journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38848579/cyanobacteriochromes-a-rainbow-of-photoreceptors
#1
REVIEW
Nathan C Rockwell, J Clark Lagarias
Widespread phytochrome photoreceptors use photoisomerization of linear tetrapyrrole (bilin) chromophores to measure the ratio of red to far-red light. Cyanobacteria also contain distantly related cyanobacteriochrome (CBCR) proteins that share the bilin-binding GAF domain of phytochromes but sense other colors of light. CBCR photocycles are extremely diverse, ranging from the near-UV to the near-IR. Photoisomerization of the bilin triggers photoconversion of the CBCR input, thereby modulating the biochemical signaling state of output domains such as histidine kinase bidomains that can interface with cellular signal transduction pathways...
June 7, 2024: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38781605/metals-at-the-host-fungal-pathogen-battleground
#2
REVIEW
Ritu Garg, Marika S David, Shuyi Yang, Valeria C Culotta
Fungal infections continue to represent a major threat to public health, particularly with the emergence of multidrug-resistant fungal pathogens. As part of the innate immune response, the host modulates the availability of metals as armament against pathogenic microbes, including fungi. The transition metals Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn are essential micronutrients for all life forms, but when present in excess, these same metals are potent toxins. The host exploits the double-edged sword of these metals, and will either withhold metal micronutrients from pathogenic fungi or attack them with toxic doses...
May 23, 2024: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38772630/large-roles-of-small-proteins
#3
REVIEW
Aisha T Burton, Rilee Zeinert, Gisela Storz
Bacterial proteins of ≤50 amino acids, denoted small proteins or microproteins, have been traditionally understudied and overlooked, as standard computational, biochemical, and genetic approaches often do not detect proteins of this size. However, with the realization that small proteins are stably expressed and have important cellular roles, there has been increased identification of small proteins in bacteria and eukaryotes. Gradually, the functions of a few of these small proteins are being elucidated...
May 21, 2024: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38684082/inside-the-host-understanding-the-evolutionary-trajectories-of-intracellular-parasitism
#4
REVIEW
Pavla Bartošová-Sojková, Anzhelika Butenko, Jitka Richtová, Ivan Fiala, Miroslav Oborník, Julius Lukeš
This review explores the origins of intracellular parasitism, an intriguing facet of symbiosis, where one organism harms its host, potentially becoming deadly. We focus on three distantly related groups of single-celled eukaryotes, namely Kinetoplastea, Holomycota, and Apicomplexa, which contain multiple species-rich lineages of intracellular parasites. Using comparative analysis of morphological, physiological, and molecular features of kinetoplastids, microsporidians, and sporozoans, as well as their closest free-living relatives, we reveal the evolutionary trajectories and adaptations that enabled the transition to intracellular parasitism...
April 29, 2024: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37713460/raising-a-bacterium-to-the-rank-of-a-model-system-the-listeria-paradigm
#5
REVIEW
Pascale Cossart
My scientific career has resulted from key decisions and reorientations, sometimes taken rapidly but not always, guided by discussions or collaborations with amazing individuals from whom I learnt a lot scientifically and humanly. I had never anticipated that I would accomplish so much in what appeared as terra incognita when I started to interrogate the mechanisms underlying the virulence of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes . All this has been possible thanks to a number of talented team members who ultimately became friends...
September 15, 2023: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37713459/license-to-clump-secretory-iga-structure-function-relationships-across-scales
#6
REVIEW
Alyson Hockenberry, Emma Slack, Beth M Stadtmueller
Secretory antibodies are the only component of our adaptive immune system capable of attacking mucosal pathogens topologically outside of our bodies. All secretory antibody classes are ( a ) relatively resistant to harsh proteolytic environments and ( b ) polymeric. Recent elucidation of the structure of secretory IgA (SIgA) has begun to shed light on SIgA functions at the nanoscale. We can now begin to unravel the structure-function relationships of these molecules, for example, by understanding how the bent conformation of SIgA enables robust cross-linking between adjacent growing bacteria...
September 15, 2023: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37713458/structural-insights-into-type-iii-secretion-systems-of-the-bacterial-flagellum-and-injectisome
#7
REVIEW
Liam J Worrall, Dorothy D Majewski, Natalie C J Strynadka
Two of the most fascinating bacterial nanomachines-the broadly disseminated rotary flagellum at the heart of cellular motility and the eukaryotic cell-puncturing injectisome essential to specific pathogenic species-utilize at their core a conserved export machinery called the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS not only secretes the components that self-assemble into their extracellular appendages but also, in the case of the injectisome, subsequently directly translocates modulating effector proteins from the bacterial cell into the infected host...
