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Behaviour Research and Therapy

Elien Vanderveren, Patricia Bijttebier, Dirk Hermans
Autobiographical memories consist of different features that have been shown to relate to psychological well-being and psychopathology. Two such characteristics show quite some overlap, namely memory coherence and memory specificity, although their association has never been investigated before. In this study, we examined the association between memory coherence and memory specificity in a sample of first-year psychology students. Additionally, to gain more insight into the relation between memory coherence and psychopathology, we investigated the association with known correlates of memory specificity, namely internalizing symptoms and rumination...
February 8, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Tom J Barry, Wing Yan Sze, Filip Raes
The tendency to recall events from one's past in a non-specific and overgeneral way has been found to predict the onset and severity of a range of emotional disorders. Memory Specificity Training (MeST) was devised a decade ago in order to target and modify this tendency so as to reduce the symptoms of emotional disorder or to reduce the risk that such disorders might emerge over time. We present a meta-analytical review of research into the effects of MeST on autobiographical memory specificity in the context of emotional disorders (k = 13)...
February 2, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Julina A Rattel, Melanie Wegerer, Stephan F Miedl, Jens Blechert, Lisa M Grünberger, Michelle G Craske, Frank H Wilhelm
Higher prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women than men may be explained by sex differences in fear learning processes. Initial evidence points to elevated unconditioned and conditioned fear responding as well as to elevated state anxiety in women as potential peritraumatic mechanisms. Using the "conditioned-intrusion-paradigm", which combines differential fear conditioning with the trauma-film paradigm, neutral sounds were presented as predictors of the occurrence (CS+) or non-occurrence (CS-) of highly aversive films...
February 2, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Daniel J Paulus, Matthew W Gallagher, Amanda M Raines, Norman B Schmidt, Michael J Zvolensky
Although past work has documented reduction in alcohol use severity among smokers following smoking cessation treatment, little is known regarding factors associated with this reduction. The current study sought to examine relations between trajectories of change in anxiety sensitivity and non-targeted alcohol use severity from baseline to one year following smoking cessation treatment. Individuals (n = 386) were adult daily smokers engaged in a smoking cessation treatment study. Measures of alcohol use severity and anxiety sensitivity were collected at baseline as well as 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-months post-treatment...
January 31, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Kristof Hoorelbeke, Nathan Van den Bergh, Marieke Wichers, Ernst H W Koster
Research exploring how cognitive risk- and protective factors relate following remission from internalizing disorders suggests a central role for resilience. However, it remains unclear what constitutes resilience in this context. Furthermore, previous studies have typically relied on cross-sectional data which do not allow to map the temporal dynamics of such relations. Using a seven-day experience sampling period in 85 remitted depressed patients, we examined the interplay between five transdiagnostic vulnerability- and protective factors in daily life...
January 23, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Jonas Zaman, Eva Ceulemans, Dirk Hermans, Tom Beckers
For more than a century, researchers have attempted to understand why organisms behave similarly across situations. Despite the robust character of generalization, considerable variation in conditioned responding both between and within humans remains a challenge for contemporary generalization models. The current study aims to investigate the extent to which variation in behavior in a context of generalization can be attributed to differences in perception. We combined a fear conditioning and generalization procedure with a perceptual decision task in humans...
January 18, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Patrick Onghena, René Tanious, Tamal Kumar De, Bart Michiels
Randomization tests for alternating treatments designs, multiple baseline designs, and withdrawal/reversal designs are well-established. Recent classifications, however, also mention the "changing criterion design" as a fourth important type of single-case experimental design. In this paper, we examine the potential of randomization tests for changing criterion designs. We focus on the rationale of the randomization test, the random assignment procedure, the choice of the test statistic, and the calculation of randomization test p-values...
January 14, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Hermien J Elgersma, Ernst H W Koster, Jorien Vugteveen, Albert Hoekzema, Brenda W J H Penninx, Claudi L H Bockting, Peter J de Jong
Previous research showed that individuals who were remitted from a depressive disorder displayed heightened attention towards negative adjectives (e.g., worthless). We tested if this attentional bias (AB) is predictive of future recurrence of depressive episodes and/or having depressive symptoms at 2- and 4-year follow-up. We used a longitudinal approach within the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and selected participants who were remitted from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (n = 918)...
January 11, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Michael J Zvolensky, Jasper A J Smits, Lorra Garey
The field of behavioral medicine continues to have a major impact on psychological science and public health. Presently, the field of behavioral medicine is undergoing rapid development and continues to evolve as a sub-discipline in allied disciplines. This Special Issue highlights emerging work that contributes to the evolution of behavioral medicine as pertaining to behavioral, psychosocial, and biomedical science integration to prevent, diagnose, and treat illness and disease. The present introductory article calls attention to research in behavioral medicine in the larger context of behavioral health research and practice and encourages continued research in this area...
January 11, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Nienke C Jonker, Klaske A Glashouwer, Albert Hoekzema, Brian D Ostafin, Peter J de Jong
This study examined differences in food-related Attentional Bias (AB) between patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and adolescents without an eating disorder. AB was assessed with an Attentional Response to Distal versus Proximal Emotional Information (ARDPEI) task that was specifically designed to differentiate between attentional engagement with and attentional disengagement from food. We tested if patients with AN would show less attentional engagement and less difficulty to disengage their attention from food cues than individuals without an eating disorder...
