Binghua Yang, Yuxia Fan, Meilan Chen, Lingyun Tang, Xiaodi Tang, Hongyang Li, Aiping Gu, Renlong Liang, Yi Wu
Uveal melanoma (UM), the most frequent primary intraocular tumor in adults, has poor prognosis. High C-C motif chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) has been detected in various tumors and is closely correlated with patients' clinicopathological characteristics. However, the essential role of CCL18 in UM remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the prognostic value of CCL18 in UM. Uveal melanoma cells (M17) were transfected with pcDNA3.1-CCL18 si-RNA using Lipofectamine™ 2000. Cell growth and invasion abilities were measured through Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and invasion assay...
March 24, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Christopher Donovan, Devon Cogswell, Mei Sun, Sheila Adams, Marcel Y Avila, Curtis E Margo, Manuel Koch, Edgar M Espana
The role of collagen XII in regulating injury repair and reestablishment of corneal function is unknown. This manuscript aims to investigate the role(s) of collagen XII in the repair of incisional and debridement injuries in an adult mouse model. Two different types of injury in wild type and Col12a1-/- corneas were created to investigate the effects of collagen XII -in wound repair and scar formation-by using clinical photographs, immunohistology, second harmonic generation imaging and electron microscopy...
March 24, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Susannah Waxman, Marissa Quinn, Cara Donahue, Louis D Falo, Daniel Sun, Tatjana C Jakobs, Ian A Sigal
Astrocytes in the lamina region of the optic nerve head play vital roles in supporting retinal ganglion cell axon health. In glaucoma, these astrocytes are implicated as early responders to stressors, undergoing characteristic changes in cell function as well as cell morphology. Much of what is currently known about individual lamina astrocyte morphology has been learned from rodent models which lack a defining feature of the human optic nerve head, the collagenous lamina cribrosa (LC). Current methods available for evaluation of collagenous LC astrocyte morphology have significant shortcomings...
March 23, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Iulen Cabeza-Gil, Manns Fabrice, Calvo Begoña, Ruggeri Marco
The mechanics of accommodation is a complex process that involves multiple intraocular ocular structures. Recent studies suggest that there is deformation of the sclera during accommodation that may also play a role in accommodation, influencing ciliary muscle contraction and contributing to the accommodative response. However, the type and magnitude of the deformations measured varies significantly across studies. We present high-resolution synchronous OCT measurements of the anterior sclera contour and thickness and lens thickness acquired in real-time during accommodative responses to 4D step stimuli...
March 21, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Najam A Sharif
A multitude of pharmacological compounds have been shown to lower and control intraocular pressure (IOP) in numerous species of animals and human subjects after topical ocular dosing or via other routes of administration. Most researchers have been interested in finding drug candidates that exhibit a relatively long duration of action from a chronic therapeutic use perspective, for example to treat ocular hypertension (OHT), primary open-angle glaucoma and even normotensive glaucoma. However, it is equally important to seek and characterize treatment modalities which offer a rapid onset of action to help provide fast relief from quickly rising IOP that occurs in certain eye diseases...
March 21, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Peng Peng, Yaoyao Yu, Wenhui Ma, Shanmei Lyu, Li Ma, Ting Liu, Yanling Dong, Chao Wei
Corneal endothelial decompensation (CED) is the major cause of the long-term graft failure, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to characterize the proteomic profile in CED aqueous humor (AH) after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). We collected AH samples (n = 6/group) from CED patients underwent PKP and cataract patients, respectively. The label-free quantitative proteomic analysis was performed to identify the differentially-expressed proteins (DEPs). The biological functions of DEPs were evaluated using Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) analysis...
March 20, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Valeria Villabona-Martinez, Lycia Pedral Sampaio, Thomas Michael Shiju, Steven E Wilson
Alkali burns are one of the most common injuries used in corneal wound healing studies. Investigators have used different conditions to produce corneal alkali injuries that have varied in sodium hydroxide concentration, application methods, and duration of exposure. A critical factor in the subsequent corneal healing responses, including myofibroblast generation and fibrosis localization, is whether, or not, Descemet's membrane and the endothelium are injured during the initial exposure. After exposures that produce injuries confined to the epithelium and stroma, anterior stromal myofibroblasts and fibrosis are typical, with sparing of the posterior stroma...
