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Annals of Botany

Germán Wies, Anita Ida Mantese, Jorge José Casal, Gustavo Ángel Maddonni
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Phytochrome B (phyB) is a photosensory receptor important for the control of plant plasticity and resource partitioning. Whether phyB is required to optimize plant biomass accumulation in agricultural crops exposed to full sunlight is unknown. Here we investigated the impact of mutations in the genes that encode either phyB1 or phyB2 on plant growth and grain yield in field crops of Zea mays sown at contrasting population densities. METHODS: Plants of maize inbred line France 2 wild type (WT) and the isogenic mutants lacking either phyB1 or phyB2 (phyB1 and phyB2) were cultivated in the field during two seasons...
February 19, 2019: Annals of Botany
Alberto L Teixido, Marcelo A Aizen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In animal-pollinated plants, direct and indirect selection for large and small flowers in predominantly outcrossing and selfing species, respectively, is a common consequence of pollen limitation (PL). However, many hermaphroditic species show a mixed-mating system known as delayed selfing, which provides reproductive assurance (RA) only when outcrossing is not realized. Although RA is expected to reduce pollinator-mediated selection towards larger flowers, the consequences of delayed selfing for selection on flower size in mixed-mating species remain overlooked...
February 19, 2019: Annals of Botany
Susan R Whitehead, Katja Poveda
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Most crops have been dramatically altered from their wild ancestors with the primary goal of increasing harvestable yield. A long-held hypothesis is that increased allocation to yield has reduced plant investment in defence and resulted in crops that are highly susceptible to pests. However, clear demonstrations of these trade-offs have been elusive due to the many selective pressures that occur concurrently during crop domestication. METHODS: To provide a robust test of whether increased allocation to yield can alter plant investment in defence, this study examined fruit chemical defence traits and herbivore resistance across 52 wild and 56 domesticated genotypes of apples that vary >26-fold in fruit size...
February 16, 2019: Annals of Botany
Benjamin Richard, Goetz M Richter, Marianna Cerasuolo, Ian Shield
Background and Aims: Bioenergy is central for the future energy mix to mitigate climate change impacts; however, its intricate link with the water cycle calls for an evaluation of the carbon-water nexus in biomass production. The great challenge is to optimize trade-offs between carbon harvest and water use by choosing cultivars that combine low water use with high productivity. Methods: Regional scenarios were simulated over a range of willow genotype × environment interactions for the major UK soil × climate variations with the process-based model LUCASS...
February 13, 2019: Annals of Botany
Florian Klamer, Florian Vogel, Xuelian Li, Hinrich Bremer, Günter Neumann, Benjamin Neuhäuser, Frank Hochholdinger, Uwe Ludewig
Background and Aims: Root hairs are single-cell extensions of the epidermis that face into the soil and increase the root-soil contact surface. Root hairs enlarge the rhizosphere radially and are very important for taking up water and sparingly soluble nutrients, such as the poorly soil-mobile phosphate. In order to quantify the importance of root hairs for maize, a mutant and the corresponding wild type were compared. Methods: The rth2 maize mutant with very short root hairs was assayed for growth and phosphorus (P) acquisition in a slightly alkaline soil with low P and limited water supply in the absence of mycorrhization and with ample P supply...
February 12, 2019: Annals of Botany
Uwe Druege, Alexander Hilo, José Manuel Pérez-Pérez, Yvonne Klopotek, Manuel Acosta, Fahimeh Shahinnia, Siegfried Zerche, Philipp Franken, Mohammad R Hajirezaei
Background: Adventitious root (AR) formation in excised plant parts is a bottleneck for survival of isolated plant fragments. AR formation plays an important ecological role and is a critical process in cuttings for the clonal propagation of horticultural and forestry crops. Therefore, understanding the regulation of excision-induced AR formation is essential for sustainable and efficient utilization of plant genetic resources. Scope: Recent studies of plant transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, and the use of mutants and transgenic lines have significantly expanded our knowledge concerning excision-induced AR formation...
February 11, 2019: Annals of Botany
Ada Wróblewska, Lech Szczepaniak, Andrzej Bajguz, Iwona Jedrzejczyk, Izabela Talalaj, Beata Ostrowiecka, Emilia Brzosko, Edyta Jermakowicz, Pawel Mirski
Background and Aims: The deception strategies of orchids remain poorly understood, especially in regard to the chemical compounds emitted from their flowers and their interaction with various taxonomic groups of pollinators. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and compared the variation of floral chemical compounds between food-deceptive Dactylorhiza taxa (D. incarnata var. incarnata and D. incarnata var. ochroleuca, D. fuchsii and D. majalis) from populations in north-eastern Poland...
