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American Journal of Psychology

Irwin D Nahinsky
Parallel interactive processing (PIP) represents an approach in which specific context generates interactive relationships between general attributes. This article summarizes previous research that demonstrates how such relationships influence inference making in categorization. This is followed by evidence that the approach can be extended to other areas of cognition, including probability judgments. PIP was successful in fitting data that revealed the prevalence of the conjunction fallacy as well as other probability estimation data...
July 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Dina Acklin, Megan H Papesh
New computer apps are gaining popularity by suggesting that reading speeds can be drastically increased when eye movements that normally occur during reading are eliminated. This is done using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), where words are presented 1 at a time, thus preventing natural eye movements such as saccades, fixations, and regressions from occurring. Al- though the companies producing these apps suggest that RSVP reading does not yield comprehension deficits, research investigating the role of eye movements in reading documents shows the necessity of natural eye movements for accurate comprehension...
July 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Cyril Couffe, George A Michael
Interruptions of ongoing activities have spread since the development of and global increase in technology use and the general speeding in pace we all experience every day. Their negative effects are well known: decline in performance and emotional distress. However, the literature still needs to shed light on the exact cognitive mechanisms involved in the way users decide to reply to an interruption, on the effects of interruptions of different durations, and on factors influencing reactivation of task schemata and goals at resumption...
July 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Shawn R Gallagher
Although he is best known for his classic textbook, A History of Experimental Psychology, Edwin Garrigues Boring published dozens of articles in The American Journal of Psychology and used its various formats to guide the discipline in the early 20th century. This report reviews a small sample of his publications, including obituaries, notes, and experimental articles, and presents them in historical and biographical context. A central objective is to show how Boring shared the values of his structuralist training with the emerging American schools and how time allowed him to reconsider his approach to history and the legacy of his iconic mentor, Edward Bradford Titchener...
July 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Jose T Boyano
In the early 20th century, Margaret F. Washburn (1871-1939) produced numerous studies on perception, affective value of stimulus, memory, emotions, and consciousness. This experimental work was published in The American Journal of Psychology. The purpose of this article is to analyze the temporal evolution of these kinds of experiments and relate them to Washburn's theoretical production. Contrary to other views, Washburn's experimental evolution follows a logical sequence and has a strong inner coherence. Among other reasons, the lack of a scientific and social framework to the study of the mind has tended to overshadow large areas of Washburn's thought...
July 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Dominic W Massaro, D Alfred Owens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Christopher D Green
What is the relationship between being highly prolific in the realm of publication and being remembered as a great psychologist of the past? In this study, the PsycINFO database was used to identify the historical figures who wrote the most journal articles during the half-century from 1890 to 1939. Although a number of the 10 most prolific authors are widely remembered for their influence on the discipline today-E. L. Thorndike, Karl Pearson, E. B. Titchener, Henri Pi6ron-the majority are mostly forgotten...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Miranda Occhionero, Piercarla Cicogna, Maria Jose Esposito
The aim of the present study was to deepen knowledge about the effect of a lowered vigilance state on time-based prospective memory (TBPM) performance. For this purpose 2 TBPM tasks (primary and interpolated), which shared a portion of the retention interval, and 3 reasoning tasks, as ongoing activities, were administered after total sleep deprivation and in a regular sleep condition. The results showed a detrimental effect of sleep deprivation on prospective memory performance and a partial dissociation between clock-checking behavior and time estimation for prospective compliance...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Michael Lyvers, Susan M Kohlsdorf, Mark S Edwards, Fred Arne Thorberg
The present study explored relationships between alexithymia-a trait characterized by difficulties identifying and describing feelings and an external thinking style-and negative moods, negative mood regulation expectancies, facial recognition of emotions, emotional empathy, and alcohol consumption. The sample consisted of 102 university (primarily psychology) students (13 men, 89 women) aged 18 to 50 years (M = 22.18 years). Participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Negative Mood Regulation Scale (NMRS), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Takeshi Hatta, Kimiko Kato, Chie Hotta, Mari Higashikawa, Akihiko Iwahara, Taketoshi Hatta, Junko Hatta, Kazumi Fujiwara, Naoko Nagahara, Emi Ito, Nobuyuki Hamajima
The validity of Bucur and Madden's (2010) proposal that an age-related decline is particularly pronounced in executive function measures rather than in elementary perceptual speed measures was examined via the Yakumo Study longitudinal database. Their proposal suggests that cognitive load differentially affects cognitive abilities in older adults. To address their proposal, linear regression coefficients of 104 participants were calculated individually for the digit cancellation task 1 (D-CAT1), where participants search for a given single digit, and the D-CAT3, where they search for 3 digits simultaneously...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Dominic W Massaro