March 20, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Hongfang Yang, Yu Hou, Paula K Yu, Wenhan Lu, Xinghuai Sun, Dao-Yi Yu
The permeability of iris blood vessels has an important role in maintaining aqueous humor (AH) homeostasis, contributing to variation in iris volume and probably the pathogenesis of angle closure glaucoma. This study investigates the permeability of the iris microvasculature to plasma-derived protein and correspond it with the morphologic characteristics of vascular mural cells (MCs). Twenty-two enucleated porcine eyes were used in this study. 12 eyes were micro-perfused with vehicle alone as control or with FITC-albumin as a marker of protein leakage and histological sections subsequently made to examine for FITC-albumin presence...
March 20, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Reza A Badian
Schematically, the corneal surface area and other similar surfaces such as the retinal surface and the visual field area have been represented by a circle. While there are different types of schematic sectioning patterns in use, not all patterns are recognized or referred to with their respective appropriate terminology. In scientific communications, as well as in clinical practice, when dealing with corneal or retinal surfaces, it is imperative to have the ability to refer to specific areas with an as high degree of accuracy as possible...
March 18, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Irina L Sinenko, Roland C Turnell-Ritson, Francis L Munier, Paul J Dyson
Retinoblastoma is a rare childhood cancer of the eye. Of the small number of drugs are used to treat retinoblastoma, all have been repurposed from drugs developed for other conditions. In order to find drugs or drug combinations better suited to the improved treatment of retinoblastoma, reliable predictive models are required, which facilitate the challenging transition from in vitro studies to clinical trials. In this review, the research performed to date on the development of 2D and 3D in vitro models for retinoblastoma is presented...
March 18, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Tian Yong Foong, Yi Hua, Rouzbeh Amini, Ian A Sigal
Collagen is the main load-bearing component of cornea and sclera. When stretched, both of these tissues exhibit a behavior known as collagen fiber recruitment. In recruitment, as the tissues stretch the constitutive collagen fibers lose their natural waviness, progressively straightening. Recruited, straight, fibers bear substantially more mechanical load than non-recruited, wavy, fibers. As such, the process of recruitment underlies the well-established nonlinear macroscopic behavior of the corneoscleral shell...
March 17, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Okoyeocha Om Ebenezar, Andrew Roney, Dinesh G Goswami, J Mark Petrash, Dodd Sledge, András M Komáromy, Karen T Liby, Neera Tewari-Singh
Ocular tissue is highly sensitive to chemical exposures. Chloropicrin (CP), a choking agent employed during World War I and currently a popular pesticide and fumigating agent, is a potential chemical threat agent. Accidental, occupational, or intentional exposure to CP results in severe ocular injury, especially to the cornea; however, studies on ocular injury progression and underlying mechanisms in a relevant in vivo animal model are lacking. This has impaired the development of effective therapies to treat the acute and long-term ocular toxicity of CP...
March 16, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Yuichi Uchino, Miki Uchino, Miki Mizuno, Yuta Shigeno, Kenichi Furihata, Jun Shimazaki
The purposes of the present study were to (1) identify the relationship between dry eye symptoms and morphological changes in corneal subbasal nerves/ocular surfaces, and (2) discover tear film biomarkers indicating morphological changes in the subbasal nerves. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted between October and November 2017. Adults with dry eye disease (DED, n = 43) and healthy eyes (n = 16) were evaluated based on their subjective symptoms and ophthalmological findings...
March 16, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Norman P Blair, Nathanael Matei, Sophie Leahy, Mansour Rahimi, Mahnaz Shahidi
We here attempt to improve quantification of the ischemic retinal insult, that is, what is imposed on the retinal tissue by ischemia, especially in experimental models of ischemia. The ischemic retinal insult initiates the ischemic retinal injury (or outcome). Accordingly, it is reasonable to assume that the better the quantification of the insult, the better the correlation with, and thereby estimation of, the injury. The insult seldom has been quantified in terms of the relevant physiological factors, especially in connection with the rate of oxygen delivery (DO2 )...
