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American Journal of Botany | Page 3

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May 6, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Julia Dupin, Stacey D Smith
PREMISE: The distributions of plant clades are shaped by abiotic and biotic factors as well as historical aspects such as center of origin. Dispersals between distant areas may lead to niche evolution when lineages are established in new environments. Alternatively, dispersing lineages may exhibit niche conservatism, moving between areas with similar environmental conditions. Here we test these contrasting hypotheses in the Datureae clade (Solanaceae). METHODS: We used maximum likelihood methods to estimate the ancestral range of Datureae along with the history of biogeographic events...
May 6, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Thomas N Buckley, Lawren Sack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Jeremy M Beaulieu, Brian C O'Meara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Jacob M Heiling, Daniel Cook, Stephen T Lee, Rebecca E Irwin
PREMISE: Optimal defense theory predicts that selection should drive plants to disproportionally allocate resources for herbivore defense to tissues with high fitness values. Because pollen's primary role is the transport of gametes, plants may be expected to defend it from herbivory. However, for many animal-pollinated plants, pollen serves a secondary role as a pollinator reward. These dual roles may present a conflict between selection to defend pollen from herbivores and selection to reward pollinators...
May 2, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Natalie Cusimano, Susanne S Renner
PREMISE: Parasitic plants with large geographic ranges, and different hosts in parts of their range, may acquire horizontally transferred genes (HGTs), which might sometimes leave a footprint of gradual host and range expansion. Cynomorium coccineum, the only member of the Saxifragales family Cynomoriaceae, is a root holoparasite that occurs in water-stressed habitats from western China to the Canary Islands. It parasitizes at least 10 angiosperm families from different orders, some of them only in parts of its range...
May 2019: American Journal of Botany
Taylor M Crow, Jenn M Yost, Michelle S Huang, Matthew K Ritter
PREMISE: Monardella villosa is an evolutionarily young species complex distributed across a large geographic range. Our goal was to determine whether the phenotypic difference between two subspecies of M. villosa was heritable and whether the alternative phenotypes were adaptive to their respective local habitats. METHODS: We collected seeds from 25 populations of M. villosa, 14 from subspecies franciscana, which grows closer to the coast, and 11 from subspecies villosa, which has a larger and more inland geographic distribution...
May 2019: American Journal of Botany
Guillaume G Cossard, John R Pannell
PREMISE: Plants with separate sexes often show "inconstant" or "leaky" sex expression, with females or males producing a few flowers of the opposite sex. The frequency and degree of such inconstancy may reflect residual hermaphroditic sex allocation after an evolutionary transition from combined to separate sexes. Sex inconstancy also represents a possible first step in the breakdown of dioecy back to hermaphroditism. In the Mercurialis annua (Euphorbiaceae) species complex, monoecy and androdioecy have evolved from dioecy in polyploid populations...
May 2019: American Journal of Botany
Jill S Miller, Caitlin M Blank, Rachel A Levin
PREMISE: As Baker's law suggests, the successful colonization of oceanic islands is often associated with uniparental reproduction (self-fertility), but the high incidence of dimorphism (dioecy, gynodioecy) on islands complicates this idea. Lycium carolinianum is widespread, occurring on the North American mainland and the Hawaiian Islands. We examined Baker's ideas for mainland and island populations of L. carolinianum and examined inbreeding depression as a possible contributor to the evolution of gynodioecy on Maui...
May 1, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Kyra A Prats, Craig R Brodersen, Mark S Ashton
PREMISE: Water deficit and drought conditions are increasing in intensity, frequency, and duration in the Iberian Peninsula. We observed natural variation in leaf traits across the range of Quercus suber L. (cork oak), an ecologically important species within this region. Stomatal traits (e.g., pore length, maximum aperture) and carbon isotope composition (δ13 C) provide an opportunity to examine the integrative effects of drought and dry-season intensity on leaf development, maximum stomatal conductance, and adaptation to precipitation regimes...
April 29, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Chang-Qiu Liu, Yun-Dong Gao, Yang Niu, Ying-Ze Xiong, Hang Sun
PREMISE: Evolutionary transitions among floral morphologies, many of which provide evidence for adaptation to novel pollinators, are common. Some trumpet-shaped flowers are among the largest flowers in angiosperms, occurring in different lineages. Our goal was to investigate the role of pollinators in the evolution of these flowers using Lilium. METHODS: We investigated floral traits and pollinators of L. primulinum var. ochraceum and L. brownii var. viridulum and reviewed reports of visitors to huge trumpet-shaped flowers...
