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Brain: a Journal of Neurology

Thomas Nyffeler, Tim Vanbellingen, Brigitte C Kaufmann, Tobias Pflugshaupt, Daniel Bauer, Julia Frey, Magdalena Chechlacz, Stephan Bohlhalter, René M Müri, Tobias Nef, Dario Cazzoli
Spatial neglect is a strong and negative predictor of general functional outcome after stroke, and its therapy remains a challenge. Whereas inhibitory non-invasive brain stimulation over the contralesional, intact hemisphere has generally been shown to ameliorate neglect on a group level, a conspicuous variability of the effects at the individual level is typically observed. We aimed to assess the characteristics and determinants of the effects of inhibitory non-invasive brain stimulation in neglect, identifying which patients would respond to this therapeutic approach and which not...
February 19, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Yu Yamazaki, Mitsuru Shinohara, Motoko Shinohara, Akari Yamazaki, Melissa E Murray, Amanda M Liesinger, Michael G Heckman, Elizabeth R Lesser, Joseph E Parisi, Ronald C Petersen, Dennis W Dickson, Takahisa Kanekiyo, Guojun Bu
While the accumulation and aggregation of amyloid-β and tau are central events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, there is increasing evidence that cerebrovascular pathology is also abundant in Alzheimer's disease brains. In brain capillaries, endothelial cells are connected closely with one another through transmembrane tight junction proteins forming the blood-brain barrier. Because the blood-brain barrier tightly regulates the exchange of molecules between brain and blood and maintains brain homeostasis, its impairment is increasingly recognized as a critical factor contributing to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis...
February 15, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Nicolai Franzmeier, Anna Rubinski, Julia Neitzel, Yeshin Kim, Alexander Damm, Duk L Na, Hee Jin Kim, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Hana Cho, Sofia Finsterwalder, Marco Duering, Sang Won Seo, Michael Ewers
In Alzheimer's disease, tau pathology spreads hierarchically from the inferior temporal lobe throughout the cortex, ensuing cognitive decline and dementia. Similarly, circumscribed patterns of pathological tau have been observed in normal ageing and small vessel disease, suggesting a spatially ordered distribution of tau pathology across normal ageing and different diseases. In vitro findings suggest that pathological tau may spread 'prion-like' across neuronal connections in an activity-dependent manner. Supporting this notion, functional brain networks show a spatial correspondence to tau deposition patterns...
February 15, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Atsushi Kadowaki, Ryoko Saga, Youwei Lin, Wakiro Sato, Takashi Yamamura
The mechanism underlying the progression of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), characterized by accumulating fixed disability, is yet to be fully understood. Although alterations in the gut microbiota have recently been highlighted in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, the mechanism linking the altered gut environment with the remote CNS pathology remains unclear. Here, we analyse human CD4+ memory T cells expressing the gut-homing chemokine receptor CCR9 and found a reduced frequency of CCR9+ memory T cells in the peripheral blood of patients with SPMS relative to healthy controls...
February 15, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Nadja F Bednarczuk, Angela Bonsu, Marta Casanovas Ortega, Anne-Sophie Fluri, John Chan, Heiko Rust, Fabiano de Melo, Mishaal Sharif, Barry M Seemungal, John F Golding, Diego Kaski, Adolfo M Bronstein, Qadeer Arshad
Vestibular migraine is among the commonest causes of episodic vertigo. Chronically, patients with vestibular migraine develop abnormal responsiveness to both vestibular and visual stimuli characterized by heightened self-motion sensitivity and visually-induced dizziness. Yet, the neural mechanisms mediating such symptoms remain unknown. We postulate that such symptoms are attributable to impaired visuo-vestibular cortical interactions, which in turn disrupts normal vestibular function. To assess this, we investigated whether prolonged, full-field visual motion exposure, which has been previously shown to modulate visual cortical excitability in both healthy individuals and avestibular patients, could disrupt vestibular ocular reflex and vestibular-perceptual thresholds of self-motion during rotations...