March 15, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Wim H Quint, Renee van Buuren, Nina C C J Kokke, Magda A Meester-Smoor, Rob Willemsen, Rémy Broersma, Adriana I Iglesias, Marcel Lucassen, Caroline C W Klaver
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is the most common type of refractive error and is characterized by a mismatch between the optical power and ocular axial length. Light, and more specifically the spectral composition of light, has been known to influence myopic axial growth. In this pilot study, we exposed zebrafish to illuminations that vary in spectral composition and screened for changes in axial length. The illumination spectra included narrow band ultra-violet A (UVA) (peak wavelength 369nm), violet (425nm), cyan (483nm), green/yellow (557nm), and red (633nm) light, as well as broad band white light (2700K and 6500K), dim white light and broad spectrum (day) light...
March 14, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Youmei Xu, Lin Li, Jiankang Shan, Liping Du, Xuemin Jin, Pengyi Zhou
PURPOSE: To explore the association between two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SOX2 gene and high and extreme myopia in the Han Chinese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A genetic association study using a case-control method was performed with 139 high myopia, 318 extreme myopia, and 918 healthy participants from the Chinese Han population. Two SNPs (rs4459940 and rs4575941) near SOX2 gene were selected for genotyping. We compared the allelic frequencies and haplotypes of the SNPs to assess their association with high and extreme myopia...
March 14, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Feiyang Shen, Jin Liu, Lianfei Fang, Yan Fang, Huifang Zhou
Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), also known as Graves' ophthalmopathy, is an autoimmune disease that is usually accompanied by hyperthyroidism. Its pathogenesis involves the activation of autoimmune T lymphocytes by a cross-antigen reaction of thyroid and orbital tissues. The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is known to play an important role in the development of TAO. Because of the difficulty of orbital tissue biopsy, the establishment of an ideal animal model is important for developing novel clinical therapies of TAO...
March 11, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Federico Gonzalez-Fernandez, Richard DeSa
Light scattering and inability to uniformly expose the cuvette contents to an incident light beam are significant limitations of traditional spectrophotometers. The first of these drawbacks limits their usefulness in studies of turbid cellular and tissue suspensions; the second limits their use in photodecomposition studies. Our strategy circumvents both problems. Although we describe its potential usefulness in vision sciences, application of spherical integrating cuvettes has broad application. Absorbance spectra of turbid bovine rod outer segments and dispersed living frog retina were studied using a standard single-pass 1 cm cuvettes, or a spherical integrating cuvette (DeSa Presentation Chamber, DSPC)...
March 4, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Refref Yüksel, Nurşen Yüksel, Yusufhan Yazır, Ahmet Öztürk, Selenay Furat Rençber, Kübra Demirci Küçük
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of nintedanib on preventing postoperative scar in formation following glaucoma filtering surgery (GFC) in rabbits in comparison with Mitomycin-C (MMC). DESIGN: Experimental Animal Study. METHODS: 24 New Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into 3 groups as Sham, Nindetanib and MMC(n = 8). Limbal-based trabeculectomy was performed on the right eyes of the rabbits. Left eyes that did'nt undergo surgery were included in the control group (n = 8)...
March 2, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
Binxing Li, Evan W George, Preejith Vachali, Fu-Yen Chang, Aruna Gorusupudi, Ranganathan Arunkumar, Nathan A Giauque, Zihe Wan, Jeanne M Frederick, Paul S Bernstein
The macular carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are taken up from the bloodstream into the human retina through a selective process, for which the HDL cholesterol receptor scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) in the cells of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is thought to be a key mediator. However, the mechanism of SR-BI-mediated selective uptake of macular carotenoids is still not fully understood. Here, we investigate possible mechanisms using biological assays and cultured HEK293 cells, a cell line without endogenous SR-BI expression...
March 1, 2023: Experimental Eye Research
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