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General and Comparative Endocrinology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771290/identification-expression-analysis-and-functional-characterization-of-motilin-and-its-receptor-in-spotted-sea-bass-lateolabrax-maculatus
#1
Yangyang Zhou, Xin Qi, Haishen Wen, Kaiqiang Zhang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Jin Li, Yun Li, Hongying Fan
Motilin (MLN), an interdigestive hormone secreted by endocrine cells of the intestinal mucosa, binds to a G protein-coupled receptor to exert its biological function of regulating gastrointestinal motility. In the present study, we identified the prepromotilin and mln receptor (mlnr) from the spotted sea bass, Lateolabrax maculatus. Mln consisted of an ORF of 336 nucleotides encoding 111 amino acids. The precursor protein contained a 17-amino-acid mature peptide. Mlnr had an ORF of 1,089 bp encoding a protein of 362 amino acids...
February 13, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769013/thermal-manipulation-and-gnrha-therapy-applied-to-the-reproduction-of-lambari-do-rabo-amarelo-astyanax-altiparanae-females-characiformes-characidae-during-the-non-breeding-season
#2
G Brambila-Souza, C C Mylonas, P H Mello, R Y Kuradomi, S R Batlouni, C E Tolussi, R G Moreira
Lambari-do-rabo-amarelo Astyanax altiparanae in the wild reproduce during spring and summer, but females undergo vitellogenesis throughout the year, including the non-spawning winter period when water temperatures are low. The present study investigated the physiological role of temperature modulation on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonads axis of lambari during winter, as well as the effects of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) therapy. Captive females were exposed to two different temperatures (20°C and 27°C) and were injected weekly with GnRHa for 21 days during winter (Control, CTR; Low dose; LD and high dose of GnRHa, HD)...
February 12, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769012/hypothalamic-mechanism-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-s-anorexigenic-effect-in-japanese-quail-coturnix-japonica
#3
Jinxin Wang, Mara DePena, Graham Taylor, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Mark A Cline
Central administration of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a 41-amino acid peptide, is associated with anorexigenic effects across various species, with particularly potent reductions in food intake in rodents and chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), a species for which the most is known. The purpose of the current study was to determine the hypothalamic mechanism of CRF-induced anorexigenic effects in 7 day-old Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), a less-intensely-selected gallinaceous relative to the chicken that can provide more evolutionary perspective...
February 12, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769011/molecular-function-of-gonadotrophins-and-their-receptors-in-the-ovarian-development-of-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#4
REVIEW
Yudong Jia, Jilin Lei
Gonadotropins (GtHs) and their receptors (follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, FSHR; luteinizing hormone receptor, LHR) are involved in the regulation of gametogenesis and play important roles during the reproductive cycles in vertebrate species, including fish. This minireview focuses on the molecular characterization and quantification of GtHs (common glycoprotein α subunit CGα, FSHβ, and LHβ) and their receptors (FSHR and LHR) throughout the reproductive cycle of female turbot Scophthalmus maximus...
February 12, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769010/fish-pituitary-show-an-active-immune-response-after-in-vitro-stimulation-with-vibrio-bacterin
#5
Xiaohong Liu, Ali R Khansari, Lluis Tort
The pituitary is a central organ of the neuro-endocrine system in fish that plays critical roles in various physiological processes, including stress response and behavior. Although it is known that pituitary hormones can have a direct or indirect influence stimulating or suppressing the immune responses, whether there is a local immune response in the pituitary or what is the effect of the immune stimulus on the pituitary function in fish is unknown. With the aim to understand the interaction between the immune responses and the endocrine axes at the pituitary level, particularly the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Interrenal (HPI) axis, pituitaries of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were cultured in vitro, incubated with bacterin, or bacterin plus CRH, cortisol, human recombinant IL1β, or spleen medium for 3h, and then genes involved in pro-inflammation (il1β, il8, tnfα1, ifnγ), anti-inflammation (tgfβ1b, il10), immune modulation (mhcIIa, c3, mif) and stress response (crhbp, pomca, pomcb, gr1) were tested...
February 12, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763566/photo-thermal-regulation-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-expression-in-ovarian-follicles-and-ovarian-activity-of-the-catfish-clarias-batrachus
#6
Priyadarshini Singh Nee Priyadarshini, Bechan Lal
Authors have recently reported a gradual increase in neuropeptide Y expression in the ovarian follicles of Clarias batrachus with the progression of oogenesis, coinciding with increasing photoperiod and temperature. This indicates the involvement of photoperiod and temperature in controlling NPY expression. Therefore, a study was designed to investigate the role of photoperiod and temperature in regulation of NPY expression in ovarian follicles. The catfish were exposed to different photo-thermal regimes during the late-quiescence and late-recrudescence phases for one month, and the expression of NPY was analyzed along with other ovarian activities...
