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Myriam Gaudeul, Thierry Delahaye, Serge Muller
In plants, clonal propagation is a common reproductive strategy in parallel to sexual reproduction. It has both advantages and drawbacks, and the potential complete loss of sexual reproduction causes serious conservation concerns, especially because population maintenance then only relies on adult survival and low genetic diversity leads to decreased adaptive potential. We investigated the rare, southernmost populations of the mostly circumboreal twinflower Linnaea borealis, located in the Western Alps. Based on 105 AFLP markers and 118 leaf samples, including replicates, we estimated the genetic similarity threshold above which samples belong to a single clone...
February 14, 2019: Genetica
Mauro Nirchio, Juan Ignacio Gaviria, Zoila R Siccha-Ramirez, Claudio Oliveira, Fausto Foresti, Valentina Milana, Anna Rita Rossi
The pearly razorfish Xyrichtys novacula (Linnaeus, 1758) is a sedentary benthic species distributed in both sides of the Atlantic Ocean and in the Mediterranean Sea. Previous cytogenetic analysis reported different diploid numbers in samples from Italy, Venezuela and Brazil. This research aims to test the hypothesis that samples from American Atlantic coast and Mediterranean Sea belong to the same single evolutionary lineage, characterized by intra-specific chromosome polymorphism. To this purpose a cytogenetic and molecular (mitochondrial COI sequences) survey was undertaken...
January 23, 2019: Genetica
Yessica Rico, Bruno Alejandro Gutiérrez Becerril
Magnolias are characteristic tree species of the Tropical Montane Cloud Forest (TMCF) in Mexico, an ecosystem that is highly threatened by habitat fragmentation and climate change. In this study, based on DNA sequences from five regions (chloroplast: trnT-trnL, trnK5-matK, trnS-trnG, rpl32-trnL, nuclear: ITS) and seven nuclear microsatellite markers, we aimed to delineate species boundaries between two-endemic species of the TMCF, Magnolia pedrazae and Magnolia schiedeana, and to estimate levels of genetic structure and diversity among populations...
January 23, 2019: Genetica
C Ribout, A Villers, S Ruault, V Bretagnolle, D Picard, K Monceau, Bertrand Gauffre
The Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus) is a semi-colonial raptor species widely but patchily distributed across the Palearctic region with recorded cases of philopatry and presence of extra-pair copulation. In order to assess Montagu's harrier spatial genetic structure and contemporary gene flow, we developed 16 new microsatellite markers using 454 pyrosequencing. Genotypes of 117 chicks sampled in a 200 × 300 km farmland area in Central Western France were analyzed to characterize genetic polymorphism at each locus and regional and fine-scale genetic structure...
January 22, 2019: Genetica
Scott O Rogers
The initial components of ribosomes first appeared more than 3.8 billion years ago during a time when many types of RNAs were evolving. While modern ribosomes are complex molecular machines consisting of rRNAs and proteins, they were assembled during early evolution by the association and joining of small functional RNA units. Introns may have provided the means to ligate many of these pieces together. All four classes of introns (group I, group II, spliceosomal, and archaeal) are present in many rRNA gene loci over a broad phylogenetic range...
December 21, 2018: Genetica
Jianhai Chen, Emily Mortola, Xiaoyong Du, Shuhong Zhao, Xiangdong Liu
Despite the insights into retrogene evolution in multiple species provided by trans-traffic retrogenes (trans-retrogenes), cis-traffic retrogenes (cis-retrogenes) are hitherto understudied and thus limit our understanding of genetic novelty. Here we used the pig genome as a model to compare cis- and trans-retrogenes. We found that cis- and trans-retrogenes have similar patterns in terms of excessive X-chromosome representation, testis expression preference, and metabolic functional enrichment. Despite these similarities, lower levels of selective pressure were found in cis- than in trans-retrogenes...
