American Journal of Botany | Page 3

Marian M Chau, Timothy Chambers, Lauren Weisenberger, Matthew Keir, Timothy I Kroessig, Dustin Wolkis, Roy Kam, Alvin Y Yoshinaga
PREMISE: Ex situ seed banking is critical for plant conservation globally, especially for threatened floras in tropical ecosystems like Hawai'i. Seed bank managers must maximize longevity, and species managers must plan restoration before seeds lose viability. Previous observations suggested some native Hawaiian seeds lost viability in frozen storage (-18°C). We investigated seed storage behavior in the Hawaiian flora to optimize storage conditions and recommend re-collection intervals (RCI) to maximize viability of stored seeds...
September 9, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Michala L Phillips, Brandon E McNellis, Michael F Allen, Edith B Allen
PREMISE: Flexible phenological responses of invasive plants under climate change may increase their ability to establish and persist. A key aspect of plant phenology is the timing of root production, how it coincides with canopy development and subsequent water-use. The timing of these events within species and across communities could influence the invasion process. We examined above- and belowground phenology of two species in southern California, the native shrub, Adenostoma fasciculatum, and the invasive perennial grass, Ehrharta calycina to investigate relative differences in phenology and water use...
September 9, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Amy McPherson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2019: American Journal of Botany
José Hernandes-Lopes, Mariane S Sousa-Baena, Renata C C Lemos, Tatiana C S Corrêa, Marie-Anne Van Sluys, Gladys Flavia de Albuquerque Melo-de-Pinna
PREMISE: The inflorescence of Passiflora species originates from a bud complex that derives from an initially undivided meristem and ultimately produces flowers and tendrils. Because the development of the inflorescence structures derived from such meristems has been variously interpreted, we investigated the ontogeny of the bud complex and the expression of APETALA1 (AP1) in Passiflora species. METHODS: The anatomical development of 15 species of Passiflora was analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy...
September 4, 2019: American Journal of Botany
José Luis Blanco-Pastor, Yann J K Bertrand, Isabel María Liberal, Yanling Wei, E Charles Brummer, Bernard E Pfeil
PREMISE: Although hybridization has played an important role in the evolution of many plant species, phylogenetic reconstructions that include hybridizing lineages have been historically constrained by the available models and data. Restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) has been a popular sequencing technique for the reconstruction of hybridization in the next-generation sequencing era. However, the utility of RADseq for the reconstruction of complex evolutionary networks has not been thoroughly investigated...
September 2019: American Journal of Botany
James R Kellner, Loren P Albert, John T Burley, K C Cushman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Jian-Qiang Zhang, Ivana Imerovski, Kelly Borkowski, Kaichi Huang, Dylan Burge, Loren H Rieseberg
PREMISE: Collecting and characterizing the genetic diversity of wild relatives of crops can contribute importantly to sustainable crop production and food security. Wild sunflower, Helianthus niveus, occurs in arid regions in western North America and is partially cross-compatible with the cultivated sunflower (H. annuus). We assessed phylogenetic relationships and patterns of genetic divergence among three previously described subspecies (subsp. niveus, subsp. canescens, and subsp. tephrodes) as well as two new morphotypes of H...
August 28, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Desirée M Ramos, José F M Valls, Fabian Borghetti, Mark K J Ooi
PREMISE: Although fire cues (high temperatures and smoke) influence seed germination in numerous species from fire-prone environments, their effects on seed germination of species from neotropical savannas are poorly understood. METHODS: We exposed seeds of eight grass species from the Cerrado, the Brazilian savanna to heat-shock (80°C or 110°C for 5 min) and/or smoke water, and then set them to germinate in light or dark, at either summer (28°C/18°C) or winter (27°C/14°C) temperature regimes in an incubator...
August 26, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Katharina Bunk, Semjon Krassovitski, Thomas Speck, Tom Masselter
PREMISE: Hedera helix is a striking example of a plant with morphological traits and growth habits that vary between juvenile and adult phases. The present study focuses on its branching morphology and variations with age and change in growth habit, based on conspicuous stem-branch attachments previously described in related Araliaceae species. METHODS: We decorticated and morphologically analyzed 300 samples of ramifications from prostrate, climbing and self-supporting axes of H...
August 26, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Xoaquín Moreira, Carla Vázquez-González, Manuel Encinas-Valero, Felisa Covelo, Bastien Castagneyrol, Luis Abdala-Roberts
PREMISE: Non-native plant species have been hypothesized to experience lower herbivory in novel environments as a function of their phylogenetic distance from native plant species. Although recent work has found support for this prediction, the plant traits responsible for such patterns have been largely overlooked. METHODS: In a common garden experiment in northwestern Spain, we tested whether oak species (Quercus spp.) not native to this region that are phylogenetically more distantly related to native species exhibit less insect leaf herbivory...
