Carlos Vinicius Barros Oliveira, Maria Elenilda Paulino da Silva, Jailson Renato de Lima, Amanda Maria Tavares Moreira, Maria Jéssica Mendes Brito, Cicera Alane Coelho Gonçalves, João Eudes Lemos de Barros, Romário Matheus de Oliveira, Jean Paul Kamdem, Luiz Marivando Barros, Antonia Eliene Duarte
The apicomplexa Toxoplasma gondii is capable of actively proliferating in numerous types of nucleated cells, and therefore has a high potential for dissemination and resistance. Thus, the present work aimed to correlate the inoculum concentrations and amount of post-infection parasites with porcine hematological parameters (including biochemistry) through in vitro culture. Porcine blood was incubated with different concentrations of parasites (1.2 x 107 , 6 / 3 / 1.5 x 106 cells/mL), then the concentrations of red blood cells (RBC) and their morphology, total and differential leukocytes, and free peptides were evaluated...
April 16, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Janice L Liotta, Alexandra Helfer, Lucy Huang, Timothy Wu, Dwight D Bowman, Carlo Castillo, Hussni O Mohammed, Bryant S Blank
Toxocara cati and T. canis are parasitic nematodes found in the intestines of cats and dogs respectively, with a cosmopolitan distribution, and the potential for anthropozoonotic transmission, resulting in human toxocariasis. Spread of Toxocara spp. is primarily through the ingestion of embryonated eggs contaminating surfaces or uncooked food, or through the ingestion of a paratenic host containing a third-stage larva. The Toxocara spp. eggshell is composed of a lipid layer providing a permeability barrier, a chitinous layer providing structural strength, and thin vitelline and uterine layers, which combined create a biologically resistant structure, making the Toxocara spp...
April 13, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Cezar Augusto Vilela da Silva, Carlos Eduardo Costa Dos Santos, Mariana Fernandes de Paula Cortezzi, César da Silva Santana Moura, Ruth Elizabeth Cruz, Camila de Almeida Lopes, Karen Costa, Lucas Teixeira de Souza, Patrícia Costa Lima da Silva, Elisabeth Neumann, Álvaro Cantini Nunes, Maria Aparecida Gomes, Fabrício Marcus Silva Oliveira, Marcelo Vidigal Caliari
Amoebiasis is a disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica, affecting the large intestine of humans and occasionally leading to extra-intestinal lesions. Entamoeba dispar is another amoeba species considered commensal, although it has been identified in patients presenting with dysenteric and nondysenteric colitis, as well as amoebic liver abscess. Amoebic virulence factors are essential for the invasion and development of lesions. There is evidence showing that the association of enterobacteria with trophozoites contributes to increased gene expression of amoebic virulence factors...
April 11, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Robert Stryiński, Iwona Polak, Anna Gawryluk, Paweł Rosa, Elżbieta Łopieńska-Biernat
Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease transmitted through the consumption of raw or undercooked fish and cephalopods that are infected with larvae of Anisakis simplex (sensu stricto) or Anisakis pegreffii. The purpose of this study was to investigate how A. simplex (s. s.) responds to the influence of anthelmintics such as ivermectin (IVM) and pyrantel (PYR). In vitro experiments were conducted using larvae at two developmental stages of A. simplex (s. s.) (L3 and L4) obtained from Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras)...
April 9, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Yoshio Osada, Shoichi Shimizu, Kentaro Morita, Eman M Gaballah, Zhiliang Wu, Yoichi Maekawa
AIMS: We have previously reported reduction of anti-type II collagen (IIC) IgG levels in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) by Schistosoma mansoni (Sm) and Trichinella spiralis (Ts). To clarify the contribution of the impairment of humoral immunity to their anti-arthritic activities, we herein investigated the relationship between anti-IIC IgG levels and arthritic swelling in Sm- or Ts-infected mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male DBA/1J mice were infected with Sm cercariae or Ts muscle larvae prior to the IIC immunization...
April 9, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Ana Catarina Cristovão-Silva, Maria Carolina Accioly Brelaz-de-Castro, Elis Dionisio da Silva, Ana Cristina Lima Leite, Lizandra Beatriz Amorim Alves Santiago, Juliana Maria da Conceição, Robert da Silva Tiburcio, Davi Pereira de Santana, Danilo Cesar Galindo Bedor, Breno Ítalo Valença de Carvalho, Luiz Felipe Gomes Rebello Ferreira, Rafael de Freitas E Silva, Valéria Rêgo Alves Pereira, Marcelo Zaldini Hernandes
Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) causes Chagas, which is a neglected tropical disease (NTD). WHO estimates that 6 to 7 million people are infected worldwide. Current treatment is done with benznidazole (BZN), which is very toxic and effective only in the acute phase of the disease. In this work, we designed, synthesized, and characterized thirteen new phenoxyhydrazine-thiazole compounds and applied molecular docking and in vitro methods to investigate cell cytotoxicity, trypanocide activity, nitric oxide (NO) production, cell death, and immunomodulation...