December 10, 2018: Genetica
Yves-Nathan T Tian-Bi, Jean-Noël K Konan, Abdourahamane Sangaré, Enrique Ortega-Abboud, Jürg Utzinger, Eliézer K N'Goran, Philippe Jarne
Combining the analysis of spatial and temporal variation when investigating population structure enhances our capacity for unravelling the biotic and abiotic factors responsible for microevolutionary change. This work aimed at measuring the spatial and temporal genetic structure of populations of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi (the intermediate host of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni) in relation to the mating system (self-fertilization), demography, parasite prevalence and some ecological parameters...
November 29, 2018: Genetica
Hongyan Liang, Canran Liu, Yong Li, Yingchun Wang, Yuhua Kong, Jine Quan, Xitian Yang
Geological events have been shown to be the main factors affecting the distributions and population genetic structure of species. However, the impact of the Yellow River, the second longest river in China, on the distribution and genetic structure of the endemic flora remains largely unknown. Here, we used microsatellites to evaluate the genetic structure of Tamarix austromongolica and Tamarix chinensis (343 individuals in total), two endemic tree species widely distributed along the Yellow River, as well as the role of river drainages in shaping the structure...
November 20, 2018: Genetica
Chuner Cai, Feng Liu, Ting Jiang, Lingke Wang, Rui Jia, Lingjie Zhou, Kai Gu, Jianfeng Ren, Peimin He
Since 2007, the annual green tide disaster in the Yellow Sea has brought serious economic losses to China. There is no research on the genetic similarities of four constituent species of green tide algae at the genomic level. We previously determined the mitochondrial genomes of Ulva prolifera, Ulva linza and Ulva flexuosa. In the present work, the mitochondrial genome of another green tide (Ulva compressa) was sequenced and analyzed. With the length of 62,311 bp, it contained 29 encoding genes, 26 tRNAs and 10 open reading frames...
December 2018: Genetica
U P Jacobina, S M Q Lima, D Gama Maia, G Souza, H Batalha-Filho, R A Torres
We assessed the presence of independent evolving lineages of the trahira, Hoplias malabaricus, one of the few freshwater fish species having wide distribution in the Neotropics which is the region with the highest global diversity of freshwater fish. To achieve that goal, 58 mitochondrial sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI; DNA barcoding) were generated from collected samples and 85 obtained from public databases, which were analyzed in comparison to chromosomal and geological data. The magnitude of genetic diversity found among different sampling sites was greater than 2%...
December 2018: Genetica
Dan Wang, Yan Sha, Junfeng Hu, Ting Yang, Xue Piao, Xiaohui Zhang
Plant disease resistance (R) genes have undergone significant evolutionary divergence to cope with rapid changes in pathogens. These highly variable evolutionary patterns may have contributed to diversity in R gene protein families or structures. Here, the evolutionary patterns of 76 identified R genes and their homologs were investigated within and between plant species. Results demonstrated that nucleotide binding sites and leucine-rich-repeat genes located in loci with complex evolutionary histories tended to evolve rapidly, have high variation in copy numbers, exhibit high levels of nucleotide variation and frequent gene conversion events, and also exhibit high non-synonymous to synonymous substitution ratios in LRR regions...
December 2018: Genetica
Jared P Wood, Stephanie Dowell Beer, Todd S Campbell, Robert B Page
Invasive species are a major threat to global biodiversity. The US state of Florida is especially susceptible to the spread of exotic reptiles due to its subtropical climate, disturbed habitats, and robust pet trade. The Argentine black-and-white tegu (Salvator merianae) is a large, omnivorous lizard currently established in two different regions of Southern Florida. These two populations pose potential threats to sensitive ground nesting species such as gopher tortoises, American crocodiles, and migratory birds...
December 2018: Genetica
Kenta Adachi, Sei-Ichi Okumura, Shunsuke Moriyama
The Japanese common sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) is a major marine product from Sanriku, Japan, but its populations were severely affected by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, possibly decreasing its genetic diversity and increasing its extinction risk. In this study, we estimated the genetic structure and diversity of sea cucumbers from Touni and Yamada Bays of Sanriku over 4 years after the earthquake. The between-population genetic structure was estimated using two mitochondrial DNA regions (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rDNA)...
