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Experimental Eye Research

Nicholas J Demarais, Paul J Donaldson, Angus C Grey
Tryptophan-derived UV filters are predominantly found in the lenses of primates and humans. While protective against UV radiation, aging alters the complement and spatial distributions of human lens UV filters, and a role for UV filters has been suggested in age-related cataract formation. To establish how the spatial distributions of UV filters change in normal human lens aging, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) was utilised to map the locations and relative abundance of multiple UV filters simultaneously...
April 17, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Ram Sarup Singh, Navpreet Kaur, Radhika Sharma, Vikas Rana
The present investigation was aimed to develop a rabbit model for protecting the rabbit eye from systematically induced precorneal tear film (PTF) damage, evaluation of carboxymethyl pullulan for its protective action against PTF damage and its curative potential. For the same, pullulan was modified by carboxymethylation and structural modification was confirmed by spectral attributes. Further, the carboxymethyl pullulan (CMP) solutions (0.1-2.0%, w/v) were evaluated for their physical properties and its concentration 1...
April 17, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Shimaa A Ali, Sawsan A Zaitone, Amina Dessouki, Azaa A Ali
Pregabalin is the first drug to receive FDA approval for treating diabetic neuropathic pain. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect of pregabalin in an experimental model of diabetic retinopathy and tested some possible mechanisms underlying the putative neuroprotective effect. Male Wistar rats received streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) to induce type 1 diabetes mellitus. After two weeks, a course of pregabalin (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) has been launched for five consecutive weeks. Retinal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was estimated by real-time PCR and retinal glutamate content was also estimated...
April 16, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Johanna H Meyer, Petra P Larsen, Claudine Strack, Wolf M Harmening, Tim U Krohne, Frank G Holz, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg
Aim of the study was to compare optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) and conventional fluorescein angiography (FA) for quantitative analysis of the retinal and choroidal vasculature in the animal model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Therefore, Dark Agouti rats underwent argon laser photocoagulation to induce CNV at D0. In vivo imaging using combined confocal scanner laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO)-based FA and OCT-A (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) was performed before and immediately after laser treatment as well as at day 2, 7, 14 and 21...
April 16, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Gaëtan Le-Bel, Manel Benhassine, Solange Landreville, Sylvain L Guérin
Uveal melanoma (UM), although a very rare disease, remains a particularly aggressive type of cancer as near 50% of the UM presenting patients will also develop liver metastases within 15 years from the initial diagnostic. One of the most reliable predictive markers of UM at risk of evolving toward the formation of liver lesions is an abnormally elevated level of expression of the transcript encoding the 5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2B (HTR2B). In our previous study, we demonstrated that transcription of the HTR2B gene was under the regulatory influences of two transcription factors (TFs), NFI and RUNX1...
April 16, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Aurora Mazzeo, Tatiana Lopatina, Chiara Gai, Marina Trento, Massimo Porta, Elena Beltramo
Microvascular dysfunctions due to altered interactions between endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes are key-events in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells cultured in diabetic-like conditions enter pericytes, cause their detachment and migration, and stimulate angiogenesis. We recently showed that EVs from diabetic patients with retinopathy have different miRNA profiling patterns from healthy controls, and determine features of retinopathy in in vitro models of retinal microvasculature...
April 16, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Minhong Xiang, Wei Zhang, Hang Wen, Lijuan Mo, Yanqing Zhao, Yueping Zhan
Conjunctivochalasis (CCH) is a common ocular disease, especially in aged people. However, the molecular mechanism of CCH on transcriptional level has been unclear. In this study, we characterized the transcriptional landscape of human conjunctiva and compared the transcriptome between normal persons (n = 10) and CCH patients (n = 11). Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to obtain transcriptional data, and these data were analyzed using various bioinformatics methods, including read mapping, the analysis of gene expression, gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathway analysis...
