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Avian Diseases

Maki Sekiguchi, Nariaki Nonaka, Mamoru Adachi, Tamami Sekiya, Yu Yamamoto
In May 2017, a hen in a backyard chicken flock in Japan exhibited mild clinical signs, and the bird was examined for diagnosis. Unexpectedly, many microfilariae were observed in the lung by histologic examination, although no adult worms were detected within the body. In a blood test performed in July, microfilaremia was confirmed in a few clinically normal chickens of the same flock. Molecular analysis of the nematode partial 18S ribosomal RNA gene revealed that the gene detected in the lung of the necropsied hen was positioned in the group of the family Onchocercidae in the phylogenetic tree...
September 2018: Avian Diseases
Kaitlyn M St Charles, Amos Ssematimba, Sasidhar Malladi, Peter J Bonney, Eric Linskens, Marie Culhane, Timothy J Goldsmith, David A Halvorson, Carol J Cardona
Producing a smaller yield of higher-value birds compared to conventional poultry production, the U.S. commercial upland game bird industry deals primarily in the sale of live birds for recreational hunting. In this study, our aims were to gain insights into the occurrence of avian influenza (AI) in the U.S. commercial upland game bird industry in comparison to other poultry sectors, to identify the presence of the specific AI risk factors in the practices of raising ducks on site and having connections to live bird markets (LBMs), and to assess how AI surveillance systems may have played a role in the reporting of the presence of exposure pathway-related information...
September 2018: Avian Diseases
Arne Jung, Laura R Chen, M Mitsu Suyemoto, H John Barnes, Luke B Borst
Enterococcus cecorum was initially identified as a harmless commensal of the gastrointestinal tract of chickens. However, over the past 15 yr, pathogenic strains of E. cecorum have become a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in broiler breeders, and repeated outbreaks occur, but an environmental reservoir for pathogenic E. cecorum has yet to be identified. Genetic analyses of E. cecorum demonstrate that strains with increased pathogenicity are genetically related and share several putative virulence genes...
September 2018: Avian Diseases
I M Gimeno, K A Schat
A healthy immune system is a cornerstone for poultry production. Any factor diminishing the immune responses will affect production parameters and increase cost. There are numerous factors, infectious and noninfectious, causing immunosuppression (IS) in chickens. This paper reviews the three viral diseases that most commonly induce IS or subclinical IS in chickens: Marek's disease virus (MDV), chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV), and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), as well as the interactions among them...
September 2018: Avian Diseases
Brenda Allan, Colette Wheler, Wolfgang Köster, Mishal Sarfraz, Andy Potter, Volker Gerdts, Arshud Dar
Omphalitis or yolk sac infection (YSI) and colibacillosis are the most common infectious diseases that lead to high rates of early chick mortalities (ECMs) in young chicks. Out of numerous microbial causes, avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) or extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli infections are considered the most common cause of these conditions. YSI causes deterioration and decomposition of yolk, leading to deficiency of necessary nutrients and maternal antibodies, retarded growth, poor carcass quality, and increased susceptibility to other infections, including omphalitis, colibacillosis, and respiratory tract infection...
September 2018: Avian Diseases
Ireneusz Sokół, Andrzej Gaweł, Kamila Bobrek
This study was undertaken to explore the issue of yeast species prevalence in colonizing the gastrointestinal tract of healthy turkeys. The samples were collected from the beak cavity, crop, and cloaca of 5-wk-old turkeys, cultured and classified using morphological, biochemical, and genetic analysis based on ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 fragment sequencing. Out of all the samples, 12.4% were yeast positive. The highest number of strains, 50% of the total collected, were isolated from the crop, with 30.8% coming from the beak cavity and 19...
September 2018: Avian Diseases
Csaba Varga, Marina L Brash, Durda Slavic, Patrick Boerlin, Rachel Ouckama, Alexandru Weis, Mike Petrik, Cynthia Philippe, Melanie Barham, Michele T Guerin
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is the causative agent of colibacillosis in poultry, an economically important disease worldwide. In Ontario, Canada, early and late systemic bacterial infections due to APEC were the most commonly reported diseases in broiler chickens. In 2016, Ontario poultry veterinarians submitted samples from 331 cases of broiler and broiler breeder chickens with a high suspicion of colibacillosis to the Animal Health Laboratory (Guelph, Ontario, Canada) for bacterial culture. Escherichia coli isolates from those samples were tested with multiplex PCR to detect the presence of 13 virulence-associated genes...