February 11, 2019: Annals of Botany
Katia Plouznikoff, Maria J Asins, Hervé Dupré de Boulois, Emilio A Carbonell, Stéphane Declerck
Background and Aims: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in plant nutrition and protection against pests and diseases, as well as in soil structuration, nutrient cycling and, generally speaking, in sustainable agriculture, particularly under drought, salinity and low input or organic agriculture. However, little is known about the genetics of the AMF-plant association in tomato. The aim of this study was the genetic analysis of root AMF colonization in tomato via the detection of the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved...
February 9, 2019: Annals of Botany
Carmen G Ossa, Paz Montenegro, Isabel Larridon, Fernanda Pérez
Background and Aim: Quaternary glaciations strongly affected the distribution of species from arid and semi-arid environments, as temperature drops were accompanied by strong fluctuations in rainfall. In this study, we examined the response of xerophytic species to glacial cycles, determining the genetic patterns and climatic niche of Echinopsis chiloensis var. chiloensis, an endemic columnar cactus of arid and semi-arid regions of Chile. Methods: We analysed 11 polymorphic microsatellites for 130 individuals from 13 populations distributed across the entire distribution of the species...
February 2, 2019: Annals of Botany
Annamária Fenesi, Dorottya Sándor, Petr Pyšek, Wayne Dawson, Eszter Ruprecht, Franz Essl, Holger Kreft, Jan Pergl, Patrick Weigelt, Marten Winter, Mark Van Kleunen
Background and Aims: Fruit heteromorphism is considered to be a bet-hedging strategy to cope with spatially or temporally heterogeneous environments. The different behaviours of the fruit morphs of the same species might also be beneficial during naturalization, once the species has been introduced to a new range. Yet, no study to date has tested the association between fruit heteromorphism and global-scale naturalization success for a large set of plant species. Methods: We compiled two large datasets on fruit heteromorphism in Asteraceae...
February 2, 2019: Annals of Botany
Akane Takemori, Akiyo Naiki, Ko-Ichi Takakura, Masahiro M Kanaoka, Sachiko Nishida
Background and Aims: Reproductive interference may reduce fitness of either of the involved species, with potentially important ecological and evolutionary consequences. Except for the effect of shared pollinators on reproductive success, however, mechanisms underlying reproductive interference have been little studied, even though the severity of its impact may depend on the specific mechanism. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the mechanisms of reproductive interference between Taraxacum japonicum (native to Japan) and Taraxacum officinale (alien)...
February 2, 2019: Annals of Botany
Cecilia Brunetti, Antonella Gori, Giovanni Marino, Paolo Latini, Anatoly P Sobolev, Andrea Nardini, Matthew Haworth, Alessio Giovannelli, Donatella Capitani, Francesco Loreto, Gail Taylor, Giuseppe Scarascia Mugnozza, Antoine Harfouche, Mauro Centritto
Background and Aims: Hydraulic and chemical signals operate in tandem to regulate systemic plant responses to drought. Transport of abscisic acid (ABA) through the xylem and phloem from the root to shoot has been suggested to serve as the main signal of water deficit. There is evidence that ABA and its ABA-glycosyl-ester (ABA-GE) are also formed in leaves and stems through the chloroplastic 2-C-methylerythritol-5-phosphate (MEP) pathway. This study aimed to evaluate how hormonal and hydraulic signals contribute to optimize stomatal (gs), mesophyll (gm) and leaf hydraulic (Kleaf) conductance under well-watered and water-stressed conditions in Populus nigra (black poplar) plants...
February 2, 2019: Annals of Botany
K Vandepitte, O A Valdés-Rodríquez, O Sánchez-Sánchez, H De Kort, J Martinez-Herrera, E García-Pérez, T De Meyer, A Pérez-Vázquez, B Muys, O Honnay
Background and Aims: Jatropha curcas (jatropha) is an oil crop cultivated in (sub)tropical regions around the world, and holds great promise as a renewable energy source. However, efforts to fully commercialize jatropha are currently hampered by the lack of genetic diversity in the extant breeding germplasm, and by the toxicity of its seeds meaning that its seed cake cannot be used as a protein source in animal feed, among other constraints. In Mexico, the species' native range, there are jatropha plants whose seeds are used to prepare traditional meals...