February 11, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753842/hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis-dysfunction-an-innate-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia
#7
REVIEW
X Du, R A Hill
The female hormone 17β-estradiol is postulated to be protective against schizophrenia onset and severity. Hypoestrogenism is a common phenomenon in women with schizophrenia that has serious effects that adds to the burden of an already very onerous disease. The cause of hypoestrogenism is largely attributed to antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Evidence suggest however that a significant portion of female schizophrenia patients develop hypoestrogenism either before antipsychotic treatment or without regard to the level of prolactin, suggesting that for a sizeable segment of female patients, gonadal abnormality may be an innate and early aspect of the disease...
February 9, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753841/an-exception-to-the-rule-captivity-does-not-stress-wild-migrating-northern-wheatears
#8
Cas Eikenaar, Sven Hessler, Sandra Fischer, Franz Bairlein
Wild animals typically suffer from stress when brought into captivity. This stress is characterized by elevated circulating glucocorticoid levels and weight loss. We here describe for the first time a case where a wild animal, the long-distance migrating northern wheatear, does not show signs of stress when caged. We captured these birds on a stopover site during their spring migration and caged them individually with ad libitum access to food and water. The birds were divided into four groups and were blood-sampled immediately in the field, a few hours after caging, one day after caging, or three days after caging, respectively...
February 9, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738863/advanced-puberty-triggered-by-bi-weekly-changes-in-reproductive-factors-during-the-photolabile-period-in-a-male-teleost-fish-dicentrarchus-labrax-l
#9
Rafael Rodríguez, Alicia Felip, Silvia Zanuy, Manuel Carrillo
This study evaluated the impact of continuous light (LL) within the photolabile period on advanced puberty in juvenile male European sea bass. The exposure to an LL regime for 1 month, from August 15 to September 15 (LLa/s), was compared to a constant simulated natural photoperiod (NP) and constant continuous light conditions year-round (LLy). Somatic growth, hormone plasma levels, rates of testicular maturation and spermiation, as well as the mRNA levels of some reproductive genes were analyzed. Our results demonstrated that both LLa/s and LLy treatments, which include LL exposure during the photolabile period, were highly effective in inhibiting the gametogenesis process that affects testicular development, and clearly reduced the early sexual maturation of males...
February 7, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735673/a-novel-type-of-prolactin-expressed-in-the-bullfrog-pituitary-specifically-during-the-larval-period
#10
Reiko Okada, Masakazu Suzuki, Nozomi Ito, Susumu Hyodo, Sakae Kikuyama
Prolactin (PRL) is one of the major hormones that control amphibian metamorphosis. Recently, a PRL (PRL1B) gene that is different from the known PRL (PRL1A) gene has been found in the genomes of several amphibian species. In order to ascertain whether the PRL1B gene is expressed in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) pituitary, cloning of cDNA encoding PRL1B in the pituitary of the premetamorphic bullfrog tadpole was attempted. The bullfrog PRL1B amino acid sequence predicted from the obtained cDNA showed 62-63% identity with those of Xenopus PRL1Bs that have been presumed from the genome sequences, whereas the sequence identity between bullfrog PRL1A and PRL1B was 48%...
February 5, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735672/variation-in-metabolic-factors-and-gonadal-pituitary-thyroid-and-adrenal-hormones-in-association-with-musth-in-african-and-asian-elephant-bulls
#11
Emmanuelle Chave, Katie L Edwards, Steve Paris, Natalia Prado, Kari A Morfeld, Janine L Brown
Longitudinal analyses of serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, cholesterol, total and free thyroxine (T4 ), total triiodothyronine (T3 ), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and cortisol were conducted to investigate pituitary, metabolic, and adrenal changes related to testicular function and musth status in zoo-housed elephant bulls. Blood samples were collected twice a month for 12 months from 14 African and 12 Asian bulls at 17 facilities in North America...
February 5, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735671/investigation-of-the-utility-of-feces-and-hair-as-non-invasive-measures-of-glucocorticoids-in-wild-black-tailed-prairie-dogs-cynomys-ludovicianus
#12
Colleen Crill, David M Janz, Jillian M Kusch, Rachel M Santymire, Gabriela P Heyer, Todd K Shury, Jeffrey E Lane
Non-invasive measures of glucocorticoid (GC) hormones and their metabolites, particularly in feces and hair, are gaining popularity as wildlife management tools, but species-specific validations of these tools remain rare. We report the results of a validation on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), a highly social engineer of the grasslands ecosystem that has experienced recent population declines. We captured adult female prairie dogs and brought them into temporary captivity to conduct an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test, assessing the relationship between plasma GC and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) levels following a single injection of a low (4 IU/kg) or high dose (12 IU/kg) of ACTH, compared to a single injection of saline...
February 5, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735670/experimental-increase-in-temperature-affects-eggshell-thickness-and-not-egg-mass-eggshell-spottiness-or-egg-composition-in-the-great-tit-parus-major
#13
Josefa Bleu, Simon Agostini, Frédéric Angelier, Clotilde Biard
Phenotypic effects of global warming have been documented in many different taxa. However, the importance of transgenerational phenotypic plasticity in these adaptations are seldom studied. In birds, temperature could affect egg characteristics. Higher temperatures during egg-laying may reduce maintenance costs for females and allow a higher investment in reproduction. Yet, females may also use temperatures as a cue for the risk of mismatch latter in the season. Thus, higher temperatures may be correlated to an acceleration of embryonic development (e...
