American Journal of Botany | Page 2

Yunqing Yu, Patricia Leyva, Rachel L Tavares, Elizabeth A Kellogg
PREMISE: Abscission zones (AZ) are specialized cell layers that separate plant parts at the organ junction upon developmental or environmental signals. Fruit or seed abscission has been well studied in model species because of its crucial role for seed dispersal. Previous work showed that AZ localization differs among species of Poaceae and that AZ formation is histologically and genetically distinct in three distantly related grass species, refuting the idea of a broadly conserved module...
March 23, 2020: American Journal of Botany
Luke T Dunning, Pascal-Antoine Christin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2020: American Journal of Botany
Martin Volf, Christian Wirth, Nicole M van Dam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2020: American Journal of Botany
Mackenzie L Taylor, Bridget L Giffei, Christie L Dang, Ana E Wilden, Kristine M Altrichter, Emma C Baker, Richard Nguyen, Dayton S Oki
PREMISE: Water-pollination (hydrophily) is a rare but important pollination mechanism that has allowed angiosperms to colonize marine and aquatic habitats. Hydrophilous plants face unique reproductive challenges, and many have evolved characteristic pollen traits and pollination strategies that may have downstream consequences for pollen performance. However, little is known about reproductive development in the life history stage between pollination and fertilization (the progamic phase) in hydrophilous plants...
March 13, 2020: American Journal of Botany
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 11, 2020: American Journal of Botany
Qiaoqiao Huang, Weiqian Wang, Spencer C H Barrett, Mingxun Ren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2020: American Journal of Botany
Kamil E Frankiewicz, Alexei Oskolski, Łukasz Banasiak, Francisco Fernandes, Jean-Pierre Reduron, Jorge-Alfredo Reyes-Betancort, Liliana Szczeparska, Mohammed Alsarraf, Jakub Baczyński, Krzysztof Spalik
PREMISE: Despite intensive research, the pathways and driving forces behind the evolution of derived woodiness on oceanic islands remain obscure. The genus Daucus comprises mostly herbs (therophytes, hemicryptophytes) with few rosette treelets (chamaephytes) endemic to various Macaronesian archipelagos, suggesting their independent evolution. To elucidate the evolutionary pathways to derived woodiness, we examined phylogenetic relationships and the habit and secondary xylem evolution in Daucus and related taxa...
March 8, 2020: American Journal of Botany
Catarina Siopa, Maria C Dias, Mariana Castro, João Loureiro, Sílvia Castro
PREMISE: Newly formed polyploids face significant obstacles to persistence and population establishment because of fitness costs of intercytotype mating. Selfing provides the opportunity to escape mate limitation, enabling production of new individuals and increasing the likelihood of fixation of new polyploid lineages. Still, association between self-compatibility and polyploidy is not always clear. We compared self-incompatibility and inbreeding depression in neotetraploids and their diploid progenitor to explore the direct effects of whole genome duplications on self-incompatibility and the implications of ploidy-driven changes for polyploid establishment...
March 6, 2020: American Journal of Botany
Max R Brown, Natacha Frachon, Edgar L Y Wong, Chris Metherell, Alex D Twyford
PREMISE: Species delimitation in parasitic organisms is challenging because traits used to identify species are often plastic and vary depending on the host. Here, we use species from a recent radiation of generalist hemiparasitic Euphrasia to investigate trait variation and trait plasticity. We tested whether Euphrasia species show reliable trait differences, investigated whether these differences correspond to life history trade-offs between growth and reproduction, and quantified plasticity in response to host species...
March 4, 2020: American Journal of Botany
Juliana M L Lopes, Humberto Henrique de Carvalho, Cristiane Zorzatto, Ana Luisa S Azevedo, Marco Antonio Machado, Fátima Regina G Salimena, Richard M Grazul, Matthew A Gitzendanner, Douglas E Soltis, Pamela S Soltis, Lyderson F Viccini
PREMISE: Plant genomes vary in size and complexity due in part to polyploidization. Latitudinal analyses of polyploidy are biased toward floras of temperate regions, with much less research done in the tropics. Lippia alba has been described as a tropical polyploid complex with diploid, triploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid accessions. However, no data regarding relationships among the ploidal levels and their origins have been reported. Our goals are to clarify the relationships among accessions of Lippia alba and the origins of each ploidal level...