February 2, 2019: Annals of Botany
J Harper, J De Vega, S Swain, D Heavens, D Gasior, A Thomas, C Evans, A Lovatt, S Lister, D Thorogood, L Skøt, M Hegarty, T Blackmore, D Kudrna, S Byrne, T Asp, W Powell, N Fernandez-Fuentes, I Armstead
Background and Aims: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) is the most widely cultivated forage and amenity grass species in temperate areas worldwide and there is a need to understand the genetic architectures of key agricultural traits and crop characteristics that deliver wider environmental services. Our aim was to identify genomic regions associated with agriculturally important traits by integrating a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map with a genome-wide association study (GWAS)...
February 2, 2019: Annals of Botany
Yuan Hu Xuan, Vikranth Kumar, Xiao Han, Sung Hoon Kim, Jin Hee Jeong, Chul Min Kim, Yue Gao, Chang-Deok Han
Background and Aims: INDETERMINATE DOMAIN 10 (IDD10) is a key transcription factor gene that activates the expression of a large number of NH4+-responsive genes including AMMONIUM TRANSPORTER 1;2 (AMT1;2). Primary root growth of rice (Oryza sativa) idd10 mutants is hypersensitive to NH4+. The involvement of CALCINEURIN B-LIKE INTERACTING PROTEIN KINASE (CIPK) genes in the action of IDD10 on NH4+-mediated root growth was investigated. Methods: Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR was used to analyse NH4+- and IDD10-dependent expression of CIPK genes...
January 31, 2019: Annals of Botany
James S Borrell, Manosh K Biswas, Mark Goodwin, Guy Blomme, Trude Schwarzacher, J S Pat Heslop-Harrison, Abebe M Wendawek, Admas Berhanu, Simon Kallow, Steven Janssens, Ermias L Molla, Aaron P Davis, Feleke Woldeyes, Kathy Willis, Sebsebe Demissew, Paul Wilkin
Background: Enset (Ensete ventricosum, Musaceae) is an African crop that currently provides the staple food for approx. 20 million Ethiopians. Whilst wild enset grows over much of East and Southern Africa and the genus extends across Asia to China, it has only ever been domesticated in the Ethiopian Highlands. Here, smallholder farmers cultivate hundreds of landraces across diverse climatic and agroecological systems. Scope: Enset has several important food security traits...
January 31, 2019: Annals of Botany
Colin M Orians, Rabea Schweiger, Jeffrey S Dukes, Eric R Scott, Caroline Müller
Background and Aims: Future shifts in precipitation regimes and temperature are expected to affect plant traits dramatically. To date, many studies have explored the effects of acute stresses, but few have investigated the consequences of prolonged shifts in climatic conditions on plant growth and chemistry. Methods: Plant size and metabolite profiles were assessed on naturally occurring Plantago lanceolata plants growing under different precipitation (ambient, 50 % less than ambient = drought) and temperature (ambient, +0...
January 30, 2019: Annals of Botany
Walter Zegada-Lizarazu, Andrea Monti
Background and Aims: Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a deep-rooted crop that can survive prolonged dry periods probably as a result of its capacity to uptake water from below ground, but specific information on the functioning of deep/shallow roots is missing. The objective of this study was to understand the dynamic interrelationships of root water acquisition, canopy water conservation and abscisic acid (ABA) signals from both shallow and deep roots. Methods: In transparent split top-bottom rhizotron systems (1-m-high columns), where hydraulically isolated and independently watered layers were created with the aid of calibrated soil moisture sensors, water uptake trends were monitored...
January 29, 2019: Annals of Botany
Timothy James Tschaplinski, Paul E Abraham, Sara S Jawdy, Lee E Gunter, Madhavi Z Martin, Nancy L Engle, Xiaohan Yang, Gerald A Tuskan
Background and Aims: The use of woody crops for Quad-level (approx. 1 × 1018 J) energy production will require marginal agricultural lands that experience recurrent periods of water stress. Populus species have the capacity to increase dehydration tolerance by lowering osmotic potential via osmotic adjustment. The aim of this study was to investigate how the inherent genetic potential of a Populus clone to respond to drought interacts with the nature of the drought to determine the degree of biochemical response...
January 23, 2019: Annals of Botany
M Bouzid, F He, G Schmitz, R E Häusler, A P M Weber, T Mettler-Altmann, J De Meaux
Background and Aims: Water limitation is an important determinant of the distribution, abundance and diversity of plant species. Yet, little is known about how the response to limiting water supply changes among closely related plant species with distinct ecological preferences. Comparison of the model annual species Arabidopsis thaliana with its close perennial relatives A. lyrata and A. halleri, can help disentangle the molecular and physiological changes contributing to tolerance and avoidance mechanisms, because these species must maintain tolerance and avoidance mechanisms to increase long-term survival, but they are exposed to different levels of water stress and competition in their natural habitat...
January 19, 2019: Annals of Botany
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