December 2018: Genetica
Abdul Latif Khan, Sajjad Asaf, In-Jung Lee, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Ahmed Al-Rawahi
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruits. It has grown in popularity and is a profitable fruit crop due to its attractive features including a bright red appearance and its biological activities. Scientific exploration of the genetics and evolution of these beneficial traits has been hampered by limited genomic information. In this study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of the native P. granatum (cultivar Helow) cultivated in the mountains of Jabal Al-Akhdar, Oman...
December 2018: Genetica
Jianrong Bai, Fengjie Sun, Minglei Wang, Liang Su, Rui Li, Gustavo Caetano-Anollés
In the original publication of the article, the incorrect version of Fig. 1 was mistakenly used. The correct version of the figure is provided in this correction.
October 31, 2018: Genetica
Charles Sylvester, Mysore Siddaiah Krishna, Jaya Sankar Rao, Adimoolam Chandrasekar
Unfortunately, the original version of this article was published with an error in the second sentence of the 'Molecular dating' section.
October 2018: Genetica
Maria Galludo, Jordi Canals, Laura Pineda-Cirera, Carla Esteve, Maria Rosselló, Joan Balanyà, Conxita Arenas, Francesc Mestres
Drosophila subobscura is a species with a rich chromosomal polymorphism which is adaptive to different climatic conditions. Five samples of the Font Groga population (Barcelona, Spain) were sampled in autumn during 5 consecutive years (2011-2015) to obtain their inversion chromosomal polymorphism, and climatic data of several meteorological variables were also collected. The aim was to analyze the adaptive potential of inversions with regard to climatic variables, being the most relevant: mean temperature (Tmean ), maximum temperature (Tmax ), minimum temperature (Tmin ), humidity (Hm) and rainfall (Rf)...
October 2018: Genetica
Juana Gutiérrez, Luz Lamelas, Gaël Aleix-Mata, María Arroyo, Juan Alberto Marchal, Teresa Palomeque, Pedro Lorite, Antonio Sánchez
The complete mitogenome of Talpa occidentalis, the Iberian mole, was sequenced using a combination of the Illumina and Sanger methods. The 16,962 bp genome obtained contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region. Thirty-seven identical repetitions of a 10-nucleotide (CACACGTACG) repeat element were identified in the non-coding control region (D-loop). The number, order, and orientation of the mitochondrial genes are the same as in T. europaea, the only mitogenome published so far for this genus...
October 2018: Genetica
Haokun Zhang, Takashi Kiuchi, Chikara Hirayama, Yutaka Banno, Susumu Katsuma, Toru Shimada
A variety of insects accumulate high contents of riboflavin (vitamin B2 ) in their Malpighian tubules (MTs). Although this process is known to be genetically controlled, the mechanism is not known. In the 1940s and the 1950s, several studies showed that riboflavin contents were low in the MTs of some Bombyx mori (silkworm) mutants with translucent larval skin mutations (e.g., w-3, od, oa, and otm) and that genes responsible for these translucent mutations also affected riboflavin accumulation in the MTs. Since the 2000s, it has been shown that the w-3 gene encodes an ABC transporter, whereas genes responsible for od, oa, and otm mutations encode for the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles...
October 2018: Genetica
L M Buschiazzo, D A Caraballo, E Cálcena, M L Longarzo, C A Labaroni, J M Ferro, M S Rossi, A D Bolzán, Cecilia Lanzone
The genus Ctenomys comprises about 70 species with great chromosome diversity. The Corrientes group is one of the most chromosomally variable lineages in the genus, where the diploid number (2n) varies from 41 to 70. In this group, three nominal species and numerous polymorphic and polytypic populations have been described. In order to get insight into the chromosomal evolution of this species complex, we applied different banding and molecular cytogenetic techniques. The results were interpreted in an evolutionary context, based on mitochondrial cytochrome b analyses...
October 2018: Genetica
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