February 12, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Ina Mexhitaj, Mukanthu H Nyirenda, Rui Li, Julia O'Mahony, Ayman Rezk, Ayal Rozenberg, Craig S Moore, Trina Johnson, Dessa Sadovnick, D Louis Collins, Douglas L Arnold, Bruno Gran, E Ann Yeh, Ruth Ann Marrie, Brenda Banwell, Amit Bar-Or
Elucidation of distinct T-cell subsets involved in multiple sclerosis immune-pathophysiology continues to be of considerable interest since an ultimate goal is to more selectively target the aberrant immune response operating in individual patients. While abnormalities of both effector (Teff) and regulatory (Treg) T cells have been reported in patients with multiple sclerosis, prior studies have mostly assessed average abnormalities in either limb of the immune response, rather than both at the same time, which limits the ability to evaluate the balance between effectors and regulators operating in the same patient...
February 12, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
David S Knopman, Emily S Lundt, Terry M Therneau, Prashanthi Vemuri, Val J Lowe, Kejal Kantarci, Jeffrey L Gunter, Matthew L Senjem, Michelle M Mielke, Mary M Machulda, Bradley F Boeve, David T Jones, Jon Graff-Radford, Sabrina M Albertson, Christopher G Schwarz, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack
As more biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and age-related brain conditions become available, more sophisticated analytic approaches are needed to take full advantage of the information they convey. Most work has been done using categorical approaches but the joint relationships of tau PET, amyloid PET and cortical thickness in their continuous distributions to cognition have been under-explored. We evaluated non-demented subjects over age 50 years in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, 2037 of whom had undergone 3 T MRI scan, 985 amyloid PET scan with 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and MRI, and 577 PIB-PET, 18F-AV1451 flortaucipir PET and MRI...
February 12, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Brian A Gordon, Tyler M Blazey, Jon Christensen, Aylin Dincer, Shaney Flores, Sarah Keefe, Charles Chen, Yi Su, Eric M McDade, Guoqiao Wang, Yan Li, Jason Hassenstab, Andrew Aschenbrenner, Russ Hornbeck, Clifford R Jack, Beau M Ances, Sarah B Berman, Jared R Brosch, Douglas Galasko, Serge Gauthier, James J Lah, Mario Masellis, Christopher H van Dyck, Mark A Mintun, Gregory Klein, Smiljana Ristic, Nigel J Cairns, Daniel S Marcus, Chengjie Xiong, David M Holtzman, Marcus E Raichle, John C Morris, Randall J Bateman, Tammie L S Benzinger
Tauopathy is a hallmark pathology of Alzheimer's disease with a strong relationship with cognitive impairment. As such, understanding tau may be a key to clinical interventions. In vivo tauopathy has been measured using cerebrospinal fluid assays, but these do not provide information about where pathology is in the brain. The introduction of PET ligands that bind to paired helical filaments provides the ability to measure the amount and distribution of tau pathology. The heritability of the age of dementia onset tied to the specific mutations found in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease families provides an elegant model to study the spread of tau across the course of the disease as well as the cross-modal relationship between tau and other biomarkers...
February 11, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Jochen Hammes, Hendrik Theis, Kathrin Giehl, Merle C Hoenig, Andrea Greuel, Marc Tittgemeyer, Lars Timmermann, Gereon R Fink, Alexander Drzezga, Carsten Eggers, Thilo van Eimeren
Impulsive-compulsive behaviours like pathological gambling or hypersexuality are a frequent side effect of dopamine replacement therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease. Multiple imaging studies suggest a significant reduction of presynaptic dopamine transporters in the nucleus accumbens to be a predisposing factor, reflecting either a reduction of mesolimbic projections or, alternatively, a lower presynaptic dopamine transporter expression per se. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis of fewer mesolimbic projections as a risk factor by using dopamine synthesis capacity as a proxy of dopaminergic terminal density...
February 8, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Fabien Rech, Guillaume Herbet, Yann Gaudeau, Sophie Mézières, Jean-Marie Moureau, Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, Hugues Duffau
Negative motor responses (NMRs) are defined as movement arrests induced by direct electrical stimulation of the brain. The NMRs manifest themselves after the disruption of a corticosubcortical network involved in motor control, referred to as the 'negative motor network'. At present, the spatial topography of the negative motor areas (NMAs) is poorly known. Hence, the objectives of the present study were to establish the first probabilistic map of the NMAs of the upper limbs and face, identify potential subareas, and investigate the NMAs' relationships with the primary motor cortex...
