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Asma Alanazi, Hafsa Munir, Mohammed Alassiri, Lewis S C Ward, Helen M McGettrick, Gerard B Nash
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are used in therapy, often by injection into the blood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the adhesive and migratory properties of MSC from umbilical cords (UCMSC), bone marrow (BMMSC) or trabecular bone (TBMSC), which might influence delivery to injured tissue. METHODS: MSC were perfused through glass capillaries coated with matrix proteins, collagen or fibronectin, or albumin. Adherent cells were counted microscopically and their spreading analysed over time...
January 24, 2019: Biorheology
FitzRoy E Curry, C Charles Michel
BACKGROUND: Ultrastructural investigations of the endothelial glycocalyx reveal a layer adjacent to the cell surface with a structure consistent with the primary  ultrafilter of vascular walls. Theory predicts this layer can be no greater than 200-300 nm thick, a result  to be reconciled with observations that red cells and large macromolecules are excluded  from a region 1 micrometer or more from the cell membrane. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether this apparent inconsistency might be accounted for by a model of steady state water and protein transport through a glycocalyx bi-layer formed by a porous outer layer in series with a more selective inner layer...
January 10, 2019: Biorheology
Kozaburo Hayashi, Masuya Kurimoto
BACKGROUND: The venous response to elevated blood pressure (BP) is of major importance because it is closely related to the etiology of venous diseases and the competency of vein grafts. In vitro culture experiments may provide useful information on the function of vein grafts because it is easier to separate mechanical and hemodynamic effects from other systemic influences compared to in vivo experiments. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of BP elevation on wall dimensions and mechanical properties of in vitro cultured veins...
July 10, 2018: Biorheology
Cheong-Ah Lee, Qi Kong, Dong-Guk Paeng
BACKGROUND: Previous numerical modeling studies on red blood cell (RBC) aggregation have elucidated the inverse relationship between shear rate and RBC aggregation under steady flow. However, information on the cyclic variation in RBC aggregation under pulsatile flow remains lacking. OBJECTIVE: RBC aggregation was simulated to investigate the complex interrelationships among the parameters of RBC motion under pulsatile flow. METHODS: A two-dimensional particle model was used to simulate RBC motion driven by hydrodynamic, aggregation, and elastic forces in a sinusoidal pulsatile flow field...
July 10, 2018: Biorheology
Emine Kilic-Toprak, Fatma Unver, Ozgen Kilic-Erkek, Halil Korkmaz, Yasin Ozdemir, Burak Oymak, Alten Oskay, Melek Bor-Kucukatay
BACKGROUND: Isokinetic exercise is used to reduce strength imbalance and to enhance performance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a single bout of eccentric isokinetic exercise on hemorheology (erythrocyte deformability and aggregation), total oxidant/antioxidant status (TOS/TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) in active individuals. METHODS: The study comprises 11 active, healthy, male subjects (mean age of 19...
2018: Biorheology
Anna Marcinkowska-Gapińska, Kamila Linkowska-Świdzińska, Teodor Świdziński, Anna Surdacka
BACKGROUND: It is generally unknown if taste sensitivity is dependent upon saliva viscosity. The rheological properties of saliva result from many factors and it has been shown to behave as a non-Newtonian fluid whose viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. Taste sensitivity may be quantitatively assayed by electro-gustometry. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to compare saliva rheological properties, obtained with a rotary-oscillating rheometer, to quantitative measures of taste sensitivity, using electro-gustometry...
2018: Biorheology
Beatriz Lázaro, Prudencio Alonso, Andrea Rodriguez, Manuel La Nuez, Florencio Marzo, Julio G Prieto
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a polysaccharide present in almost all animal tissues, in which it carries out important biological functions, among them, the protection of the joints by lubricating them and dampening the tension in them. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the viscoelastic properties of several commercial preparations of HA, to determine their suitability for use as viscosupplementation therapy in joint pathology (osteoarthritis). METHODS: 4 HA hydrogels: Durolane®, Synocrom_Forte_One®, Synvisc_One® and Viscoplus_Matrix® and 4 HA solutions: Ostenil®, Ostenil_Plus®, Viscoplus_Gel® and Orthovisc® were analyzed to compare their viscoelatsic rheological parameters using an oscillatory-rotational rheometer...