April 7, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Víctor Hugo Caña-Bozada, Alejandra García-Gasca, Juan M Martínez-Brown, F Neptalí Morales-Serna
Monogeneans are parasitic platyhelminths that can harm the health of farmed fish. Few treatments are available against monogeneans, and the incentive to develop new antiparasitic agents is similar or even lower than the incentive for neglected parasitic diseases in humans. Considering that searching for and developing new antimonogenean compounds may require enormous investments of time, money, and animal sacrifice, the use of a computer-guided drug repositioning approach is a reasonable alternative. Under this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of plumbagin and bromocriptine against adults and eggs of the monogenean Rhabdosynochus viridisi (Diplectanidae)...
April 7, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Prajakta Ingale, Shailza Singh
Autophagy is a key step involved in many unicellular eukaryotic diseases, including leishmaniasis, for cellular remodelling and differentiation during parasite's lifecycle. Lipids play a significant role in the infection process that begins with Leishmania major invading host cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small, 22-24 nucleotide noncoding regulatory RNAs, target mRNAs to modify gene expression and, subsequently, proteome output may have a regulatory role in altering the host cell processes. We observed miR-146a-3p expression increases in a time-dependent manner post Leishmania major infection...
March 21, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Maikel González-Matos, Mirtha Elisa Aguado, Maikel Izquierdo, Lianet Monzote, Jorge González-Bacerio
Leishmaniasis are neglected infectious diseases caused by kinetoplastid protozoan parasites from the genus Leishmania. These sicknesses are present mainly in tropical regions and almost 1 million new cases are reported each year. The absence of vaccines, as well as the high cost, toxicity or resistance to the current drugs determines the necessity of new treatments against these pathologies. In this review, several compounds with potentialities as new antileishmanial drugs are presented. The discussion is restricted to the preclinical level and molecules are organized according to their chemical nature, source and molecular targets...
March 20, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Isabela A G Pereira, Camila S Freitas, Raquel S B Câmara, Marcelo M Jesus, Daniela P Lage, Grasiele S V Tavares, Tauane G Soyer, Fernanda F Ramos, Nícia P Soares, Samira S Santiago, Vívian T Martins, Danniele L Vale, Breno L Pimenta, Fernanda Ludolf, Fabrício M Oliveira, Mariana C Duarte, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Adilson V Costa, Denise U Gonçalves, Bruno M Roatt, Róbson R Teixeira, Eduardo A F Coelho
Treatment against leishmaniasis presents problems, mainly due to the toxicity of the drugs, high cost, and the emergence of resistant strains. A previous study showed that two vanillin-derived synthetic molecules, 3s [4-(2-hydroxy-3-(4-octyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)propoxy)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde] and 3t [4-(3-(4-decyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde], presented antileishmanial activity against Leishmania infantum, L. amazonensis, and L. braziliensis species. In the present work, 3s and 3t were evaluated to treat L...
March 19, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Qi Liu, Boxing Liu, Tiancong Sun, Penglong Wang, Weiwei Sun, Baoliang Pan
In Dermanyssus gallinae, a hematophagous mite, the initiation of vitellogenesis induced by blood feeding is essential for its reproduction. However, the precise gene structures and physiological functions of Vg in D. gallinae and its upstream gene, Target of Rapamycin (TOR), have not been fully understood. This study revealed the presence of four homologous genes within D. gallinae, named Dg-Vg1, Dg-Vg1-like, Dg-Vg2, and Dg-Vg2-like, especially, Dg-Vg2-like was firstly identified in the mites. The expression levels of all these Vg genes were significantly higher in adult females than other stages...
March 19, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Dietmar Steverding, Ryan A J Tinson, Monica Piras, Stephen P Wren, Stuart A Rushworth, Mark Searcey, Linda Troeberg
Suramin was the first effective drug for the treatment of human African sleeping sickness. Structural analogues of the trypanocide have previously been shown to be potent inhibitors of several enzymes. Therefore, four suramin analogues lacking the methyl group on the intermediate rings and with different regiochemistry of the naphthalenetrisulphonic acid groups and the phenyl rings were tested to establish whether they exhibited improved antiproliferative activity against bloodstream forms of Trypanosomes brucei compared to the parent compound...
March 19, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Ziyan Cui, Wenhao Yu, Zhixin Wang, Fanyu Kong, Gengbo Ye, Jican Yan, Defang Wu, Fei Du, Mingquan Pang, Dalin Shi, Li Ren
Both E. multilocularis and host-derived exosomes are involved in the pathogenic process of alveolar echinococcosis (AE). Exosomes secrete miRNAs that have regulatory roles in host-pathogen interactions in multiple ways. In the present study, we collected and purified supernatants of E. multilocularis cultures, as well as human plasma exosomes. High-throughput sequencing showed the identities of 45 exosomal miRNAs in E. multilocularis. The lengths of these miRNAs ranged from 19 to 25 nucleotides (nt), with the majority (n = 18) measuring 22 nt...