September 15, 2023: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37713457/recent-advances-in-understanding-the-human-fungal-pathogen-hypoxia-response-in-disease-progression
#8
REVIEW
Charles Puerner, Sandeep Vellanki, Julianne L Strauch, Robert A Cramer
Fungal-mediated disease progression and antifungal drug efficacy are significantly impacted by the dynamic infection microenvironment. At the site of infection, oxygen often becomes limiting and induces a hypoxia response in both the fungal pathogen and host cells. The fungal hypoxia response impacts several important aspects of fungal biology that contribute to pathogenesis, virulence, antifungal drug susceptibility, and ultimately infection outcomes. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the hypoxia response in the most common human fungal pathogens, discuss potential therapeutic opportunities, and highlight important areas for future research...
September 15, 2023: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37713456/electron-transfer-beyond-the-outer-membrane-putting-electrons-to-rest
#9
REVIEW
J A Gralnick, D R Bond
Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is the physiological process that enables the reduction or oxidation of molecules and minerals beyond the surface of a microbial cell. The first bacteria characterized with this capability were Shewanella and Geobacter , both reported to couple their growth to the reduction of iron or manganese oxide minerals located extracellularly. A key difference between EET and nearly every other respiratory activity on Earth is the need to transfer electrons beyond the cell membrane...
September 15, 2023: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37713455/collab-or-cancel-bacterial-influencers-of-inflammasome-signaling
#10
REVIEW
Beatrice I Herrmann, James P Grayczyk, Igor E Brodsky
The immune system of multicellular organisms protects them from harmful microbes. To establish an infection in the face of host immune responses, pathogens must evolve specific strategies to target immune defense mechanisms. One such defense is the formation of intracellular protein complexes, termed inflammasomes, that are triggered by the detection of microbial components and the disruption of homeostatic processes that occur during bacterial infection. Formation of active inflammasomes initiates programmed cell death pathways via activation of inflammatory caspases and cleavage of target proteins...
September 15, 2023: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37713454/frameworks-for-interpreting-the-early-fossil-record-of-eukaryotes
#11
REVIEW
Susannah M Porter, Leigh Anne Riedman
The origin of modern eukaryotes is one of the key transitions in life's history, and also one of the least understood. Although the fossil record provides the most direct view of this process, interpreting the fossils of early eukaryotes and eukaryote-grade organisms is not straightforward. We present two end-member models for the evolution of modern (i.e., crown) eukaryotes-one in which modern eukaryotes evolved early, and another in which they evolved late-and interpret key fossils within these frameworks, including where they might fit in eukaryote phylogeny and what they may tell us about the evolution of eukaryotic cell biology and ecology...
September 15, 2023: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37713453/microbiome-assembly-in-fermented-foods
#12
REVIEW
Nicolas L Louw, Kasturi Lele, Ruby Ye, Collin B Edwards, Benjamin E Wolfe
For thousands of years, humans have enjoyed the novel flavors, increased shelf-life, and nutritional benefits that microbes provide in fermented foods and beverages. Recent sequencing surveys of ferments have mapped patterns of microbial diversity across space, time, and production practices. But a mechanistic understanding of how fermented food microbiomes assemble has only recently begun to emerge. Using three foods as case studies (surface-ripened cheese, sourdough starters, and fermented vegetables), we use an ecological and evolutionary framework to identify how microbial communities assemble in ferments...
September 15, 2023: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37437216/mobile-genetic-element-flexibility-as-an-underlying-principle-to-bacterial-evolution
#13
REVIEW
Alexandra J Weisberg, Jeff H Chang
Mobile genetic elements are key to the evolution of bacteria and traits that affect host and ecosystem health. Here, we use a framework of a hierarchical and modular system that scales from genes to populations to synthesize recent findings on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) of bacteria. Doing so highlights the role that emergent properties of flexibility, robustness, and genetic capacitance of MGEs have on the evolution of bacteria. Some of their traits can be stored, shared, and diversified across different MGEs, taxa of bacteria, and time...
September 15, 2023: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37406344/unique-properties-of-apicomplexan-mitochondria
#14
REVIEW
Ian M Lamb, Ijeoma C Okoye, Michael W Mather, Akhil B Vaidya
Apicomplexan parasites constitute more than 6,000 species infecting a wide range of hosts. These include important pathogens such as those causing malaria and toxoplasmosis. Their evolutionary emergence coincided with the dawn of animals. Mitochondrial genomes of apicomplexan parasites have undergone dramatic reduction in their coding capacity, with genes for only three proteins and ribosomal RNA genes present in scrambled fragments originating from both strands. Different branches of the apicomplexans have undergone rearrangements of these genes, with Toxoplasma having massive variations in gene arrangements spread over multiple copies...
