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Experimental Parasitology

Adela Ngwewondo, Faustin Pascal Tsague Manfo, Moses Samje, Elvis Monya, Fidelis Cho-Ngwa
Despite the efforts employed for the control of onchocerciasis, the latter has remained a significant public health problem, due mainly to the lack of safe and effective adult worm drugs and/or microfilaricides that do not kill Loa loa microfilariae (mf). Serious adverse events have been encountered after administering ivermectin to some onchocerciasis patients coinfected with Loa loa. There is therefore, an urgent need for a macro and/or microfilaricidal drug which kills Onchocerca but not L. loa microfilariae...
February 13, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Abdur Rehman, Rizwan Ullah, Imran Uddin, Iram Zia, Lubna Rehman, S M A Abidi
In order to ensure global food security a rationale approach is required to control all those factors which directly or indirectly affect the food productivity. The neglected helminthic diseases alone are responsible for huge economic losses to the agrarian stakeholders. The problem is further compounded by the emerging drug resistance in flukes against the commonly used anthelmintics like triclabendazole. Therefore, the search for alternatives including the nano-based approaches has become a necessity to develop future control strategies...
February 12, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Gabriela V Ullio Gamboa, Patricia E Pensel, María C Elissondo, Sergio F Sanchez Bruni, Jean-Pierre Benoit, Santiago D Palma, Daniel A Allemandi
Cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is caused during the metacestode larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, is a life-threatening disease and is very difficult to treat. At present, the FDA-approved antihelmintic drugs are mebendazole (MBZ), albendazole (ABZ) and its principal metabolite ABZ sulfoxide (ABZSO), but as these have a therapeutic efficacy over 50%, underlining the need for new drug delivery systems. The aim of this work was the optimization and characterization of previously developed ABZ lipid nanocapsules (ABZ-LNCs) and evaluate their efficacy in mice infected with E...
February 12, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Luke J Norbury, Katarzyna Basałaj, Piotr Bąska, Alicja Sielicka, Anna Zawistowska-Deniziak, Huan Yong Yap, Przemysław Wilkowski, Agnieszka Wesołowska, Halina Wędrychowicz
Phage display technology to produce recombinant monoclonal antibodies or antibody fragments permits the identification of sought after antibodies in short time frames at low cost along with direct and rapid selection for antibody characteristics. Monoclonal antibodies can facilitate the identification and characterisation of parasite molecules that function at the host-parasite interface to help understand at the molecular level the biology of the parasite and disease progression, which often leads to new drug targets, diagnostic antigens or vaccine candidates...
February 11, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Hye-Jin Kim, Shin-Ae Kang, Tae-Soon Yong, Myeong-Hyeun Shin, Kyu-Jae Lee, Gab-Man Park, Uktamjon Suvonkulov, Hak Sun Yu
Previous studies showed that Echinococcus granulosus infection reduces allergic airway inflammation in experimentally infected hosts and the cystic fluid of E. granulosus is known to activate regulatory T (CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ T, Treg) cells. To evaluate the effects of cystic fluid of E. granulosus on allergic airway inflammation, we investigated the regulation of the inflammatory reaction by cystic fluid using an allergic airway inflammation animal model. Cystic fluid was administered to C57BL/6 mice seven times every other day, after which allergic airway inflammation was induced using ovalbumin and aluminum...
February 11, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Zarna Rajeshkumar Pala, Vishal Saxena, Gagandeep Singh Saggu, Satish Kailasam Mani, Rajendra Prasad Pareek, Sanjay Kumar Kochar, Dhanpat Kumar Kochar, Shilpi Garg
Iron-sulfur (FeS) clusters are critical metallo-cofactors required for cell function. Assembly of these cofactors is a carefully controlled process in cells to avoid toxicity from free iron and sulfide. In Plasmodium, two pathways for these FeS cluster biogenesis have been reported; ISC pathway in the mitochondria and SUF pathway functional in the apicoplast. Amongst these, SUF pathway is reported essential for the apicoplast maintenance and parasite survival. Many of its components have been studied from P...
February 2, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Amanda Chaaban, Vera Maria Carvalho Silva Santos, Carlos Eduardo Nogueira Martins, Juliana Sperotto Brum, Fabiano Cleber Bertoldi, Marcelo Beltrão Molento
The blowfly Lucilia cuprina has great medico-sanitary and veterinary importance due to the ability of its larval form to develop in decaying organic matter, parasitizing vertebrates. Fly eradication is challenging and the essential oil (EO) of Tagetes minuta (TMEO) have been reported to have therapeutic properties. This study aimed to determine the activity of EO from the aerial parts of T. minuta against third instar larvae (L3) of L. cuprina. Groups of 20 L3 were placed on filter paper, which were impregnated with varying concentrations (0...
