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Annual Review of Physiology

Bente Klarlund Pedersen
Physical inactivity is one of the leading health problems in the world. Strong epidemiological and clinical evidence demonstrates that exercise decreases the risk of more than 35 different disorders and that exercise should be prescribed as medicine for many chronic diseases. The physiology and molecular biology of exercise suggests that exercise activates multiple signaling pathways of major health importance. An anti-inflammatory environment is produced with each bout of exercise, and long-term anti-inflammatory effects are mediated via an effect on abdominal adiposity...
December 10, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
Maor Sauler, Isabel S Bazan, Patty J Lee
Regulated cell death is a major mechanism to eliminate damaged, infected, or superfluous cells. Previously, apoptosis was thought to be the only regulated cell death mechanism; however, new modalities of caspase-independent regulated cell death have been identified, including necroptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagic cell death. As an understanding of the cellular mechanisms that mediate regulated cell death continues to grow, there is increasing evidence that these pathways are implicated in the pathogenesis of many pulmonary disorders...
November 28, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
Diane M Ward, Suzanne M Cloonan
Mitochondria are an iconic distinguishing feature of eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria encompass an active organellar network that fuses, divides, and directs a myriad of vital biological functions, including energy metabolism, cell death regulation, and innate immune signaling in different tissues. Another crucial and often underappreciated function of these dynamic organelles is their central role in the metabolism of the most abundant and biologically versatile transition metals in mammalian cells, iron. In recent years, cellular and animal models of mitochondrial iron dysfunction have provided vital information in identifying new proteins that have elucidated the pathways involved in mitochondrial homeostasis and iron metabolism...
November 28, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
Gang Liu, Ross Summer
The lung is often overlooked as a metabolically active organ, yet biochemical studies have long demonstrated that glucose utilization surpasses that of many other organs, including the heart, kidney, and brain. For most cells in the lung, energy consumption is relegated to performing common cellular tasks, like mRNA transcription and protein translation. However, certain lung cell populations engage in more specialized types of energy-consuming behaviors, such as the beating of cilia or the production of surfactant...
November 28, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
Melissa H Little, Lorna J Hale, Sara E Howden, Santhosh V Kumar
Human kidney tissue can now be generated via the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. This advance is anticipated to facilitate the modeling of human kidney diseases, provide platforms for nephrotoxicity screening, enable cellular therapy, and potentially generate tissue for renal replacement. All such applications will rely upon the accuracy and reliability of the model and the capacity for stem cell-derived kidney tissue to recapitulate both normal and diseased states. In this review, we discuss the models available, how well they recapitulate the human kidney, and how far we are from application of these cells for use in cellular therapies...
February 10, 2019: Annual Review of Physiology
Vivian Gonzalez-Perez, Christopher J Lingle
Ca2+ - and voltage-gated K+ channels of large conductance (BK channels) are expressed in a diverse variety of both excitable and inexcitable cells, with functional properties presumably uniquely calibrated for the cells in which they are found. Although some diversity in BK channel function, localization, and regulation apparently arises from cell-specific alternative splice variants of the single pore-forming α subunit ( KCa1.1, Kcnma1, Slo1) gene, two families of regulatory subunits, β and γ, define BK channels that span a diverse range of functional properties...
February 10, 2019: Annual Review of Physiology
Xuri Li, Anil Kumar, Peter Carmeliet
Endothelial cell (EC) metabolism is important for health and disease. Metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and amino acid metabolism, determine vasculature formation. These metabolic pathways have different roles in securing the production of energy and biomass and the maintenance of redox homeostasis in vascular migratory tip cells, proliferating stalk cells, and quiescent phalanx cells, respectively. Emerging evidence demonstrates that perturbation of EC metabolism results in EC dysfunction and vascular pathologies...
February 10, 2019: Annual Review of Physiology
Jillian L Barlow, Andrew N J McKenzie
Although, as the major organ of gas exchange, the lung is considered a nonlymphoid organ, an interconnected network of lung-resident innate cells, including epithelial cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells is crucial for its protection. These cells provide defense against a daily assault by airborne bacteria, viruses, and fungi, as well as prevent the development of cancer, allergy, and the outgrowth of commensals. Our understanding of this innate immune environment has recently changed with the discovery of a family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs): ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s...
February 10, 2019: Annual Review of Physiology
Daniel G Bichet
Recent experiments using optogenetic tools facilitate the identification and functional analysis of thirst neurons and vasopressin-producing neurons. Four major advances provide a detailed anatomy and physiology of thirst, taste for water, and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) release: ( a) Thirst and AVP release are regulated by the classical homeostatic, interosensory plasma osmolality negative feedback as well as by novel, exterosensory, anticipatory signals. These anticipatory signals for thirst and vasopressin release concentrate on the same homeostatic neurons and circumventricular organs that monitor the composition of blood...
February 10, 2019: Annual Review of Physiology
George Osol, Nga Ling Ko, Maurizio Mandalà
Maternal cardiovascular changes during pregnancy include an expansion of plasma volume, increased cardiac output, decreased peripheral resistance, and increased uteroplacental blood flow. These adaptations facilitate the progressive increase in uteroplacental perfusion that is required for normal fetal growth and development, prevent the development of hypertension, and provide a reserve of blood in anticipation of the significant blood loss associated with parturition. Each woman's genotype and phenotype determine her ability to adapt in response to molecular signals that emanate from the fetoplacental unit...