April 25, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Susan J Mazer, Joseph P Chellew, Kristen Peach
PREMISE: Strong correlations between traits can obscure their independent effects on components of reproduction. Style length (SL) and petal area (PA) vary within species, for example, but their independent effects on the opportunity for selection among pollen genotypes are poorly understood. Previous work in Clarkia detected a positive effect of SL on pollen receipt, potentially intensifying selection. However, this apparent effect of SL may be influenced by a correlated trait, such as PA...
April 25, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Laura P Lagomarsino, Nathan Muchhala
PREMISE: Closely related plant species with overlapping ranges often experience competition for pollination services. Such competition can select for divergence in floral traits that attract pollinators or determine pollen placement. While most species in Centropogon (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae) have flowers that suggest adaptation to bat or hummingbird pollination, actual pollinators are rarely documented, and a few species have a mix of traits from both pollination syndromes. We studied the pollination biology of a "mixed-syndrome" species and its co-occurring congeners to examine the relationship between floral traits and visitation patterns for Centropogon...
April 25, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Wilnelia Recart, Brittany Ottoson, Diane R Campbell
PREMISE: Outcrossing species depend on pollen from conspecific individuals that may not be exposed to the same abiotic conditions as maternal plants. Additionally, many flowers receive heterospecific pollen, which can also influence seed production. Studies aimed to understand how abiotic conditions influence seed production tend to focus on maternal conditions and leave unexplored the effect of abiotic conditions experienced by pollen donors. We tested how water availability to pollen donors, both conspecific and heterospecific, influenced the seed production of recipient plants exposed to different water availability regimes...
April 19, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Ricardo Kriebel, Bryan T Drew, Chloe P Drummond, Jesús G González-Gallegos, Ferhat Celep, Mohamed M Mahdjoub, Jeffrey P Rose, Chun-Lei Xiang, Guo-Xiong Hu, Jay B Walker, Emily M Lemmon, Alan R Lemmon, Kenneth J Sytsma
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A key question in evolutionary biology is why some clades are more successful by being widespread geographically, biome diverse, or species-rich. To extend understanding of how shifts in area, biomes, and pollinators impact diversification in plants, we examined the relationships of these shifts to diversification across the mega-genus Salvia. METHODS: A chronogram was developed from a supermatrix of anchored hybrid enrichment genomic data and targeted sequence data for over 500 of the nearly 1000 Salvia species...
April 15, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Harshita Dogra, K G Srikanta Dani
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A trade-off between fertility and offspring viability underpins plant reproductive response to sub-optimal environmental conditions. Senescence involves internal resource limitation, and it is a sub-optimal body condition. We tested if senescence affects age-specific fertility and seed viability (quality) in indeterminate annuals. METHODS: Fertility in individual pods on the monopodial indeterminate inflorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana and its big-seeded relative Brassica nigra was quantified...
April 15, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Sandra Hervías-Parejo, Ruben Heleno, Manuel Nogales, Jens M Olesen, Anna Traveset
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The characteristic scarcity of insects on remote oceanic islands has driven nonflower-specialized vertebrates to broaden their trophic niches and explore floral resources. From our previous studies in the Galápagos, we know that native insectivorous and frugivorous birds visit a wide range of entomophilous flowers and can also act as effective pollinators. Here, we tested whether opportunistic Galápagos birds show any preference for specific floral traits, and if so, this preference differs from that of insects...
April 15, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Amy McPherson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Meredith A Zettlemoyer, Duane D McKenna, Jennifer A Lau
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Human activities threaten thousands of species with extinction. However, it remains difficult to predict extinction risk for many vulnerable species. Species traits, species characteristics such as rarity or habitat use, and phylogenetic patterns are associated with responses to anthropogenic environmental change and may help predict likelihood of extinction. METHODS: We used historical botanical data from Kalamazoo County, Michigan, USA, to examine whether species traits (growth form, life history, nitrogen-fixation, photosynthetic pathway), species characteristics (community association, species origin, range edge, habitat specialization, rarity), or phylogenetic relatedness explain local species loss at the county level...
April 8, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Anastasiia Onyshchenko, Elizabeth C Ruck, Teofil Nakov, Andrew J Alverson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Loss of photosynthesis is a common and often repeated trajectory in nearly all major groups of photosynthetic eukaryotes. One small subset of "apochloritic" diatoms in the genus Nitzschia have lost their ability to photosynthesize and require extracellular carbon for growth. Similar to other secondarily nonphotosynthetic taxa, apochloritic diatoms maintain colorless plastids with highly reduced plastid genomes. Although the narrow taxonomic breadth of apochloritic Nitzschia suggests a single loss of photosynthesis in their common ancestor, previous phylogenetic analyses suggested that photosynthesis was lost multiple times...
April 8, 2019: American Journal of Botany
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