September 2018: Avian Diseases
Surya Paudel, Beatrix Stessl, Carmen Fürst, Delfina Jandreski-Cvetkovic, Michael Hess, Claudia Hess
In laying and breeding chickens, pathomorphological signs of histomonosis often coincide with colibacillosis. Thus, we investigated the systemic spread of Escherichia coli in chickens affected with histomonosis and colibacillosis by characterizing their pheno- and genotypic profiles. For this, 29 birds from 11 affected flocks were necropsied and up to three E. coli isolates each from intestine, heart, and liver of the birds were isolated. A total of 251 isolates were characterized by serotyping, phylogenetic grouping, detection of virulence-associated genes (VAGs), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
September 2018: Avian Diseases
A Garmyn, L Bosseler, D Braeckmans, J Van Erum, M Verlinden
Fowl adenovirus infections are widely prevalent in poultry. Many of the viruses can infect chickens without resulting in overt disease. Nevertheless, some fowl adenoviruses can cause important disease complexes in chickens such as inclusion body hepatitis, hydropericardium syndrome, necrotic pancreatitis, and gizzard erosion. Adenoviral gizzard erosions have been regularly reported from Japan, but detailed reports from Europe are scarce and available only from Italy, Poland, Hungary, and Germany. This case report describes two concurrent outbreaks of gizzard erosions caused by fowl adenovirus A in two Belgian broiler farms...
September 2018: Avian Diseases
Jinjun Xu, Chanbao Qu, Ping Guo, Zhennan Zhuo, Dandan Liu, Jianping Tao
Preliminary diagnosis of clinical symptoms and gross lesions with subsequent histopathologic and PCR analyses revealed histomoniasis in 276 chicken flocks in Jiangsu Province, China, and surrounding areas from January 2012 to December 2015. Detailed statistical analysis was performed to explore the occurrence and epidemic characteristics of histomoniasis in chicken flocks. The results indicated that histomoniasis usually occurred in free-range flocks of local broilers and laying hens. Also, 2- to 3-mo-old chickens were most susceptible to infection, and adult chickens rarely developed infection...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Nicolas Gaidet, India Leclercq, Christophe Batéjat, Quentin Grassin, Tanguy Daufresne, Jean-Claude Manuguerra
The connectedness in Arctic regions between migratory waterbird populations originating from different continents and the potential for virus exchange at their shared Arctic breeding ground point to the need to explore the largely unstudied circumpolar circulation of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We here report the investigation of AIV in wild birds and lakes in a high Arctic area of Northeast Greenland. No AIV could be detected in the fecal, feather, and water samples collected from large flocks of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus and barnacle geese Branta leucopsis in and around refuge lakes, where they congregate at high density during their flightless molting period in summer...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Ana M Villegas, Roy Berghaus, Guillermo Zavala, Miguel A Barrios, Monique França
Focal duodenal necrosis (FDN) is an intestinal disease of egg-laying chickens, characterized by multifocal mucosal erosions in the duodenal loop and proximal jejunum. It is currently considered by the Association of Veterinarians in Egg Production and the United States Animal Health Association as one of the top five disease concerns of the table egg industry in the United States. Previous studies have associated this condition with Clostridium species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of table egg layer flocks affected with FDN...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Kiyohiko Andoh, Kanako Ashikaga, Kiyotaka Suenaga, Shun Endo, Kenichi Yamazaki
We identified novel linear epitopes on the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) spike S2 region. The conformational structure of the IBV spike protein was predicted from a homologous protein, human coronavirus NL63 spike. Although the obtained structure was incomplete, most of the IBV spike protein structure was predicted; the N-terminus of the S1 region could not be predicted due to its variability. In the model, the region located in the proximity of the fusion peptide appeared to be well conserved, and we evaluated the antigenicity of these domains, which are involved in the membrane fusion machinery...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
O Alejandro Aleuy, Maurice Pitesky, Rodrigo Gallardo