January 10, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Eric C Meyer, Yvette Z Szabo, Sheila B Frankfurt, Nathan A Kimbrel, Bryann B DeBeer, Sandra B Morissette
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major challenge among war veterans. This study assessed the contribution of several interrelated, modifiable psychosocial factors to changes in PTSD symptom severity among combat-deployed post-9/11 Veterans. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of predictors of mental health and functional outcomes among U.S. Iraq and Afghanistan war Veterans (N = 117). This study assessed the unique contribution of psychological flexibility, mindfulness, and self-compassion to PTSD recovery, after accounting for established predictors of PTSD chronicity, including combat exposure, alcohol use problems, and traumatic brain injury...
January 7, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Joseph C Franklin, Xieyining Huang, Diana Bastidas
Causal knowledge is crucial for understanding and preventing suicide. Unfortunately, we have little direct knowledge about suicide causes because we cannot conduct experiments that seek to make suicide more likely. In such situations, translational approaches can provide valuable, though tentative, information. We sought to establish a new translational approach by developing a laboratory approximation of suicide with new virtual reality (VR) technologies. Such an approach would allow researchers to tentatively investigate the causes of suicide by conducting experiments that introduce purported causes of suicide and observe their effects on VR suicide rates...
December 27, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Tenille C Taggart, Craig Rodriguez-Seijas, Christina Dyar, Jennifer C Elliott, Ronald G Thompson, Deborah S Hasin, Nicholas R Eaton
Using alcohol and drugs in sexual contexts is associated with negative health consequences, including increased risk for HIV/STIs, sexual victimization, unplanned pregnancies, and overdose. Evidence suggests millions of adults regularly use alcohol in sexual contexts, thus increasing their risk for these consequences. However, no nationally representative estimates exist for rates of regular alcohol and/or drug use in sexual contexts. Additionally, previous studies suggest sexual minority individuals are more likely to use substances in sexual contexts than heterosexuals; however, none of these studies examined for multiple dimensions or subgroups of sexual orientation...
December 24, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Brittany M Mathes, Grace A Kennedy, Natalie L Wilver, Corinne N Carlton, Jesse R Cougle
Contamination fear and washing compulsions are among the most common symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Though these symptoms have traditionally been viewed as being driven by a desire to avoid harm, recent research has highlighted the importance of feelings of incompleteness (INC) or not-just right experiences (NJREs) in this symptom dimension. However, no study to date has examined the extent to which INC/NJREs may be associated with treatment response for contamination symptoms. The current study used a multi-method approach to examine the role of INC/NJREs in treatment of contamination symptoms...
December 21, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Jeffrey R Vittengl, Lee Anna Clark, Michael E Thase, Robin B Jarrett
Many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are married or in marriage-like relationships that could influence treatment process and outcomes. We clarified relations of patient-reported criticism from partners (perceived criticism) and criticism of partners with psychosocial functioning and changes in cognitive therapy (CT) for depression. Partnered outpatients (N = 219) received a 12-week CT protocol and completed measures repeatedly. As hypothesized, perceived criticism and criticism of partners correlated with personality (e...
December 21, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Joseph W Boffa, Norman B Schmidt
Identifying a malleable pre-trauma risk marker for posttraumatic stress is crucial to preventing symptom development among at-risk individuals. One such candidate is anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns (ASCC), which represents the fear of psychological incapacitation due to anxious arousal. While the extant literature suggests that applying ASCC interventions prior to trauma exposure should mitigate development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), this has not been formally tested. We examined whether individuals randomized to receive a Cognitive Anxiety Sensitivity Treatment (CAST; n = 44) prior to a trauma film paradigm would report lower film-specific PTSS after one week compared to individuals randomized to a physical health education training control condition (n = 47)...
December 21, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Lucia Billeci, Pietro Muratori, Sara Calderoni, Natasha Chericoni, Valentina Levantini, Annarita Milone, Annalaura Nocentini, Marina Papini, Laura Ruglioni, Mark Dadds
Research suggests that callous unemotional (CU) traits are associated with poor emotion recognition due to impairments in attention to relevant emotional cues. To further investigate the mechanisms that underlie CU traits, this study focused on the relationship between levels of CU and children's attention to, and recognition of, facial emotions. Participants were 7- to 10-year-old Italian boys, 35 with a diagnosis of Disruptive Behavior Disorder (age: M = 8.93, SD = 1.35), and 23 healthy male controls (age: M = 8...
December 20, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Bart Verkuil, Andreas M Burger
People suffering from chronic worries pay excessive attention to emotional information. In this study we examined whether a reduced ability to inhibit attention from fearful faces (i.e. inhibition of return; IOR) can be attributed to the low vagus nerve activity observed in high worriers. Our pre-registered hypothesis was that transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) would enhance IOR to fearful faces. Ninety-four students who scored above a pre-determined cut-off on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire were randomly allocated to receive either tVNS (n = 45) or sham stimulation of the earlobe (n = 49)...
December 19, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Daniel D L Coppersmith, Evan M Kleiman, Catherine R Glenn, Alexander J Millner, Matthew K Nock
Decades of research suggest that social support is an important factor in predicting suicide risk and resilience. However, no studies have examined dynamic fluctuations in day-by-day levels of perceived social support. We examined such fluctuations over 28 days among a sample of 53 adults who attempted suicide in the past year (992 total observations). Variability in social support was analyzed with between-person intraclass correlations and root mean square of successive differences. Multi-level models were conducted to determine the association between social support and suicidal ideation...
December 11, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Michael V Bronstein, Jonas Everaert, Ariana Castro, Jutta Joormann, Tyrone D Cannon
Delusions have been repeatedly linked to reduced engagement in analytic (i.e., conscious and effortful) reasoning. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. One hypothesis is that less analytic reasoning might maintain persecutory delusions by reducing belief flexibility. An important aspect of belief flexibility is the ability to revise beliefs in response to disconfirmatory evidence. The present study recruited 231 participants from the general population that represented a wide range of paranoid ideation...
December 11, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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