2018: Biorheology
Mark Schumann, Alexander Brinker, Christian Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Developments in the production of aquacultural salmonid feeds in the last 20 years have led to extruded diets with extremely low water content and a shift from mainly marine fish based ingredients towards plant content. These changes expose the industry to the vagaries of the highly dynamic plant protein market. Resulting variations in the precise composition of aqua feeds may carry unpredictable consequences for water quality, since some plant ingredients cause undesirable reductions in the mechanical stability of faeces...
2018: Biorheology
Takahiro Sasaki, Junji Seki, Tomoaki Itano, Masako Sugihara-Seki
BACKGROUND: In the microcirculation, red blood cells (RBCs) were observed to be confined to an axial stream surrounded by a marginal RBC depleted layer. This axial accumulation of RBCs is considered to arise from the RBC deformability. OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively evaluate the effect of RBC deformability on their axial accumulation at a flow condition comparable to that in arterioles by developing a new observation system for accurate measurements of radial RBC positions in the cross section of capillary tubes...
2018: Biorheology
Lennart Kuck, Marijke Grau, Michael J Simmonds
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) deformability may increase, or decrease, following application of shear stress ("shear conditioning"), depending upon the specific magnitude and duration of exposure. However, the time course of altered RBC deformability following shear remains unresolved. OBJECTIVE: We utilised shear conditioning known to increase (10 Pa) or decrease (64 Pa) RBC deformability and subsequently rested the cells; serial measurements of deformability during the rest period facilitated defining the time course of recoverability...
2018: Biorheology
Viktoria Somogyi, Katalin Peto, Adam Deak, Bence Tanczos, Norbert Nemeth
BACKGROUND: Age- and gender-related alterations of hemorheological parameters have not been completely elucidated to date. Experiments on older animals may give valuable information on this issue. However, the majority of rheological studies have been performed in young rodents. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the influence of aging and gender on hemorheological parameters in rats. METHODS: Coeval male (n=10) and female (n=10) Wistar (Crl:WI) rats were followed-up over 15 months...
2018: Biorheology
Kozaburo Hayashi, Daichi Kakoi, Akihisa Makino
BACKGROUND: Although many studies have shown that arteries change diameter in response to chronic change in blood flow (BF), keeping wall shear stress (WSS) at physiologically normal levels, relatively little is known about the effects of flow restoration after flow reduction and also the role of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) during such a remodeling process. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the biomechanical responses of the arterial wall to the restoration of normal BF after flow reduction and compare the results with our previous results observed in response to decreased BF alone...
2018: Biorheology
Oliver R Schätti, Vera Colombo, Peter A Torzilli, Luigi M Gallo
BACKGROUND: Cartilage surface contact geometry influences the deformational behavior and stress distribution throughout the extracellular matrix (ECM) under load. OBJECTIVE: To test the correlation between the mechanical and cellular response of articular cartilage when loaded with two different-sized spherical indenters under dynamic reciprocating sliding motion. METHODS: Articular cartilage explants were subjected to a reciprocating sliding load using a 17...
2018: Biorheology
Yuki Ogawa, Takuma Nakahara, Yuma Nishida, Chihiro Kobayashi, Takamichi Hirata, Hideaki Nagano, Suguru Shiratori, Kenjiro Shimano
BACKGROUND: Prediction of thrombus formation at intact arterial walls under low shear flow conditions is clinically important particularly for better prognoses of embolisation in cerebral aneurysms. Although a new mathematical model for this purpose is necessary, little quantitative information has been known about platelet adhesion to intact endothelial cells. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to measure the number of platelets adhering to intact endothelial cells with a focus upon the influence of the shear rate...