Extensive experience in written language might provide children the opportunity to learn to read in the same manner they learn spoken language. One potential type of written language immersion is reading aloud to children, which is additionally valuable because the vocabulary in picture books is richer and more extensive than that found in child-directed speech. This study continues a comparison between these 2 communication media by evaluating their relative linguistic and cognitive complexity. Although reading grade level has been used only to assess the complexity of written language, it was also applied to both child-directed and adult-directed speech...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Hamdi Habacha, Laure Lejeune-Poutrain, Corinne Molinaro
To investigate the effects of stimulus features on the implementation of motor expertise in body rotations during a mental body rotation task, 2 experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, we investigated the mental rotation abilities in 27 male participants: 14 experts in real body rotations (national level gymnasts) and 13 nonexperts (national handball players). The mental rotation task used left-right judgments and involved 3 types of stimuli: images of a stick figure person, images of line drawings of the human body, and photographs of real male persons...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Matthew E Lancaster, Donald Homa
The present study explored feature-to-feature and label-to-feature inference in a category task for different category structures. In the correlated condition, each of the 4 dimensions comprising the category was positively correlated to each other and to the category label. In the uncorrelated condition, no correlation existed between the 4 dimensions comprising the category, although the dimension to category label correlation matched that of the correlated condition. After learning, participants made inference judgments of a missing feature, given 1, 2, or 3 feature cues; on half the trials, the category label was also included as a cue...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Ronald R Gruber, Richard A Block
Dynamic perception includes amodal and modal completion, along with apparent movement. It fills temporal gaps for single objects. In 2 experiments, using 6 stimulus presentation conditions involving 3 sensory modalities, participants experienced 8-10 sequential stimuli (200 ms each) with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 0.25-7.0 s. Experiments focused on spatiotemporal completion (walking), featural completion (object changing), auditory, completion (falling bomb), and haptic changes (insect crawling). After each trial, participants judged whether they experienced the process of "happening " or whether they simply knew that the process must have occurred...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Robert W Proctor, Aiping Xiong
Herbert S. Langfeld and Ludwig R. Geissler published insightful articles during the period of 1910-1913 using what they called the Method of Negative Instruction, which anticipated much current research on action control and the role of instructions. We review their studies and relate the findings to contemporary research and views concerning task-irrelevant congruency effects and deception, concluding that their work has not received the credit it warrants. We also call for contemporary researchers to revisit prior studies, especially ones conducted before the cognitive revolution in psychology, to enrich their knowledge of the field and improve the quality of their research...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Rand B Evans
Beginning in 1 9a0, a major thread of research was added to E. B. Titchener's Cornell laboratory: the synthetic experiment. Titchener and his graduate students used introspective analysis to reduce a perception, a complex experience, into its simple sensory constituents. To test the validity of that analysis, stimulus patterns were selected to reprodiuce the patterns of sensations found in the introspective analyses. If the original perception can be reconstructed in this way, then the analysis was considered validated...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Cyril Thomas, Andru Didierjean
In 1894, French psychologist Alfred Binet (1857-1911) published an article titled "The Psychol- ogy of Prestidigitation" that reported the results of a study conducted in collaboration with two of the best magicians of that period. By using a new method and new observation techniques, Binet was able to reveal some of the psychological mechanisms involved in magic tricks. Our article begins by presenting Binet's method and the principal professional magicians who par- ticipated in his studies. Next, we present the main psychological tools of magicians described by Binet and look at some recent studies dealing with those mechanisms...
September 2016: American Journal of Psychology
Georg W Oesterdiekhoff
Developmental psychology is not only a psychology of development from childhood to old age but a psychology of human development in world history. Eighty years of cross-cultural empirical research findings indicate that the adolescent stage of formal operations evolved late in history and is not a universal development of adult humans across cultures and history. Correspondingly, preoperational or concrete operational stages describe adult psychological stages in past or premodern cultures, as Jean Piaget and some of his followers have mentioned...
September 2016: American Journal of Psychology
Shameem Fatima, Hamid Sheikh
Previous research has emphasized the role of parent-child relationships (PCRs) in child and adolescent development. The present study extends the previous findings by examining the direct and mediated relationship between PCRs, executive functioning (EF), and adolescent aggression. Five hundred twelve adolescents of South Asian ethnic background, enrolled at the secondary and higher secondary levels (aged 13-19 years; 50% boys), participated in the study. The Parent-Child Relationship Scale (Rao, 2000), Aggression Scale (Mathur & Bhatnagar, 2004), and four tests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001) were administered to measure the perceived quality of PCR, level of aggression, and EF, respectively, in participants...
September 2016: American Journal of Psychology
Norman R Brown, Oliver Schweickart, Connie Svob
In this article, we tirst outline a minimalist approach to the organization ot autobiographical memory called transition theory. This theory assumes that the content and organization of autobiographical memory mirror the structure of experience and reflect the operation of basic memory processes. Thus, this approach rests on an analysis of the environment that emphasizes repetition, co-occurrence, change, and distinctiveness. We then report a study that tested a set of predictions derived from transition theory...
September 2016: American Journal of Psychology
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