August 26, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Daniel A Malagon, Morgan D Roche, Robert M McElderry, Susan Kalisz
PREMISE: Declines in reproductive capabilities with increasing age are common across the tree of life. However, in plants, mating system traits have rarely been tested for signs of senescence. Since reproduction is often resource limited, we might expect outcrossing and selfing taxa to allocate these resources differently, especially as a plant ages. Compared with selfers, outcrossers are expected to produce showy, rewarding flowers that attract pollinators and high-quality pollen that can successfully compete for ovules...
August 23, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Matthew H Koski, Laura F Galloway, Jeremiah W Busch
PREMISE: Hermaphroditic plants commonly reproduce through a mixture of selfing and outcrossing. The degree to which outcrossing rates reflect the availability of outcross pollen, genetic differentiation in the ability to autonomously self-fertilize, or both is often unclear. Despite the potential for autonomy and the pollination environment to jointly influence outcrossing, this interaction is rarely studied. METHODS: We reviewed studies from the literature that tested whether the pollination environment or floral traits that cause autonomous selfing predict variation in outcrossing rate among populations...
August 15, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Dorothy A Christopher, Randall J Mitchell, Dorset W Trapnell, Patrick A Smallwood, Wendy R Semski, Jeffrey D Karron
PREMISE: Genetically diverse sibships are thought to increase parental fitness through a reduction in the intensity of sib competition, and through increased opportunities for seedling establishment in spatially or temporally heterogeneous environments. Nearly all research on mate diversity in flowering plants has focused on the number of fathers siring seeds within a fruit or on a maternal plant. Yet as hermaphrodites, plants can also accrue mate diversity by siring offspring on several pollen recipients in a population...
August 12, 2019: American Journal of Botany
James C Lendemer, Kyle G Keepers, Erin A Tripp, Cloe S Pogoda, Christy M McCain, Nolan C Kane
PREMISE: Lichens are fungi that enter into obligate symbioses with photosynthesizing organisms (algae, cyanobacteria). Traditional narratives of lichens as binary symbiont pairs have given way to their recognition as dynamic metacommunities. Basidiomycete yeasts, particularly of the genus Cyphobasidium, have been inferred to be widespread and important components of lichen metacommunities. Yet, the presence of basidiomycete yeasts across a wide diversity of lichen lineages has not previously been tested...
August 9, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Akira Yamawo, Haruna Ohsaki, James F Cahill
PREMISE: Plants generally increase root growth in areas with high nutrients in heterogeneous soils, a phenomenon called foraging precision. The physiology of this process is not well understood, but it may involve shoot-root signaling via leaf veins. If this is true, then damage to leaf veins, but not to nearby mesophyll, would reduce plant foraging precision. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we imposed two leaf damage treatments on Plantago asiatica and Prunus jamasakura, removing either the tip of each main vein or mesophyll tissue between the veins with a 3-mm-diameter hole punch...
August 9, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Katelin D Pearson, Austin R Mast
PREMISE: Biological outliers (observations that fall outside of a previously understood norm, e.g., in phenology or distribution) may indicate early stages of a transformative change that merits immediate attention. Collectors of biodiversity specimens such as plants, fungi, and animals are on the front lines of discovering outliers, yet the role collectors currently play in providing such data is unclear. METHODS: We surveyed 222 collectors of a broad range of taxa, searched 47 training materials, and explored the use of 170 outlier terms in 75 million specimen records to determine the current state of outlier detection and documentation in this community...
August 7, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Aaron S David, Lukas P Bell-Dereske, Sarah M Emery, Brandon M McCormick, Eric W Seabloom, Jennifer A Rudgers
PREMISE: Microbial symbionts can buffer plant hosts from environmental change. Therefore, understanding how global change factors alter the associations between hosts and their microbial symbionts may improve predictions of future changes in host population dynamics and microbial diversity. Here, we investigated how one global change factor, precipitation, affected the maintenance or loss of symbiotic fungal endophytes in a C3 grass host. Specifically, we examined the distinct responses of Epichloë (vertically transmitted and systemic) and non-epichloid endophytes (typically horizontally transmitted and localized) by considering (1) how precipitation altered associations with Epichloë and non-epichloid endophytic taxa across host ontogeny, and (2) interactive effects of water availability and Epichloë on early seedling life history stages...
August 6, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Kristine Y Crous
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2019: American Journal of Botany
Amy McPherson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Karen E Samis, John R Stinchcombe, Courtney J Murren
PREMISE: Determining how species perform in novel climatic environments is essential for understanding (1) responses to climate change and (2) evolutionary consequences of biological invasions. For the vast majority of species, the number of population characteristics that will predict performance and patterns of natural selection in novel locations in the wild remains limited. METHODS: We evaluated phenological, vegetative, architectural, and fitness-related traits in experimental gardens in contrasting climates (Ontario, Canada, and South Carolina, USA) in the North American non-native distribution of Arabidopsis thaliana...
July 31, 2019: American Journal of Botany
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