journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38061018/the-coding-logic-of-interoception
#1
REVIEW
Ruiqi Wang, Rui B Chang
Interoception, the ability to precisely and timely sense internal body signals, is critical for life. The interoceptive system monitors a large variety of mechanical, chemical, hormonal, and pathological cues using specialized organ cells, organ innervating neurons, and brain sensory neurons. It is important for maintaining body homeostasis, providing motivational drives, and regulating autonomic, cognitive, and behavioral functions. However, compared to external sensory systems, our knowledge about how diverse body signals are coded at a system level is quite limited...
December 7, 2023: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38029388/a-balancing-act-learning-from-the-past-to-build-a-future-focused-opioid-strategy
#2
REVIEW
Sarah Warren Gooding, Jennifer L Whistler
The harmful side effects of opioid drugs such as respiratory depression, tolerance, dependence, and abuse potential have limited the therapeutic utility of opioids for their entire clinical history. However, no previous attempt to develop effective pain drugs that substantially ameliorate these effects has succeeded, and the current opioid epidemic affirms that they are a greater hindrance to the field of pain management than ever. Recent attempts at new opioid development have sought to reduce these side effects by minimizing engagement of the regulatory protein arrestin-3 at the mu-opioid receptor, but there is significant controversy around this approach...
November 29, 2023: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38345908/a-razor-s-edge-vascular-responses-to-acute-inflammatory-lung-injury-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
David R Price, Joe G N Garcia
Historically considered a metabolically inert cellular layer separating the blood from the underlying tissue, the endothelium is now recognized as a highly dynamic, metabolically active tissue that is critical to organ homeostasis. Under homeostatic conditions, lung endothelial cells (ECs) in healthy subjects are quiescent, promoting vasodilation, platelet disaggregation, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. In contrast, lung ECs are essential contributors to the pathobiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), as the quiescent endothelium is rapidly and radically altered upon exposure to environmental stressors, infectious pathogens, or endogenous danger signals into an effective and formidable regulator of innate and adaptive immunity...
February 12, 2024: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38345907/transcellular-barriers-to-glucose-delivery-in-the-body
#4
REVIEW
Amira Klip, Katrien De Bock, Philip J Bilan, Erik A Richter
Glucose is the universal fuel of most mammalian cells, and it is largely replenished through dietary intake. Glucose availability to tissues is paramount for the maintenance of homeostatic energetics and, hence, supply should match demand by the consuming organs. In its journey through the body, glucose encounters cellular barriers for transit at the levels of the absorbing intestinal epithelial wall, the renal epithelium mediating glucose reabsorption, and the tight capillary endothelia (especially in the brain)...
February 12, 2024: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38345906/exosome-mediated-impact-on-systemic-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
Karina Cunha E Rocha, Wei Ying, Jerrold M Olefsky
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles that carry lipids, proteins, and microRNAs (miRNAs). They are released by all cell types and can be found not only in circulation but in many biological fluids. Exosomes are essential for interorgan communication because they can transfer their contents from donor to recipient cells, modulating cellular functions. The miRNA content of exosomes is responsible for most of their biological effects, and changes in exosomal miRNA levels can contribute to the progression or regression of metabolic diseases...
February 12, 2024: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38345905/arterial-stiffness-from-basic-primers-to-integrative-physiology
#6
REVIEW
Véronique Regnault, Patrick Lacolley, Stéphane Laurent
The elastic properties of conductance arteries are one of the most important hemodynamic functions in the body, and data continue to emerge regarding the importance of their dysfunction in vascular aging and a range of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we provide new insight into the integrative physiology of arterial stiffening and its clinical consequence. We also comprehensively review progress made on pathways/molecules that appear today as important basic determinants of arterial stiffness, particularly those mediating the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contractility, plasticity and stiffness...
February 12, 2024: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38345904/the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-the-etiopathogenesis-of-colon-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Geniver El Tekle, Natalia Andreeva, Wendy S Garrett
Studies in preclinical models support that the gut microbiota play a critical role in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Specific microbial species and their corresponding virulence factors or associated small molecules can contribute to CRC development and progression either via direct effects on the neoplastic transformation of epithelial cells or through interactions with the host immune system. Induction of DNA damage, activation of Wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB proinflammatory pathways, and alteration of the nutrient's availability and the metabolic activity of cancer cells are the main mechanisms by which the microbiota contribute to CRC...