February 10, 2019: Annual Review of Physiology
William R Zhang, Chirag R Parikh
The current unidimensional paradigm of kidney disease detection is incompatible with the complexity and heterogeneity of renal pathology. The diagnosis of kidney disease has largely focused on glomerular filtration, while assessment of kidney tubular health has notably been absent. Following insult, the kidney tubular cells undergo a cascade of cellular responses that result in the production and accumulation of low-molecular-weight proteins in the urine and systemic circulation. Modern advancements in molecular analysis and proteomics have allowed the identification and quantification of these proteins as biomarkers for assessing and characterizing kidney diseases...
February 10, 2019: Annual Review of Physiology
John D Martin, Giorgio Seano, Rakesh K Jain
Abnormal blood and lymphatic vessels create a hostile tumor microenvironment characterized by hypoxia, low pH, and elevated interstitial fluid pressure. These abnormalities fuel tumor progression, immunosuppression, and treatment resistance. In 2001, we proposed a novel hypothesis that the judicious use of antiangiogenesis agents-originally developed to starve tumors-could transiently normalize tumor vessels and improve the outcome of anticancer drugs administered during the window of normalization. In addition to providing preclinical and clinical evidence in support of this hypothesis, we also revealed the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 10, 2019: Annual Review of Physiology
Massimiliano Mazzone, Gabriele Bergers
Research over the last decades has provided strong evidence for the pivotal role of the tumor-associated blood and lymphatic vasculature in supporting immunoevasion and in subverting T cell-mediated immunosurveillance. Conversely, tumor blood and lymphatic vessel growth is in part regulated by the immune system, with infiltrating innate as well as adaptive immune cells providing both immunosuppressive and various angiogenic signals. Thus, tumor angiogenesis and escape of immunosurveillance are two cancer hallmarks that are tightly linked and interregulated by cell constituents from compartments secreting both chemokines and cytokines...
February 10, 2019: Annual Review of Physiology
Michael Neinast, Danielle Murashige, Zoltan Arany
Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are building blocks for all life-forms. We review here the fundamentals of BCAA metabolism in mammalian physiology. Decades of studies have elicited a deep understanding of biochemical reactions involved in BCAA catabolism. In addition, BCAAs and various catabolic products act as signaling molecules, activating programs ranging from protein synthesis to insulin secretion. How these processes are integrated at an organismal level is less clear. Inborn errors of metabolism highlight the importance of organismal regulation of BCAA physiology...
November 28, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
Yaqing Zhang, Howard C Crawford, Marina Pasca di Magliano
Pancreatic cancer is characterized by an extensive fibroinflammatory reaction that includes immune cells, fibroblasts, extracellular matrix, vascular and lymphatic vessels, and nerves. Overwhelming evidence indicates that the pancreatic cancer microenvironment regulates cancer initiation, progression, and maintenance. Pancreatic cancer treatment has progressed little over the past several decades, and the prognosis remains one of the worst for any cancer. The contribution of the microenvironment to carcinogenesis is a key area of research, offering new potential targets for treating the disease...
November 12, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
Haguy Wolfenson, Bo Yang, Michael P Sheetz
It is increasingly clear that mechanotransduction pathways play important roles in regulating fundamental cellular functions. Of the basic mechanical functions, the determination of cellular morphology is critical. Cells typically use many mechanosensitive steps and different cell states to achieve a polarized shape through repeated testing of the microenvironment. Indeed, morphology is determined by the microenvironment through periodic activation of motility, mechanotesting, and mechanoresponse functions by hormones, internal clocks, and receptor tyrosine kinases...
November 7, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
Sabine Schneider, Christina M Wright, Robert O Heuckeroth
At the most fundamental level, the bowel facilitates absorption of small molecules, regulates fluid and electrolyte flux, and eliminates waste. To successfully coordinate this complex array of functions, the bowel relies on the enteric nervous system (ENS), an intricate network of more than 500 million neurons and supporting glia that are organized into distinct layers or plexi within the bowel wall. Neuron and glial diversity, as well as neurotransmitter and receptor expression in the ENS, resembles that of the central nervous system...
October 31, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
Bo Wang, Peter Tontonoz
Phospholipids are major constituents of biological membranes. The fatty acyl chain composition of phospholipids determines the biophysical properties of membranes and thereby affects their impact on biological processes. The composition of fatty acyl chains is also actively regulated through a deacylation and reacylation pathway called Lands' cycle. Recent studies of mouse genetic models have demonstrated that lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases (LPCATs), which catalyze the incorporation of fatty acyl chains into the sn-2 site of phosphatidylcholine, play important roles in pathophysiology...
October 31, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
Luke Grundy, Andelain Erickson, Stuart M Brierley
Most of us live blissfully unaware of the orchestrated function that our internal organs conduct. When this peace is interrupted, it is often by routine sensations of hunger and urge. However, for >20% of the global population, chronic visceral pain is an unpleasant and often excruciating reminder of the existence of our internal organs. In many cases, there is no obvious underlying pathological cause of the pain. Accordingly, chronic visceral pain is debilitating, reduces the quality of life of sufferers, and has large concomitant socioeconomic costs...
October 31, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
Miguel Quirós, Asma Nusrat
The gastrointestinal mucosa, structurally formed by the epithelium and lamina propria, serves as a selective barrier that separates luminal contents from the underlying tissues. Gastrointestinal mucosal wound repair is orchestrated by a series of spatial and temporal events that involve the epithelium, recruited immune cells, resident stromal cells, and the microbiota present in the wound bed. Upon injury, repair of the gastrointestinal barrier is mediated by collective migration, proliferation, and subsequent differentiation of epithelial cells...
October 24, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
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