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American Psychologist

Kurt Gray, Stephen Anderson, Eric Evan Chen, John Michael Kelly, Michael S Christian, John Patrick, Laura Huang, Yoed N Kenett, Kevin Lewis
When the human mind is free to roam, its subjective experience is characterized by a continuously evolving stream of thought. Although there is a technique that captures people's streams of free thought-free association-its utility for scientific research is undermined by two open questions: (a) How can streams of thought be quantified? (b) Do such streams predict psychological phenomena? We resolve the first issue-quantification-by presenting a new metric, "forward flow," that uses latent semantic analysis to capture the semantic evolution of thoughts over time (i...
January 21, 2019: American Psychologist
Gail M Ferguson, Barbara H Fiese, Michelle R Nelson, Julie M Meeks Gardner
The world's most pressing health problems, such as the childhood obesity pandemic, demand creative new solutions. In this article it is argued that psychological theories, concepts, and methods are ripe for integration with those of other disciplines to synthesize innovative transdisciplinary global health solutions. As a model, the process of blending developmental and cross-cultural psychology with health and media sciences to develop a transdisciplinary intervention for youth and families in Jamaica-the J(amaican and) U(nited) S(tates) Media? Programme-is described...
January 21, 2019: American Psychologist
Alan S Cowen, Hillary Anger Elfenbein, Petri Laukka, Dacher Keltner
Emotional vocalizations are central to human social life. Recent studies have documented that people recognize at least 13 emotions in brief vocalizations. This capacity emerges early in development, is preserved in some form across cultures, and informs how people respond emotionally to music. What is poorly understood is how emotion recognition from vocalization is structured within what we call a semantic space, the study of which addresses questions critical to the field: How many distinct kinds of emotions can be expressed? Do expressions convey emotion categories or affective appraisals (e...
December 20, 2018: American Psychologist
Shigehiro Oishi, Minkyung Koo, Nicholas R Buttrick
Intergenerational upward economic mobility-the opportunity for children from poorer households to pull themselves up the economic ladder in adulthood-is a hallmark of a just society. In the United States, there are large regional differences in upward social mobility. The present research examined why it is easier to get ahead in some cities and harder in others. We identified the "walkability" of a city, how easy it is to get things done without a car, as a key factor in determining the upward social mobility of its residents...
December 17, 2018: American Psychologist
Benedek Kurdi, Allison E Seitchik, Jordan R Axt, Timothy J Carroll, Arpi Karapetyan, Neela Kaushik, Diana Tomezsko, Anthony G Greenwald, Mahzarin R Banaji
Using data from 217 research reports (N = 36,071, compared to 3,471 and 5,433 in previous meta-analyses), this meta-analysis investigated the conceptual and methodological conditions under which Implicit Association Tests (IATs) measuring attitudes, stereotypes, and identity correlate with criterion measures of intergroup behavior. We found significant implicit-criterion correlations (ICCs) and explicit-criterion correlations (ECCs), with unique contributions of implicit (β = .14) and explicit measures (β = ...
December 13, 2018: American Psychologist
Andy J Johnson
Presents an obituary for Carole A. Rayburn (1938-2017). A feminist, activist, therapist, and researcher, Rayburn authored or coauthored several copyrighted psychological inventories and dozens of book chapters and journal articles and wrote or edited at least nine books. On the national level, she was active in multiple divisions of the American Psychological Association (APA) and was elected to fellow status in at least 10 of them. Courageously speaking truth to power, Rayburn wrote clearly and directly about the oppression of women through misogynistic, sexist, and patriarchal attitudes and systems that permeate society...
February 2019: American Psychologist
Susan P Gantt
Presents an obituary for Yvonne M. Agazarian (1929-2017). Agazarian was a brilliant theoretician, clinician, and teacher who devoted her life to the development of a theory of living human systems (TLHS) and its systems-centered therapy and training (SCT). Her work is best known in group psychotherapy because her theory integrated general systems theory and Kurt Lewin's work and created a common language to bridge group dynamics and psychoanalysis. Quite uncommonly, she formulated theoretical constructs and operational definitions that translated her theory into methods and techniques so that every intervention tested the validity of the theory and the reliability of its practice...
February 2019: American Psychologist
John Roll
Presents an obituary for Nancy M. Petry (1968-2018). Until the time of her death, she was the editor of Psychology of Addictive Behavior. Nancy had 371 articles published, an average of more than 15 articles per year since her career began. She was the principal investigator on 28 grants from the National Institutes of Health, author of three books, and editor of four more. Nancy's diversity of interests is seen in the separate line of scholarship she undertook focused on understanding and treating pathological gambling, which is best captured in her 2005 book Pathologic Gambling , published by the APA...
February 2019: American Psychologist
J Christopher Muran
Present an obituary for Jeremy David Safran (1952-2018). In 1993, Safran became full professor and director of clinical training at the New School for Social Research. At the New School, he developed the program with an affiliation to Beth Israel Medical Center, where he was a principal consultant on a psychotherapy research program founded by Arnold Winston and directed by me. In 2001, Jeremy completed psychoanalytic training at the New York University Postdoctoral Program. Subsequently, he cofounded (with Lewis Aron and Adrienne Harris) the Sandor Ferenczi Center at the New School, became president of the International Association for Relational Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy, and served as associate editor for Psychoanalytic Dialogues ...
February 2019: American Psychologist
Mary Jo Kupst, Joanna Breyer
Presents an obituary for Andrea Farkas Patenaude (1946-2018). Patenaude was a pioneer in pediatric and adult psycho-oncology. Researcher, clinician, administrator, educator, mentor, and ardent patient advocate, she was a brilliant scientist-practitioner. She combined the highest academic standards with compassionate care for patients and families, demonstrating the important role psychologists can have in cutting-edge medical care. She was a founding member of the Pediatric Oncology Group Psychology Committee (later, COG Behavioral Science)...