April 15, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Sharmilee Vetrivel, Natascia Tiso, Andrea Kügler, Martin Irmler, Marion Horsch, Johannes Beckers, Daniela Hladik, Florian Giesert, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Helmut Fuchs, Sibylle Sabrautzki, Thure Adler, Irina Treise, Dirk H Busch, Antonio Aguilar-Pimentel, Markus Ollert, Alexander Götz, Oana V Amarie, Tobias Stoeger, Holger Schulz, Lore Becker, Thomas Klopstock, Anja Schrewe, Nadine Spielmann, Raffi Bekeredjian, Lillian Garrett, Sabine M Hölter, Annemarie Zimprich, Wolfgang Wurst, Philipp Mayer-Kuckuk, Wolfgang Hans, Jan Rozman, Martin Klingenspor, Frauke Neff, Patricia da Silva-Buttkus, Julia Calzada-Wack, Ildikó Rácz, Andreas Zimmer, Birgit Rathkolb, Eckhard Wolf, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Manuela Östereicher, Gregor Miller, Ralph Steinkamp, Christoph Lengger, Holger Maier, Claudia Stoeger, Stefanie Leuchtenberger, Valérie Gailus-Durner, Helmut Fuchs, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Jochen Graw
During an ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) mutagenesis screen, we observed a dominant small-eye mutant mouse with viable homozygotes. A corresponding mutant line was established and referred to as Aey69 (abnormality of the eye #69). Comprehensive phenotyping of the homozygous Aey69 mutants in the German Mouse Clinic revealed only a subset of statistically significant alterations between wild types and homozygous mutants. The mutation causes microphthalmia without a lens but with retinal hyperproliferation. Linkage was demonstrated to mouse chromosome 3 between the markers D3Mit188 and D3Mit11...
April 13, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Yao Wang, Tu Tran, Kevin Firl, Natalie Huang, Omar Yasin, Frederik J van Kuijk, Sandra R Montezuma
Increased fundus autofluorescence is directly related to increased RPE lipofuscin deposition in the retina and has been observed in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Smoking is the most significant modifiable risk factor for the development and progression of AMD, in which one of the main mechanisms is oxidative damage from smoking leading to RPE cell toxicity. The relationship between smoking and autofluorescence is not established and could provide insight into pathogenic mechanism of AMD...
April 13, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Surabhi Sonam, Jennifer A Srnak, Kimberly J Perry, Jonathan J Henry
Corneal Epithelial Stem Cells (CESCs) and their proliferative progeny, the Transit Amplifying Cells (TACs), are responsible for maintaining the integrity and transparency of the cornea. These stem cells (SCs) are widely used in corneal transplants and ocular surface reconstruction. Molecular markers are essential to identify, isolate and enrich for these cells, yet no definitive CESC marker has been established. An extensive literature survey shows variability in the expression of putative CESC markers among vertebrates; being attributed to species-specific variations, or other differences in developmental stages of these animals, approaches used in these studies and marker specificity...
April 11, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Audrey E K Hutcheon, James D Zieske, Xiaoqing Guo
Corneal endothelium is a cellular monolayer positioned on the Descemet's membrane at the anterior cornea, and it plays a critical role in maintaining corneal clarity. Our present study examines the feasibility of utilizing our 3-dimensional (3D) corneal stromal construct, which consists of human corneal fibroblasts (HCF) and their self-assembled matrix, to observe the development and maturation of human corneal endothelial cells (HCEndoCs) in a co-culture model. Three-dimensional HCF constructs were created by growing the HCFs on Transwell membranes in Eagles' minimum essential medium (EMEM) + 10% FBS + 0...
April 10, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Alberto Hernández-Pinto, Federica Polato, Preeti Subramanian, Andrés de la Rocha-Muñoz, Susan Vitale, Enrique J de la Rosa, S Patricia Becerra
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the protective properties of PEDF peptide fragments on rd10 mouse models of retinal degeneration ex vivo. Human recombinant PEDF and synthetic peptides were used. Rd10 retinal explants as well as wild-type retinal explants treated with zaprinast to mimic the rd10 photoreceptor cell death were employed. PEDF protein was intravitreally administered into rd10 mice. Outer nuclear layer thickness measurements in retinal sections, TUNEL labeling in retinal explants, western blots and immunofluorescence with retinal samples were performed...
April 10, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Hui Cai, Jie Gong, Laura Abriola, Denton Hoyer, Nyscf Global Stem Cell Array Team, Scott Noggle, Daniel Paull, Lucian V Del Priore, Mark A Fields
Dysfunction and eventual loss of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is a hallmark of atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and linked to oxidative and nitrosative damage. Herein, we use high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that protect human RPE cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death and elucidate the possible mechanism of action. HTS was used to identify compounds that protect RPE cells from oxidative damage. We then tested the identified compound(s) in models of RPE stress, including tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) exposure, UV-B-mediated light damage and nitrosative stress to the basement membrane using ARPE-19 cells, primary human RPE and induced-pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived RPE cells from patients with AMD...