2018: Biorheology
Shang-Jen Yu, James P Buerck, Edgar A O'Rear, Thomas L Whitsett
BACKGROUND: Reperfusion injury often occurs with therapeutic intervention addressing the arterial occlusions causing acute myocardial infarction and stroke. The no-reflow phenomenon has been ascribed to leukocyte plugging and blood vessel constriction in the microcirculation. OBJECTIVE: To assess possible red cell contributions to post-thrombolytic no-reflow phenomenon. METHODS: Blood clots were formed by recalcifying 1 ml of citrated fresh human venous blood and then lysed by adding 1,000 units of streptokinase (SK) at several intervals within 1 hour...
2018: Biorheology
C J Nettle, L Jenkins, D Curtis, N Badiei, K Lewis, P R Williams, D R Daniels
BACKGROUND: The rheological properties of sputum may influence lung function and become modified in disease. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to correlate the viscoelastic properties of sputum with clinical data on the severity of disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Sputum samples from COPD patients were investigated using rheology, simple mathematical modelling and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)...
2018: Biorheology
Yoshihito Hayashi, Marc-Aurèle Brun, Kenzo Machida, Seungmin Lee, Aya Murata, Shinji Omori, Hidetoshi Uchiyama, Yoshinori Inoue, Toshifumi Kudo, Takahiro Toyofuku, Masayuki Nagasawa, Isao Uchimura, Tomomasa Nakamura, Takeshi Muneta
BACKGROUND: In a whole blood coagulation test, the concentration of any in vitro diagnostic agent in plasma is dependent on the hematocrit level but its impact on the test result is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to clarify the effects of reagent concentration, particularly Ca2+, and to find a method for hematocrit estimation compatible with the coagulation test. METHODS: Whole blood coagulation tests by dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM) and rotational thromboelastometry were performed with various concentrations of Ca2+ or on samples with different hematocrit levels...
2017: Biorheology
Christina Koliamitra, Bastian Holtkamp, Philipp Zimmer, Wilhelm Bloch, Marijke Grau
BACKGROUND: Acute exercise increases red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS) activation and RBC deformability but the effect of regular training remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To detect the chronic effect of enduring moderate and high intensity training on the RBC-NOS/NO pathway and to detect a relation between RBC deformability and endurance capacity. METHODS: 38 healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to one of three training groups: High Volume Training (HVT; 120-140 beats per minute (bpm)), High Intensity Training (HIT; 160-180 bpm) and Moderate Intensity Training (MIT; 140-160 bpm)...
2017: Biorheology
Dimitrios P Sokolis, Constantinos A Dimitriou, Pavlos Lelovas, Nikolaos G Kostomitsopoulos, Ismene A Dontas
BACKGROUND: Arterial function is regulated by estrogen, but no consistent pattern of arterial mechanical remodeling in response to depleted estrogen levels is available. OBJECTIVE: To examine long-term effects of ovariectomy (OVX) on the mechanical properties, morphology, and histological structure of the carotid artery in middle-aged rats and a potentially protective effect of Sideritis euboea extract (SID), commonly consumed as "mountain tea". METHODS: 10-month-old female Wistar rats were allocated into control (sham-operated), OVX, OVX+SID, and OVX+MALT (maltodextrin; excipient used for dilution of SID) groups...
2017: Biorheology
Anwar Madkhali, Michael Chernos, Samin Fakhraei, Dana Grecov, Ezra Kwok
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a common, localized joint disease that causes pain, stiffness and reduced mobility. The effects of osteoarthritis on the extensional rheology of synovial fluid in the knees are not fully understood and consequently require further study. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work is to study the extensional rheology of osteoarthritic synovial fluid and to investigate a possible correlation between synovial fluid protein concentration and extensional rheology...
November 9, 2016: Biorheology
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