February 2019: American Psychologist
Rex A Wright
Presents an obituary for Sharon Stephens Brehm (1945-2018). Brehm was president of the American Psychological Association in 2007. Her presidential address was titled "Looking Ahead: The Future of Psychology and APA" (see the July-August 2008 issue of American Psychologist , Vol. 63, pp. 337-344). In her presidential term, she worked to increase diversity, interdisciplinarity, and internationalization in psychology. Major initiatives included task forces on integrative health care, math and science education, and institutional review boards...
February 2019: American Psychologist
Judy L Van Raalte, Britton W Brewer
The special issue of the American Psychologist (May-June 2018) is devoted to the science of teamwork, with 20 articles addressing the history and foundation of teamwork research and highlighting the importance of teamwork in aviation, military, business, space exploration, academic, and health care settings. Articles that address factors influencing team performance and evaluation of interventions with teams are also included. The editors of the special issue direct attention to key areas in teamwork research that would benefit from further inquiry...
February 2019: American Psychologist
Kathryn J Holland, Lilia M Cortina, Jennifer J Freyd
Our recent article "Compelled Disclosure of College Sexual Assault" examines college and university policies requiring most, if not all, employees to report student disclosures of sexual assault to university authorities, with or without student consent. We provided evidence that these mandatory reporting policies have become ubiquitous in American higher education, despite limited evidence of their safety or efficacy. Commenting on our article, Newins offers helpful advice for psychologists navigating the role of "responsible employee," such as seeking out information about their campus policy for reporting sexual assault disclosures and informing students of reporting mandates...
February 2019: American Psychologist
Amie R Newins
The recent article "Compelled Disclosure of College Sexual Assault" (Holland, Cortina, & Freyd, 2018) documents the variability in how campuses define responsible employees, reviews the assumptions underlying compelled disclosure, and offers alternatives to compelled disclosure. Compelled disclosure conflicts with several of the general principles of the American Psychological Association's (2016) ethics code and, as a result, is likely to conflict with the values of many psychologists. In this response, the ethical conflicts are identified and recommendations to psychologists to address these conflicts are offered...
February 2019: American Psychologist
Jorden A Cummings, T Eugene Day
This commentary addresses a recent special section on data sharing (i.e., open data) in the February-March 2018 American Psychologist . In 4 articles, the authors outline how open data can positively impact psychology and provide guidelines for adopting open data practices, which we believe is to be commended. However, this special issue has not acknowledged a crucial concern in the open data debate: the views and desires of participants. Participants are the backbone of psychological research and an important stakeholder in open data issues...
February 2019: American Psychologist
Caroline S Clauss-Ehlers, David A Chiriboga, Scott J Hunter, Gargi Roysircar, Pratyusha Tummala-Narra
The initial version of the Multicultural Guidelines, titled Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists, was published in 2002. Since then, there has been significant growth in research and theory regarding multicultural contexts. The revised Multicultural Guidelines are conceptualized to reconsider diversity and multicultural practice within professional psychology at this period in time, with intersectionality as its primary purview. Psychologists are encouraged to incorporate developmental and contextual antecedents of identity and consider how they can be acknowledged, addressed, and embraced to generate more effective models of professional engagement...
February 2019: American Psychologist
William Ming Liu, Rossina Zamora Liu, Yunkyoung Loh Garrison, Ji Youn Cindy Kim, Laurence Chan, Yu C S Ho, Chi W Yeung
Acculturation theories often describe how individuals in the United States adopt and incorporate dominant cultural values, beliefs, and behaviors such as individualism and self-reliance. Theorists tend to perceive dominant cultural values as "accessible to everyone," even though some dominant cultural values, such as preserving White racial status, are reserved for White people. In this article, the authors posit that White supremacist ideology is suffused within dominant cultural values, connecting the array of cultural values into a coherent whole and bearing with it an explicit status for White people and people of color...
January 2019: American Psychologist
Derald Wing Sue, Sarah Alsaidi, Michael N Awad, Elizabeth Glaeser, Cassandra Z Calle, Narolyn Mendez
Given the immense harm inflicted on individuals and groups of color via prejudice and discrimination, it becomes imperative for our nation to begin the process of disrupting, dismantling, and disarming the constant onslaught of micro- and macroaggressions. For too long, acceptance, silence, passivity, and inaction have been the predominant, albeit ineffective, strategies for coping with microaggressions. Inaction does nothing but support and proliferate biased perpetrator behaviors which occur at individual, institutional and societal levels...
January 2019: American Psychologist
Eleanor K Seaton, Masumi Iida
The present study examined daily ethnic/racial identity as a moderator for racial discrimination. The idiographic approach was used to understand when Black youth are at risk for negative outcomes in the context of racial discrimination. The current study assessed if within-person changes in racial centrality, private regard, and public regard moderated the daily relation between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Daily measures of racial discrimination, ethnic/racial identity, and depressive symptoms were administered to a sample of 103 Black adolescents for 2 weeks...
January 2019: American Psychologist
Nicholas J Sibrava, Andri S Bjornsson, A Carlos I Pérez Benítez, Ethan Moitra, Risa B Weisberg, Martin B Keller
Research has suggested that African American and Latinx adults may develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at higher rates than White adults, and that the clinical course of PTSD in these minority groups is poor. Factors that may contribute to higher prevalence and poorer outcome in these groups are sociocultural factors and racial stressors, such as experiences with discrimination. To date, however, no research has explored the relationship between experiences with discrimination and risk for PTSD, and very little research has examined the course of illness for PTSD in African American and Latinx samples...
January 2019: American Psychologist
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