February 12, 2024: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38345903/orchestration-of-the-adipose-tissue-immune-landscape-by-adipocytes
#8
REVIEW
David Bradley, Tuo Deng, Dharti Shantaram, Willa A Hsueh
Obesity is epidemic and of great concern because of its comorbid and costly inflammatory-driven complications. Extensive investigations in mice have elucidated highly coordinated, well-balanced interactions between adipocytes and immune cells in adipose tissue that maintain normal systemic metabolism in the lean state, while in obesity, proinflammatory changes occur in nearly all adipose tissue immune cells. Many of these changes are instigated by adipocytes. However, less is known about obesity-induced adipose-tissue immune cell alterations in humans...
February 12, 2024: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38012048/metabolic-rewiring-and-communication-an-integrative-view-of-kidney-proximal-tubule-function
#9
REVIEW
Maria Chrysopoulou, Markus M Rinschen
The kidney proximal tubule is a key organ for human metabolism. The kidney responds to stress with altered metabolite transformation and perturbed metabolic pathways, an ultimate cause for kidney disease. Here, we review the proximal tubule's metabolic function through an integrative view of transport, metabolism, and function, and embed it in the context of metabolome-wide data-driven research. Function (filtration, transport, secretion, and reabsorption), metabolite transformation, and metabolite signaling determine kidney metabolic rewiring in disease...
February 12, 2024: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37931171/the-effects-of-psychedelics-on-neuronal-physiology
#10
REVIEW
Cassandra J Hatzipantelis, David E Olson
Psychedelics are quite unique among drugs that impact the central nervous system, as a single administration of a psychedelic can both rapidly alter subjective experience in profound ways and produce sustained effects on circuits relevant to mood, fear, reward, and cognitive flexibility. These remarkable properties are a direct result of psychedelics interacting with several key neuroreceptors distributed across the brain. Stimulation of these receptors activates a variety of signaling cascades that ultimately culminate in changes in neuronal structure and function...
February 12, 2024: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38012047/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-kidney-tubulopathies
#11
REVIEW
Charlotte A Hoogstraten, Joost G Hoenderop, Jeroen H F de Baaij
Mitochondria play a key role in kidney physiology and pathology. They produce ATP to fuel energy-demanding water and solute reabsorption processes along the nephron. Moreover, mitochondria contribute to cellular health by the regulation of autophagy, (oxidative) stress responses, and apoptosis. Mitochondrial abundance is particularly high in cortical segments, including proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Dysfunction of the mitochondria has been described for tubulopathies such as Fanconi, Gitelman, and Bartter-like syndromes and renal tubular acidosis...
November 27, 2023: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37931170/molecular-crowding-physiologic-sensing-and-control
#12
REVIEW
Arohan R Subramanya, Cary R Boyd-Shiwarski
The cytoplasm is densely packed with molecules that contribute to its nonideal behavior. Cytosolic crowding influences chemical reaction rates, intracellular water mobility, and macromolecular complex formation. Overcrowding is potentially catastrophic; to counteract this problem, cells have evolved acute and chronic homeostatic mechanisms that optimize cellular crowdedness. Here, we provide a physiology-focused overview of molecular crowding, highlighting contemporary advances in our understanding of its sensing and control...
November 6, 2023: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37931169/adipose-tissue-in-cardiovascular-disease-from-basic-science-to-clinical-translation
#13
REVIEW
Murray D Polkinghorne, Henry W West, Charalambos Antoniades
The perception of adipose tissue as a metabolically quiescent tissue, primarily responsible for lipid storage and energy balance (with some endocrine, thermogenic, and insulation functions), has changed. It is now accepted that adipose tissue is a crucial regulator of metabolic health, maintaining bidirectional communication with other organs including the cardiovascular system. Additionally, adipose tissue depots are functionally and morphologically heterogeneous, acting not only as sources of bioactive molecules that regulate the physiological functioning of the vasculature and myocardium but also as biosensors of the paracrine and endocrine signals arising from these tissues...
