP, strategies to induce a spastin recovery are emerging as promising therapeutic approaches. Spastin protein levels are regulated by poly-ubiquitination and proteasomal-mediated degradation, in a neddylation-dependent manner...
March 29, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38538211/central-visual-pathways-affected-by-degenerative-retinal-disease-before-and-after-gene-therapy
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Manzar Ashtari, Jean Bennett, David A Leopold
Genetic diseases affecting the retina can result in partial or complete loss of visual function. Leber's Congenital Amaurosis (LCA) is a rare blinding disease, usually inherited in an autosomally recessive manner, with no cure. Retinal gene therapy has been shown to improve vision in LCA patients caused by mutations in the RPE65 gene (LCA2). However, little is known about how activity in central visual pathways is affected by the disease or by subsequent gene therapy. Functional MRI was used to assess retinal signal transmission in cortical and subcortical visual structures before and one year after retinal intervention...
March 27, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38538210/sord-deficient-rats-develop-a-motor-predominant-peripheral-neuropathy-unveiling-novel-pathophysiological-insights
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Adriana P Rebelo, Clemer Abad, Maike F Dohrn, Jian J Li, Ethan K Tieu, Jessica Medina, Christopher Yanick, Jingyu Huang, Brendan Zotter, Juan I Young, Mario Saporta, Steven S Scherer, Katherina Walz, Stephan Zuchner
Biallelic SORD mutations cause one of the most frequent forms of recessive hereditary neuropathy, estimated to affect approximately 10,000 patients in North America and Europe alone. Pathogenic SORD loss-of-function changes in the encoded enzyme sorbitol dehydrogenase result in abnormally high sorbitol levels in cells and serum. How sorbitol accumulation leads to peripheral neuropathy remains to be elucidated. A reproducible animal model for SORD neuropathy is essential to illuminate the pathogenesis of SORD deficiency and for preclinical studies of potential therapies...
March 27, 2024: Brain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38537648/ophthalmate-is-a-new-regulator-of-motor-functions-via-casr-implications-for-movement-disorders
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sammy Alhassen, Derk Hogenkamp, Hung Anh Nguyen, Saeed Al Masri, Geoffrey W Abbott, Olivier Civelli, Amal Alachkar
Dopamine's role as the principal neurotransmitter in motor functions has long been accepted. We broaden this conventional perspective by demonstrating the involvement of non-dopaminergic mechanisms. In mouse models of Parkinson's Disease (PD), we observed that L-DOPA elicited a substantial motor response even when its conversion to dopamine was blocked by inhibiting the enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Remarkably, the motor activity response to L-DOPA in the presence of an AADC inhibitor (NSD1015) showed a delayed onset, yet greater intensity and longer duration, peaking at 7 hours, compared to when L-DOPA was administered alone...
March 27, 2024: Brain
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