February 7, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Daisuke Ishibashi, Takujiro Homma, Takehiro Nakagaki, Takayuki Fuse, Kazunori Sano, Katsuya Satoh, Tsuyoshi Mori, Ryuichiro Atarashi, Noriyuki Nishida
Infectious prions comprising abnormal prion protein, which is produced by structural conversion of normal prion protein, are responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Prions are infectious agents that do not possess a genome and the pathogenic protein was not thought to evoke any immune response. Although we previously reported that interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) was likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of prion diseases, suggesting the protective role of host innate immune responses mediated by IRF3 signalling, this remained to be clarified...
February 7, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Alekhya Mandali, Kathrin Weidacker, Seung-Goo Kim, Valerie Voon
The likelihood of an outcome (uncertainty or sureness) and the similarity between choices (conflict or ease of a decision) are often critical to decision-making. We often ask ourselves: how likely are we to win or lose? And how different is this option's likelihood from the other? Uncertainty is a characteristic of the stimulus and conflict between stimuli, but these dissociable processes are often confounded. Here, applying a novel hierarchical drift diffusion approach, we study their interaction using a sequential learning task in healthy volunteers and pathological groups characterized by compulsive behaviours, by posing it as an evidence accumulation problem...
February 5, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Seok-Jun Hong, Hyo-Min Lee, Ravnoor Gill, Joelle Crane, Viviane Sziklas, Boris C Bernhardt, Neda Bernasconi, Andrea Bernasconi
Neuroimaging studies have consistently shown distributed brain anomalies in epilepsy syndromes associated with a focal structural lesion, particularly mesiotemporal sclerosis. Conversely, a system-level approach to focal cortical dysplasia has been rarely considered, likely due to methodological difficulties in addressing variable location and topography. Given the known heterogeneity in focal cortical dysplasia histopathology, we hypothesized that lesional connectivity consists of subtypes with distinct structural signatures...
February 5, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Jakob Lorentzen, Maria Willerslev-Olsen, Helle Hüche Larsen, Simon Francis Farmer, Jens Bo Nielsen
Voluntary toe walking in adults is characterized by feedforward control of ankle muscles in order to ensure optimal stability of the ankle joint at ground impact. Toe walking is frequently observed in children with cerebral palsy, but the mechanisms involved have not been clarified. Here, we investigated maturation of voluntary toe walking in typically-developing children and typically-developed adults and compared it to involuntary toe walking in children with cerebral palsy. Twenty-eight children with cerebral palsy (age 3-14 years), 24 typically-developing children (age 2-14 years) and 15 adults (mean age 30...
February 4, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Masayuki Itoh, Hongmei Dai, Shin-Ichi Horike, John Gonzalez, Yoshikazu Kitami, Makiko Meguro-Horike, Ichiro Kuki, Shuichi Shimakawa, Harumi Yoshinaga, Yoko Ota, Tetsuya Okazaki, Yoshihiro Maegaki, Shin Nabatame, Shin Okazaki, Hisashi Kawawaki, Naoto Ueno, Yu-Ichi Goto, Yoichi Kato
The leukodystrophies cause severe neurodevelopmental defects from birth and follow an incurable and progressive course that often leads to premature death. It has recently been reported that abnormalities in aminoacyl t-RNA synthetase (ARS) genes are linked to various unique leukodystrophies and leukoencephalopathies. Aminoacyl t-RNA synthetase proteins are fundamentally known as the first enzymes of translation, catalysing the conjugation of amino acids to cognate tRNAs for protein synthesis. It is known that certain aminoacyl t-RNA synthetase have multiple non-canonical roles in both transcription and translation, and their disruption results in varied and complicated phenotypes...
February 3, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Yves Allenbach, Lois Bolko, Ségolène Toquet, Océane Landon-Cardinal, Olivier Benveniste
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Charalampia Papadopoulou, Ying Hong, Ebun Omoyinmi, Paul A Brogan, Despina Eleftheriou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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