September 15, 2023: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37437215/past-present-and-future-of-extracytoplasmic-function-%C3%AF-factors-distribution-and-regulatory-diversity-of-the-third-pillar-of-bacterial-signal-transduction
#15
REVIEW
Thorsten Mascher
Responding to environmental cues is a prerequisite for survival in the microbial world. Extracytoplasmic function σ factors (ECFs) represent the third most abundant and by far the most diverse type of bacterial signal transduction. While archetypal ECFs are controlled by cognate anti-σ factors, comprehensive comparative genomics efforts have revealed a much higher abundance and regulatory diversity of ECF regulation than previously appreciated. They have also uncovered a diverse range of anti-σ factor-independent modes of controlling ECF activity, including fused regulatory domains and phosphorylation-dependent mechanisms...
July 12, 2023: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37406345/mechanisms-of-virulence-reprogramming-in-bacterial-pathogens
#16
REVIEW
Jianuan Zhou, Hongmei Ma, Lianhui Zhang
Bacteria are single-celled organisms that carry a comparatively small set of genetic information, typically consisting of a few thousand genes that can be selectively activated or repressed in an energy-efficient manner and transcribed to encode various biological functions in accordance with environmental changes. Research over the last few decades has uncovered various ingenious molecular mechanisms that allow bacterial pathogens to sense and response to different environmental cues or signals to activate or suppress the expression of specific genes in order to suppress host defenses and establish infections...
July 5, 2023: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37406343/the-origin-of-metazoan-multicellularity-a-potential-microbial-black-swan-event
#17
REVIEW
Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo, Koryu Kin, Elena Casacuberta
The emergence of animals from their unicellular ancestors is a major evolutionary event. Thanks to the study of diverse close unicellular relatives of animals, we now have a better grasp of what the unicellular ancestor of animals was like. However, it is unclear how that unicellular ancestor of animals became the first animals. To explain this transition, two popular theories, the choanoblastaea and the synzoospore, have been proposed. We will revise and expose the flaws in these two theories while showing that, due to the limits of our current knowledge, the origin of animals is a biological black swan event...
July 5, 2023: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37406342/-candida-auris-genetics-and-emergence
#18
REVIEW
Anuradha Chowdhary, Kusum Jain, Neeraj Chauhan
Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen that presents a serious threat to global human health. Since the first reported case in 2009 in Japan, C. auris infections have been reported in more than 40 countries, with mortality rates between 30% and 60%. In addition, C. auris has the potential to cause outbreaks in health care settings, especially in nursing homes for elderly patients, owing to its efficient transmission via skin-to-skin contact. Most importantly, C. auris is the first fungal pathogen to show pronounced and sometimes untreatable clinical drug resistance to all known antifungal classes, including azoles, amphotericin B, and echinocandins...
July 5, 2023: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37339736/toward-microbiome-engineering-expanding-the-repertoire-of-genetically-tractable-members-of-the-human-gut-microbiome
#19
REVIEW
James W Marsh, Christian Kirk, Ruth E Ley
Genetic manipulation is necessary to interrogate the functions of microbes in their environments, such as the human gut microbiome. Yet, the vast majority of human gut microbiome species are not genetically tractable. Here, we review the hurdles to seizing genetic control of more species. We address the barriers preventing the application of genetic techniques to gut microbes and report on genetic systems currently under development. While methods aimed at genetically transforming many species simultaneously in situ show promise, they are unable to overcome many of the same challenges that exist for individual microbes...
June 20, 2023: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37339735/essential-amino-acid-metabolites-as-chemical-mediators-of-host-microbe-interaction-in-the-gut
#20
REVIEW
Jessica R McCann, John F Rawls
Amino acids are indispensable substrates for protein synthesis in all organisms and incorporated into diverse aspects of metabolic physiology and signaling. However, animals lack the ability to synthesize several of them and must acquire these essential amino acids from their diet or perhaps their associated microbial communities. The essential amino acids therefore occupy a unique position in the health of animals and their relationships with microbes. Here we review recent work connecting microbial production and metabolism of essential amino acids to host biology, and the reciprocal impacts of host metabolism of essential amino acids on their associated microbes...
June 20, 2023: Annual Review of Microbiology
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