February 2, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Germano Castelli, Federica Bruno, Laura Saieva, Riccardo Alessandro, Luca Galluzzi, Aurora Diotallevi, Fabrizio Vitale
In recent years, several studies demonstrated the role of exosomes in intercellular communications, several Leishmania species belonging to subgenera Leishmania and Viannia have been demonstrated to release exosomes, and their role in parasite-macrophage interactions and in leishmaniasis development has been investigated. However, the release of exosomes by Leishmania infantum has not been studied so far. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize L. infantum exosomes, and to investigate the biological activity of these exosomes in macrophage cultures...
February 1, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Mellesia F Lee, John F Lindo, Herbert Auer, Julia Walochnik
Extracting genomic DNA of pathogenic agents from formalin-fixed specimens is inherently difficult. Storage of samples in formalin results in nucleic acid cross-linking and DNA fragmentation. In this study, DNA was extracted from 45 Giardia-positive stool samples stored in formalin and subjected to PCR amplification targeting the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), beta gardin (bg) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. Samples were rehydrated by using a descending alcohol series before DNA extraction using a commercial kit...
January 30, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Ii Li Lee, Tian Chye Tan, Suresh Kumar Govind
This study was aimed at establishing a protocol for water sample processing for the detection of Blastocystis sp. using distilled water spiked with Blastocystis sp. cysts. The study established a protocol involving eight technical aspects, namely, storage temperature, storage duration, minimum water sample volume, optimum relative centrifugal force, centrifugation duration, minimum number of cyst for inoculation in Jones' medium and turn-around-time for the detection of vacuolar forms of Blastocystis sp. Results showed a minimum of 1...
January 26, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Jacques Leañez, Jorge Nuñez, Yael García-Marchan, Felipe Sojo, Francisco Arvelo, Daniel Rodriguez, Ignacio Buscema, Alvaro Alvarez-Aular, Josué S Bello Forero, Vladímir V Kouznetsov, Xenón Serrano-Martín
Diverse spiro dihydroquinoline-oxindoles (JS series) were prepared using the BF3 •OEt2 -catalyzed imino Diels-Alder reaction between ketimine-isatin derivatives and trans-isoeugenol. Ten spiro-oxiindole derivatives were selected and evaluated at different stages of the life cycle of Leishmania braziliensis parasites, responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. Among them, the 8'-ethyl-4'-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3'-methyl-3',4'-dihydro-1'H-spiro[indoline-3,2'-quinolin]-2-one called JS87 was able to inhibit the growth of promastigotes without affecting the mammalian cells viability, and to decrease the number of intracellular amastigotes of L...
January 25, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Yaqin Tang, Shengjie Hou, Xianyao Li, Mengqi Wu, Binbin Ma, Zheng Wang, Jinying Jiang, Meichun Deng, Zhigui Duan, Xing Tang, Yuan Liu, Wenhua Wang, Xiaoqing Han, Liping Jiang
Toxoplasmosis is a widely distributed parasitic protozoan disease, caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). High prevalence of toxoplasmosis and limitations of conventional treatments lead to a search for new therapeutic drugs. Lycosin-I is a linear peptide, derived from the venom of the spider Lycosa singoriensis. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-parasitic effect of lycosin-Ι against T. gondii. In vitro, the anti-T. gondii activities of lycosin-Ι were evaluated by MTT assay, trypan blue exclusion assay, cell counting assay and plaque assay...
January 22, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Jessica A Engel, Emma L Norris, Paul Gilson, Jude Przyborski, Addmore Shonhai, Gregory L Blatch, Tina S Skinner-Adams, Jeffrey Gorman, Madeleine Headlam, Katherine T Andrews
Plasmodium falciparum histone deacetylases (PfHDACs) are an important class of epigenetic regulators that alter protein lysine acetylation, contributing to regulation of gene expression and normal parasite growth and development. PfHDACs are therefore under investigation as drug targets for malaria. Despite this, our understanding of the biological roles of these enzymes is only just beginning to emerge. In higher eukaryotes, HDACs function as part of multi-protein complexes and act on both histone and non-histone substrates...