November 6, 2023: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37931168/structure-function-and-regulation-of-the-junctophilin-family
#14
REVIEW
Duane D Hall, Hiroshi Takeshima, Long-Sheng Song
In both excitable and nonexcitable cells, diverse physiological processes are linked to different calcium microdomains within nanoscale junctions that form between the plasma membrane and endo-sarcoplasmic reticula. It is now appreciated that the junctophilin protein family is responsible for establishing, maintaining, and modulating the structure and function of these junctions. We review foundational findings from more than two decades of research that have uncovered how junctophilin-organized ultrastructural domains regulate evolutionarily conserved biological processes...
November 6, 2023: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37931167/regulating-striated-muscle-contraction-through-thick-and-thin
#15
REVIEW
Elisabetta Brunello, Luca Fusi
Force generation in striated muscle is primarily controlled by structural changes in the actin-containing thin filaments triggered by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration. However, recent studies have elucidated a new class of regulatory mechanisms, based on the myosin-containing thick filament, that control the strength and speed of contraction by modulating the availability of myosin motors for the interaction with actin. This review summarizes the mechanisms of thin and thick filament activation that regulate the contractility of skeletal and cardiac muscle...
February 12, 2024: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37931166/transcendent-aspects-of-proton-channels
#16
REVIEW
Thomas E DeCoursey
A handful of biological proton-selective ion channels exist. Some open at positive or negative membrane potentials, others open at low or high pH, and some are light activated. This review focuses on common features that result from the unique properties of protons. Proton conduction through water or proteins differs qualitatively from that of all other ions. Extraordinary proton selectivity is needed to ensure that protons permeate and other ions do not. Proton selectivity arises from a proton pathway comprising a hydrogen-bonded chain that typically includes at least one titratable amino acid side chain...
November 6, 2023: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37906945/bk-channelopathies-and-kcnma1-linked-disease-models
#17
REVIEW
Andrea L Meredith
Novel KCNMA1 variants , encoding the BK K+ channel, are associated with a debilitating dyskinesia and epilepsy syndrome. Neurodevelopmental delay, cognitive disability, and brain and structural malformations are also diagnosed at lower incidence. More than half of affected individuals present with a rare negative episodic motor disorder, paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD3). The mechanistic relationship of PNKD3 to epilepsy and the broader spectrum of KCNMA1 -associated symptomology is unknown. This review summarizes patient-associated KCNMA1 variants within the BK channel structure, functional classifications, genotype-phenotype associations, disease models, and treatment...
October 31, 2023: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37871124/phosphoinositide-regulation-of-trp-channels-a-functional-overview-in-the-structural-era
#18
REVIEW
Tibor Rohacs
Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels have diverse activation mechanisms including physical stimuli, such as high or low temperatures, and a variety of intracellular signaling molecules. Regulation by phosphoinositides and their derivatives is their only known common regulatory feature. For most TRP channels, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2 ] serves as a cofactor required for activity. Such dependence on PI(4,5)P2 has been demonstrated for members of the TRPM subfamily and for the epithelial TRPV5 and TRPV6 channels...
October 23, 2023: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37863105/mechanosensing-by-vascular-endothelium
#19
REVIEW
Xin Rui Lim, Osama F Harraz
Mechanical forces influence different cell types in our bodies. Among the earliest forces experienced in mammals is blood movement in the vascular system. Blood flow starts at the embryonic stage and ceases when the heart stops. Blood flow exposes endothelial cells (ECs) that line all blood vessels to hemodynamic forces. ECs detect these mechanical forces (mechanosensing) through mechanosensors, thus triggering physiological responses such as changes in vascular diameter. In this review, we focus on endothelial mechanosensing and on how different ion channels, receptors, and membrane structures detect forces and mediate intricate mechanotransduction responses...
October 20, 2023: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37863104/intestinal-tuft-cells-morphology-function-and-implications-for-human-health
#20
REVIEW
Jennifer B Silverman, Paige N Vega, Matthew J Tyska, Ken S Lau
Tuft cells are a rare and morphologically distinct chemosensory cell type found throughout many organs, including the gastrointestinal tract. These cells were identified by their unique morphologies distinguished by large apical protrusions. Ultrastructural data have begun to describe the molecular underpinnings of their cytoskeletal features, and tuft cell-enriched cytoskeletal proteins have been identified, although the connection of tuft cell morphology to tuft cell functionality has not yet been established...
October 20, 2023: Annual Review of Physiology
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