March 13, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
M Junco, L E Iglesias, S Zegbi, M F Sagués, I Guerrero, G Bernat, M E Fuentes, E Riva, A S Fernández, C A Saumell
Duddingtonia flagrans is a nematophagous fungus which has shown promising results as a non-chemical parasitic control tool. The fungus disrupts the parasite's life cycle by trapping larvae in the environment through the networks generated from chlamydospores, thus preventing the reinfection of animals. One barrier to the development of a commercial product using this tool is the need to increase chlamydospore production in the laboratory for its administration to livestock. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the addition of mannitol to an enriched culture medium and the effect of adverse cultivation conditions on chlamydospore production...
March 6, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Yanxin Chen, Ruiqi Hua, Guoqing Shao, Xiaowei Zhu, Wei Hou, Shengqiong Li, Aiguo Yang, Guangyou Yang
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease, caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (E. granulosus s. l.), which posed significant public health concern globally. E. granulosus s. l. annexin B18 (EgANXB18) acts as a secretory protein, exerting a crucial influence in mediating host-parasite interactions. Recombinant annexin B18 (rEgANXB18) was expressed by Escherichia coli and the immunoreactivity was assessed by western blotting. The binding affinity between rEgANXB18 and total protein of RAW264...
March 1, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Kulvadee Dolsophon, Sirapat Nak-On, Thapana Chontananarth
Rumen flukes, parasites of the superfamily Paramphistomoidea, are found in cattle rumen. Heavy infections can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, weight loss, and poor body condition, resulting in a decrease in milk and meat production. This study compares the tegumental surface change of Paramphistomum epiclitum as a response to ethanolic extracts of Bombax ceiba flowers and black pepper seeds. Adult flukes were subjected to various concentrations of crude extracts, including 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL for 12, 18, and 24 h incubation...
February 29, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Carlla Assis Araujo-Silva, Katharina Vögerl, Ferdinand Breu, Manfred Jung, Andreia Luiza Oliveira Costa, Wanderley De Souza, Franz Bracher, Erica S Martins-Duarte, Rossiane C Vommaro
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis that is a worldwide health problem, commonly affecting fetal development and immunodeficient patients. Treatment is carried out with a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, which can cause cytopenia and intolerance and does not lead to a parasitological cure of the infection. Lysine deacetylases (KDACs), which remove an acetyl group from lysine residues in histone and non-histone proteins are found in the Toxoplasma gondii genome. Previous work showed the hydroxamate-type KDAC inhibitors Tubastatin A (TST) and Vorinostat (Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid, SAHA) were effective against T...
February 29, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Mohamed Echchakery, Ali Boumezzough, Mohamed Hafidi, Samia Boussaa
Cysticercus fasciolaris is a parasitic helminth that usually infects feline and canine mammal hosts. The intermediate hosts (rodents, occasionally lagomorphs, and humans) get infected by the consumption of feed or water contaminated with eggs. Rodents are vectors of disease and reservoirs of various zoonotic parasites. The current survey was aimed at determining endoparasitic helminth infections in rodents in central Morocco. Sampled rodents after specific identification were sacrificed and examined to identify parasitic helminths following ethical guidelines...
February 28, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Júlio César Santana de Andrade, Marlene Benchimol, Wanderley de Souza
Trichomonas vaginalis is an extracellular flagellate protozoan and the etiological agent of human trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted infection (STI) with a high incidence. Several reports have shown that this protozoan releases microvesicles into the culture medium, which show high potential in modulating cell-to-cell communication and the host response to infections. However, the biogenesis of these vesicles has not been analyzed in detail. In the present study, high-resolution ion scanning microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to analyze the surface of control cells and cells incubated in the presence of Ca2+ alone or with A 23187 calcium ionophore...
February 21, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
Eun Jeong Won, Yu Jeong Lee, Moon-Ju Kim, Hae-In Lee, Hyun Hee Jang, Seong Hoon Kim, Hee Min Yoo, Namki Cho, Seung Cheol Shim, Tae-Jong Kim
Helminth infections and their components has been recognized to have a positive impact on the immune system. This study aimed to investigate the potential of Metagonimus yokogawai-derived proteins (MYp) to provide protection against ankylosing spondylitis (AS) through modulation of immune responses. The cytotoxicity of MYp at various doses was first assessed using MTS and flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from AS patients, and the production of inflammatory cytokines was analyzed through flow cytometry...
February 16, 2024: Experimental Parasitology
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