Although infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has been described as one of the most economically important viral respiratory diseases in poultry, there are few analyses of outbreaks that use spatial statistics. In order to better understand how the different genotypes of IBV behave spatially and temporally, we used geographic information system-based mapping coupled with spatial and spatial-temporal statistics to identify statistically significant clustering of multiple strains of infectious bronchitis (IB) between 2008 and 2012 in California...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Abdulmajid Sheykhi, Nariman Sheikhi, Saeid Charkhkar, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni
Circovirus infections have been documented in adult and nestling canaries (Fringillidae) but the distribution of the virus in the world is not yet known. In captive canary flocks, Circovirus infections have been reported based on the clinical observations. In this study, the presence of both canary circovirus (CaCV) and chicken anemia virus (CAV) in canary flocks was investigated. Virus strains were detected by PCR and direct sequencing of amplified products. Nucleotide sequences were aligned and compared with existing data in GenBank...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Jianlin Wang, Shouchun Wang, Kaiyu Zou, Yi Zhang, Shouzhen Xu, Yanbo Yin
The present study was performed to detect and characterize the serotypes of fowl adenovirus associated with inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) or hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) in commercial poultry in some regions of China between 2007 and 2017. Approximately 81 fowl adenovirus strains were isolated from liver or kidney samples from diseased poultry. A sequencing analysis of the hexon loop 1 gene revealed fowl adenovirus serotypes 8a, 8b, and 11 in samples of broilers with IBH, serotype 11 in layers with IBH, and serotype 4 in poultry with HHS...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Kathleen E Long, Rachel M Ouckama, Alexandru Weisz, Marina L Brash, Davor Ojkić
Sixty-four cases of white chick syndrome (WCS) in broiler breeders producing affected progeny were reported from seven hatcheries in Ontario, Canada, between 2009 and 2016, with 43 of those originating from two hatcheries owned by a single company. WCS cases were identified by the presence of typical chicks in the hatchery that were generally weak with pale to white down, enlarged abdomens, and occasionally brown wiry fluff on the dorsum of the neck. Affected embryos and chicks had characteristic gross and histologic liver lesions, and livers were positive for chicken astrovirus (CAstV) RNA by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
L Gustafson, R Jones, L Dufour-Zavala, E Jensen, C Malinak, S McCarter, K Opengart, J Quinn, T Slater, A Delgado, M Talbert, L Garber, M Remmenga, M Smeltzer
An expert elicitation was staged to rapidly decipher plausible routes and risks of pathogen transmission in the 2017 H7N9 avian influenza (AI) outbreak in the four-state region of Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, and Kentucky. The process included the identification of risk factors found in a preponderance of commercial broiler breeder case farms over matched controls and an opinion-based weighting of risks and mitigations perceived influential to this outbreak. Although the two highly pathogenic AI case farms had general location and company ownership in common, obvious connections were lacking for the remainder of H7N9-infected (all low pathogenicity) commercial farms...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Md Shahin Alam, Satoru Takahashi, Mariko Ito, Mayuko Suzuki, Miyuki Komura, Natthanan Sangsriratanakul, Dany Shoham, Kazuaki Takehara
The bactericidal efficacy of food additive-grade calcium hydroxide [FdCa(OH)2 ] was evaluated for inactivation of Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid and Salmonella Infantis on contaminated eggshells. The activity of FdCa(OH)2 was also compared with that of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) containing 150 ppm chlorine (150 ppm NaOCl). FdCa(OH)2 solutions (0.1% and 0.2%) in the presence or absence of organic materials (5% calf serum [CS]) at pH 12.6 were used to inactivate Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella Enteritidis in a reaction tube or on eggshells artificially contaminated with Salmonella Infantis...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Tridib Kumar Rajkhowa, Catherine Vanlalruati, Rahul S Arya
In recent years, acute severe outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) are frequently observed in commercial chicken populations of the North East Region (NER) of India, resulting in huge economic loses to poultry farmers. Field outbreaks of IBD in 30 different poultry farms in the NER were confirmed by clinicopathologic examination and reverse transcriptase PCR. A total of 10 isolates of IBD virus (IBDV) from these outbreaks were characterized by the genetic analysis of VP1 and the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
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