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American Journal of the Medical Sciences

Jacob Joseph
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Ronna Hertzano, Janis A Tomlinson, Philip A Mackowiak
Francisco Goya produced over 1,800 works during his long career, which earned him a reputation as one of the greatest artists of modern times. When he was 47, he developed a mysterious illness that destroyed his hearing, and for the next 35 years left him "deaf as a stump." Of the diagnoses proposed to date, Susac syndrome is the one most consistent with what little we do know of the character of that illness. If he were alive today, given the severity of his hearing loss, Goya would be treated with a cochlear implant, which might restore his ability to communicate in spoken language, though probably not to the level preceding his 1793 illness...
December 24, 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Gurinder Sidhu, Yamen Homsi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 18, 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Yu-Sheng Li, Qing Liu, Jian Tian, Hong-Bo He, Wei Luo
In this review, we discuss the pathologic mechanism of the angiogenesis process in osteosarcoma (OS) and the therapeutic use of angiogenesis inhibitors in OS treatment. The activation of endothelial cells by angiogenic factors leads to the production of proteolytic enzymes, which degrade the extracellular matrix. The degradation of the underlying basement membrane enables endothelial cells to proliferate and migrate to the surrounding tissue to form new vessels. These new vessels provide cancer cells with oxygen and nutrition and play an important role in cancer cell survival and metastasis...
December 13, 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Pingan Chen, Qiong Zhan, Yujia Bai, Xingfu Huang, Peng Wang, Yizhi Pan, Shaonan Li, Shenshen Fu, Wenyan Lai, Qingchun Zeng, Hao Ren, Dingli Xu
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) plays key roles in controlling cardiac metabolism and function. Myocardial energy expenditure (MEE) can reflect myocardial energy metabolism and cardiac function. Whether the variation of PGC-1α can influence MEE levels in chronic heart failure (CHF) is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between PGC-1α and MEE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 219 patients with CHF and 66 healthy controls...
December 7, 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Sushilkumar Satish Gupta, Nitin Sabharwal, Ravikaran Patti, Yizhak Kupfer
Allopurinol is a first line agent in treating gout, but it also carries the risk of severe side effects. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is one of the life threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions caused by allopurinol. The severity of the severe cutaneous adverse reactions can be categorized based upon the area of skin involvement: (1) erythema multiforme major limited to 1-2 % of the body surface area (BSA); (2) SJS involving <10% of the BSA, (3) SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis overlap involving 10-30% of the BSA and (4) toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome involving >30% of the BSA...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Jennifer M Kwan, Renee Cheng, Lawrence E Feldman
We present the first reported case showing metastatic giant bone cell tumor being treated successfully with pembrolizumab after failing prior tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Of note, the patient developed multiple systemic effects associated with checkpoint inhibitor use. One year after starting the checkpoint inhibitor (ICI), the patient also developed hepatitis that was confirmed by liver biopsy and pathology to be, in part, due to drug-mediated toxicity similar to prior ICI toxicity cases that have been reported...
November 29, 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Yu Du, Yi Mou
The mortality rate of cupric sulfate is relatively high in contrast to that of other heavy metals. Cases of orally ingested cupric sulfate poisoning are very rare, with a reported half lethal dose of 10 g. Cupric sulfate poisoning leads to gastrointestinal corrosion, intravascular hemolysis, hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia and acute renal and hepatic impairment. Without proper and prompt treatment, multiple organ failure and death occur. Here, we present the first report that removal of the excessive intravascular copper ions by plasmapheresis was accompanied by complete recovery...
November 29, 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Raghav Bansal, Uday Shankar, Aaron Walfish
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Juan Jiang, Chengping Hu, Yuanyuan Li, Pinhua Pan, Xiaoli Su, Pengbo Deng, Junpu Wang, Xiaoying Wu
BACKGROUND: Severe pneumonia is responsible for great mortality and morbidity worldwide, and early-applied effective anti-infective therapy can improve the prognosis of patients. However, identification of infectious agents in severe pneumonia remains a major challenge so far. In this study, the potential utility of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in detecting nonbacterial pathogens in patients with severe pneumonia was retrospectively evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 106 patients diagnosed with severe pneumonia at our hospital from September 2015 to December 2017 were included, and their baseline clinical characteristics were collected...
November 27, 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Yue Tan, Yadi Guan, Yan Sun, Changqing Zheng
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between intestinal mucosal healing and tight junction (TJ) protein expression in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 patients with UC were included as an experimental group and UC disease activity was evaluated using the Mayo clinic score (MCS) and 8 patients with normal distal colon served as the control group. The expression of TJ proteins including occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-2 were determined by immunohistochemistry and their correlation with clinical characteristics were also analyzed...