February 5, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721660/the-causative-effects-of-corticosterone-on-innate-immunity-during-the-stress-response-in-the-house-sparrow-passer-domesticus
#14
Sisi Gao, Pierre J Deviche
Stress-induced inhibition of innate immune activity has been observed in a variety of wild birds and may increase chances of infection because this activity constitutes the first line of defense against pathogens. We previously reported that the transient elevation of plasma corticosterone (CORT; the primary avian glucocorticoid) that occurs during stress is necessary for stress-induced suppression of natural antibody-mediated, complement-mediated, and bactericidal activity. Here, we further investigated the regulatory role of CORT during this suppression...
February 2, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721659/expression-and-activity-of-lipid-and-oxidative-metabolism-enzymes-following-elevated-temperature-exposure-and-thyroid-hormone-manipulation-in-juvenile-lake-whitefish-coregonus-clupeaformis
#15
Megan A Zak, Richard G Manzon
Temperature has unequivocal effects on several aspects of fish physiology, but the full extent of its interaction with key endocrine signaling systems to influence metabolic function remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to assess the individual and combined effects of elevated temperature and hyperthyroidism on hepatic metabolism in juvenile lake whitefish by quantifying mRNA abundance and activity of key metabolic enzymes. Fish were exposed to 13 (control), 17 or 21 °C for 0, 4, 8 or 24 days in the presence or absence of low-T4 (1 µg × g body weight-1 ) or high-T4 (10 µg × g body weight-1 ) treatment...
February 2, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716305/variation-in-scale-cortisol-concentrations-of-a-wild-freshwater-fish-habitat-quality-or-seasonal-influences
#16
A Carbajal, O Tallo-Parra, L Monclús, D Vinyoles, M Solé, S Lacorte, M Lopez-Bejar
A significant body of literature suggests that aquatic pollutants can interfere with the physiological function of the fish hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, and eventually impair the ability to cope with subsequent stressors. For this reason, development of accurate techniques to assess fish stress responses have become of growing interest. Fish scales have been recently recognized as a biomaterial that accumulates cortisol, hence it can be potentially used to assess chronic stress in laboratory conditions...
February 1, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710553/the-androgenic-gland-in-male-morphotypes-of-the-amazon-river-prawn-macrobrachium-amazonicum-heller-1862
#17
Lucas Rezende Penido Paschoal, Fernando José Zara
Sexual differentiation and primary and secondary sexual characteristics in male crustaceans are modulated by hormones produced in the androgenic gland (AG). The AG is also responsible for the determination of morphotypes in caridean shrimps, such as Macrobrachium amazonicum that shows four morphotypes: translucent claw (TC), cinnamon claw (CC), green claw 1 (GC1) and green claw 2 (GC2). Here, we verified the anatomical, histological and ultrastructural characteristics of the AG in different morphotypes of this species with both amphidromous and hololimnetic life cycles...
January 30, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690035/committed-for-the-long-haul-do-nonapeptides-regulate-long-term-pair-maintenance-in-zebra-finches
#18
E McKenna Kelly
The nonapeptides (oxytocin, vasopressin, and their non-mammalian homologs) regulate a number of social behaviors across vertebrates including monogamous pair bonds in mammals. Recent work on zebra finches has shown an important role for these neurohormones in establishing avian pair bonds as well. However, studies on the role of nonapeptides in maintaining pair bonds after pair formation are lacking. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of an oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTA) on pair maintenance behaviors in the monogamous zebra finch...
January 25, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30682344/on-the-evolutionary-origins-of-insect-seminal-fluid-proteins-mini-review-for-general-and-comparative-endocrinology-special-issue-on-insectcomparative-endocrinology-andneurobiology
#19
REVIEW
Laura King Sirot
In most cases, proteins affect the phenotype of the individual in which they are produced. However, in some cases, proteins have evolved in such a way that they are able to influence the phenotype of another individual of the same or of a different species ("influential proteins"). Examples of interspecific influential proteins include venom proteins and proteins produced by parasites that influence their hosts' physiology or behavior. Examples of intraspecific influential proteins include those produced by both mothers and fetuses that mitigate maternal resource allocation and proteins transferred to females in the seminal fluid during mating that change female physiology and behavior...
January 22, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30682343/fathers-and-sons-physiological-stress-in-male-zaisan-mole-voles-ellobius-tancrei
#20
Antonina V Smorkatcheva, E Yu Kondratyuk, I A Polikarpov
The social environment can be stressful for at least some group members, resulting in elevated levels of glucocorticoid stress hormones (GC). Patterns of the relationships between social rank and GC levels vary between species. In carnivores, primates and birds that live in permanent cooperative groups, helpers do not usually display physiological indicators of stress. Very little is known about status-related GC differences within cooperative groups of rodents. In this laboratory study, we compared GC concentrations in dominant (fathers) and subordinate (natal sons) males of a cooperative subterranean vole, Ellobius tancrei...
January 22, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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