January 22, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Gerald Geroldinger, Marlene Rezk, Rugaia Idris, Victoria Gruber, Matthias Tonner, Rudolf Moldzio, Katrin Staniek, Lianet Monzote, Lars Gille
Leishmaniasis is a vector borne parasitic disease affecting millions of people worldwide and is spreading into further areas because of global warming. The development of new active substances against these single-cell eukaryotic parasites is of great importance. Leishmania tarentolae promastigotes (LtP) are non-pathogenic for mammals and serve as model organisms for pathogenic Leishmania in basic research. However, it is important to refine methods to study the process of the infection of mammalian macrophages by LtP and pathogenic Leishmania...
January 21, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Dolores Hernández-Martínez, María Reyes-Batlle, Ismael Castelan-Ramírez, Perla Hernández-Olmos, Virginia Vanzzini-Zago, Elizabeth Ramírez-Flores, Inés Sifaoui, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Maritza Omaña-Molina
Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are the etiological agents of cutaneous lesions, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and amoebic keratitis (AK), which are chronic infections with poor prognosis if not diagnosed promptly. Currently, there is no optimal therapeutic scheme to eradicate the pathologies these protozoa cause. In this study we report the morphological and molecular identification of three species of the genus Acanthamoeba, belonging to T4 group; A. polyphaga isolated from the corneal ulcer of a patient sample of AK case; A...
January 12, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Rahul Pasupureddy, Sonia Verma, Akansha Pant, Ruby Sharma, Sriram Seshadri, Veena Pande, Ajay K Saxena, Rajnikant Dixit, Kailash C Pandey
Falcipain-2 (FP2) and falcipain-3 (FP3) constitute the major hemoglobinases of Plasmodium falciparum. Previous biochemical and structural studies have explained the mechanism of inhibition of these enzymes by small molecules. However, a residue-level protein-protein interaction (PPI) with its natural macromolecular substrate, hemoglobin is not fully characterized. Earlier studies have identified a short motif in the C-terminal of FP2, an exosite protruding away from the active site, essential for hemoglobin degradation...
January 12, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Lin Huang, Ping Wang, Min-Qi Tian, Li-Hua Zhu, Jian-Ren Ye
The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a disastrous pathogen of pine forests in East Asia and Europe. Despite its decimating effect on pine forests, no efficient and environmentally friendly method is currently available to control the pine wood nematode (PWN). The most abundant protein in nematode sperm, major sperm proteins (MSPs) have only been discovered in nematodes. In this study, phylogenetic analysis showed that BxMSP10 was highly conserved in the nematode and had a closer phylogenetic relationship with free-living nematodes than with plant-parasitic nematode species...
January 11, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
L M Katiki, R C Araujo, L Ziegelmeyer, A C P Gomes, G Gutmanis, L Rodrigues, M S Bueno, C J Veríssimo, H Louvandini, J F S Ferreira, A F T Amarante
Molecules from natural sources, such as essential oils, have shown activity against parasites in vitro, but have not yet been explored extensively in vivo. Anethole and carvone (10% each), encapsulated with 80% of a solid matrix, referred to as EO (encapsulated oils), were tested in vivo in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1: Lambs were artificially infected with multidrug resistant Haemonchus contortus, or left uninfected, and treated (or not) with 50 mg/kg of EO in a controlled environment. Thirty-two male lambs were kept in individual cages for a period of 45 days, after which animals were evaluated for parasitological, hematological, toxicological, and nutritional parameters...
January 8, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
J A Cortes-Morales, A Olmedo-Juárez, G Trejo-Tapia, M González-Cortazar, B E Domínguez-Mendoza, P Mendoza-de Gives, A Zamilpa
The indiscriminate use of chemical drugs to deworm livestock tends to trigger an anthelmintic resistance problem. In this context, the use of plant extracts rich in secondary metabolites could be an alternative method for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes. Baccharis conferta Kunth is a native plant species from Mexico that is widely used by several ethnic groups as forage for farm animals and medicinally to treat gastrointestinal diseases such as acute stomach ache, dysentery, diarrhoea, vomiting, indigestion, colic, intestinal spasms, urinary problems, and cramps...
January 8, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
L E Chávez-Güitrón, J Morales-Montor, K E Nava-Castro, H Ramírez-Álvarez, N A Moreno-Mendoza, M G Prado-Ochoa, M A Muñoz-Guzmán, F Alba-Hurtado
The in vitro effect of progesterone in T. canis larvae on their enlargement and motility were evaluated, together to the possible presence of progesterone receptors (PRs). T. canis larvae were cultured in RPMI-1640 with different concentrations of progesterone (0, 20, 40, 80, 400 and 800 ng/mL). Enlargement and increases in motility were dependent on the concentration only from 0 to 80 ng/mL (p < 0.05). The mean percentage of PR + cells in newly obtained larvae as measured by flow cytometry was 8.16 ± 0...
January 8, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
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