November 27, 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Hawa Edriss, John S Kelley, Joshua Demke, Kenneth Nugent
Sarcoidosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of uncertain etiology characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. The thorax is involved in 95% of cases, but any organ can be involved. Sinonasal or laryngeal involvement is uncommon and can be difficult to diagnose. The reported incidence of sarcoidosis in the upper airway clearly depends on study characteristics, and this creates uncertainty about the actual incidence. In a large prospective study in the United States, upper respiratory tract involvement occurred in 3% of the patients...
February 2019: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Karl T Weber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
LiangLiang Zhang, Lija Joseph, Jacob Joseph
BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is a major pathophysiologic substrate of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Vasopressin is an important therapeutic target in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction since it can modulate fluid balance, and based on a few studies, myocardial matrix deposition. Hence we examined the role of vasopressin antagonism in modulating myocardial matrix metabolism in vivo and in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo studies utilized an established model of hyperhomocysteinemia-induced myocardial fibrosis in Sprague-Dawley rats combined with high salt diet; in vivo studies also utilized the same profibrotic stimuli of homocysteine and NaCl in cultured rat cardiac fibroblasts...
February 2019: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Rohan Khera, Ambarish Pandey, Mark S Link, Melanie S Sulistio
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) monitor for and terminate malignant arrhythmias. Given their potential as a life-saving therapy, an increasing number of people receive an ICD every year, and a growing number are currently living with ICDs. However, cardiopulmonary arrest serves as the final common pathway of natural death, and the appropriate management of an ICD near the end-of-life is crucial to ensure that a patient's death is not marked by further suffering due to ICD shocks. The tenets of palliative care at the end-of-life include addressing any medical intervention that may preclude dying with dignity; thus, management of ICDs during this phase is necessary...
February 2019: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Qiongxiang Ge, Yuan Dong, Guoqiang Lin, Yi Cao
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of intestinal mucosa long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) expression with disease risk, activity and inflammatory cytokines levels of Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: Forty-two patients with active CD (A-CD), 59 patients with CD in remission (R-CD) and 67 controls were consecutively recruited. Intestinal mucosa samples were collected from all participants at baseline and from A-CD patients at 3-months after infliximab treatment...
February 2019: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Yun-Hua Kuo, Tze-Fang Wang, Li-Kuo Liu, Wei-Ju Lee, Li-Ning Peng, Liang-Kung Chen
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is a well-recognized geriatric syndrome. We sought to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and factors associated with it among community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Yuanshan Township, Yilan County, Taiwan. Data of 731 community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older were evaluated. Demographic characteristics, anthropometry, medical history, biochemistry results, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry results were collected for analysis...
February 2019: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Jiayue Feng, Sen He, Xiaoping Chen
BACKGROUND: Body adiposity index (BAI) and body roundness index (BRI), initially developed to assess obesity, were evaluated here to detect insulin resistance in comparison with traditional anthropometric indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), weight-to-height ratio (WHtR), visceral adiposity index (VAI) and abdominal volume index (AVI). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 570 Chinese individuals without diabetes were evaluated. RESULTS: The Spearman rank test showed that insulin resistance correlated most strongly with WC and AVI in men and BMI in women, and most weakly with BAI in men and VAI in women...
February 2019: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Yi Xiao, Zhe Geng, Taoran Deng, Di Wang, Lijun Jiang
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated death domain protein (TRADD) mediates programmed cell death signaling as well as the Fas-induced cell death pathway. The downregulation of TRADD is found to be associated with the occurrence of many cancers. The present study was designed to investigate the association between TRADD and clinicopathologic features as well as its clinical significance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed in 100 new AML, 23 AML complete remission patients, and 20 normal individuals...
February 2019: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Nicole Gidaya Bonine, Ariel Berger, Arman Altincatal, Rosa Wang, Tarun Bhagnani, Patrick Gillard, Thomas Lodise
BACKGROUND: To examine the clinical and economic burdens associated with delayed receipt of appropriate therapy among patients with Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections, stratified by antibiotic resistance status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis using the Premier Hospital Database. Adult admissions (July 2011-September 2014) with evidence of complicated urinary tract infection, complicated intra-abdominal infection, hospital-associated pneumonia, or bloodstream infection, length of stay (LOS) ≥1 days and a positive GNB culture from a site consistent with infection type (culture draw date = index date) were identified and stratified by antibiotic susceptibility to index pathogens...
February 2019: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
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