April 10, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Alex Fonollosa, Maria Valcarcel, Clarisa Salado, Xandra Pereiro, Elena Vecino
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of somatostatin (SST) on the permeability of human retinal pigment epithelial cells. METHODS: We conducted two experiments, exposing cells from human-fetal retinal pigment epithelium (hfRPE) cultures to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), with or without SST pretreatment, in one, and to hypoxic conditions, again with or without SST pretreatment, in the other. The paracellular permeability of hfRPE was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-sodium (FITC-sodium) flux...
April 9, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Jeremy A Lavine, Michael S Ramos, Alyson M Wolk, Kimberly Baynes, Sumit Sharma, Aleksandra V Rachitskaya, Bela Anand-Apte, Sunil K Srivastava, Alex Yuan
A patient with bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) associated with endometrial cancer was treated with plasmapheresis, but failed therapy with progressive serous retinal detachment. We collected plasma before and after plasmapheresis therapy. Our goal was to determine if the cultured melanocyte elongation and proliferation (CMEP) factor and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was present in the IgG enriched fraction and understand why our patient failed plasmapheresis therapy. Melanocytes were cultured for 3-5 days in the presence of control medium, unfractionated pre-plasmapheresis BDUMP medium, IgG enriched or IgG depleted BDUMP medium, or unfractionated post-plasmapheresis BDUMP medium...
April 9, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Martina C Herwig-Carl, Amit Sharma, Tobias Höller, Frank G Holz, Anna Melissa Schlitter, Karin U Loeffler
Cancer evolves from a combination of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities resulting in aberrant gene expression profiles as well as altered epigenomic patterns. Epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation and histone modification play an important role in tumorigenesis. While in the pathobiology of uveal melanoma (UM) genetic changes have been well characterized, there is growing evidence suggesting that epigenetic changes are also involved. We investigated whether epigenetic modifications (global levels of histone acetylation, DNA methylation, ubiquitination) are detectable in UM tissues compared to healthy controls with respect to inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity...
April 4, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Maria Angels Rodríguez, Karin Sandgren Hochhard, André Vicente, Jing-Xia Liu, Fatima Pedrosa Domellöf
This paper aims to identify key biological processes triggered by resection surgery in the extraocular muscles (EOMs) of a rabbit model of strabismus surgery by studying changes in gene expression. Resection surgery was performed in the superior rectus of 16 rabbits and a group of non-operated rabbits served as control. Muscle samples were collected from groups of four animals 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after surgery and processed for RNA-sequencing and immunohistochemistry. We identified a total of 164; 136; 64 and 12 differentially expressed genes 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after surgery...
April 3, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Makoto Sugiyama, Daichi Shindo, Norihisa Kanada, Takahiro Ohzeki, Kazuki Yoshioka, Masayuki Funaba, Osamu Hashimoto
Beige adipocytes and brown adipocytes can generate heat by using mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), a thermogenic protein. Browning/beiging is the emergence of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissues (WAT) for cold acclimatization. Here we show the existence of brown/beige adipocytes in retro-orbital WAT in mice. Histologically, Ucp1-positive cells with multilocular lipid droplets were abundant in retro-orbital WAT of immature mice; those cells decreased in number with age. However, Ucp1-positive adipocytes with multilocular lipid droplets emerged in retro-orbital WAT in adult mice, due to cold exposure as short as 3 h...
April 1, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Giuseppe Rovere, Francisco M Nadal-Nicolás, Paloma Sobrado-Calvo, María P Villegas-Pérez, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Marta Agudo-Barriuso
Optic nerve axotomy in rodents allows detailed studies of the effect of different treatments on the survival of central nervous system neurons, the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here we have analyzed the neuroprotective effect of topical bromfenac treatment, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in clinic to ameliorate post-operative inflammation, on axotomized rat RGCs. The left optic nerve of adult rats was subjected to optic nerve crush (ONC). Half of the rats were treated with a topical instillation of saline...
March 30, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Seung-Il Choi, Boram Lee, Jong Hwan Woo, Jang Bin Jeong, Ikhyun Jun, Eung Kweon Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) primarily affects the brain and is the most common form of dementia worldwide. Despite more than a century of research, there are still no early biomarkers for AD. It has been reported that AD affects the eye, which is more accessible for imaging than the brain; however, links with the cornea have not been evaluated. To investigate whether the cornea could be used to identify possible diagnostic indicators of AD, we analyzed the proteolytic processing and isoforms of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and evaluated the expression of AD-related genes and proteins in corneal fibroblasts from wild-type (WT) corneas and corneas from patients with granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2), which is related to amyloid formation in the cornea...
March 28, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
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