March 1, 2020: American Journal of Botany
Karl J Niklas, William L Crepet
PREMISE: Perhaps the most rapid period of vascular plant evolution occurred during the Silurian-Devonian time interval. Yet, few quantitative analyses have established the extent to which anatomical, morphological, or reproductive features contributed to this episode of tracheophyte diversification. METHODS: Phylogenetic analyses were performed using a newly revised matrix of 54 characters (with 158 character states) of 37 of the best-preserved Paleozoic (predominantly Devonian) plants...
February 27, 2020: American Journal of Botany
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2020: American Journal of Botany
Georgia L Denbigh, Adrian N Dauphinee, Meredith S Fraser, Christian R Lacroix, Arunika H L A N Gunawardena
PREMISE: Lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis) leaves are remodeled via developmental programmed cell death (PCD) to produce perforations located equidistantly between longitudinal and transverse veins. Auxin has been implicated in other developmental PCD processes in plants; however, the role of auxin in perforation formation in lace plant is unknown. Here the role of auxin in developmental PCD in lace plant was studied using two auxin inhibitors N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), an auxin transport inhibitor, and auxinole, a potent auxin antagonist...
April 2020: American Journal of Botany
Kohtaroh Shutoh, Yuko Tajima, Jun Matsubayashi, Ichiro Tayasu, Syou Kato, Takashi Shiga, Kenji Suetsugu
PREMISE: Difficulties in comparing extremely divergent features in fully mycoheterotrophic plants with those in closely related chlorophyllous plants have complicated attempts to reveal the evolutionary patterns and processes of fully mycoheterotrophic plants. Albino mutants of partially mycoheterotrophic plants, generally observed in Orchidaceae, have provided an ideal model for investigating the evolution of mycoheterotrophy within similar genetic backgrounds. In 2018, we found a putative albino population of Pyrola (Ericaceae)...
April 2020: American Journal of Botany
Armel S L Donkpegan, Rosalía Piñeiro, Myriam Heuertz, Jérôme Duminil, Kasso Daïnou, Jean-Louis Doucet, Olivier J Hardy
PREMISE: Few studies have addressed the evolutionary history of tree species from African savannahs. Afzelia contains economically important timber species, including two species widely distributed in African savannahs: A. africana in the Sudanian region and A. quanzensis in the Zambezian region. We aimed to infer whether these species underwent range fragmentation and/or demographic changes, possibly reflecting how savannahs responded to Quaternary climate changes. METHODS: We characterized the genetic diversity and structure of these species across their distribution ranges using nuclear microsatellites (SSRs) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) markers...
March 2020: American Journal of Botany
M Kate Gallagher, Diane R Campbell
PREMISE: Flowering time may influence pollination success and seed set through a variety of mechanisms, including seasonal changes in total pollinator visitation or the composition and effectiveness of pollinator visitors. METHODS: We investigated mechanisms by which changes in flowering phenology influence pollination and reproductive success of Mertensia ciliata (Boraginaceae). We manipulated flowering onset of potted plants and assessed the frequency and composition of pollinator visitors, as well as seed set...
March 2020: American Journal of Botany
Jessica J Armstrong, Naoki Takebayashi, Diana E Wolf
PREMISE: Cold tolerance is an important factor limiting the geographic distribution and growing season for many plant species, yet few studies have examined variation in cold tolerance extensively within and among closely related species and compared that to their geographic distribution. METHODS: This study examines cold tolerance within and among species in the genus Arabidopsis. We assessed cold tolerance by measuring electrolyte leakage from detached leaves in multiple populations of five Arabidopsis taxa...
February 24, 2020: American Journal of Botany
Monica R Grasty, Pamela G Thompson, Elizabeth C Hendrickson, Avery E Pheil, Mitchell B Cruzan
PREMISE: Seed dispersal allows plants to colonize new sites and contributes to gene flow among populations. Despite its fundamental importance to ecological and evolutionary processes, our understanding of seed dispersal is limited due to the difficulty of directly observing dispersal events. This is particularly true for the majority of plant species that are considered to have gravity as their primary dispersal mechanism. The potential for long-distance movement of gravity-dispersed seeds by secondary dispersal vectors is rarely evaluated...
February 23, 2020: American Journal of Botany
Sevan S Suni, Benjamin Ainsworth, Robin Hopkins
PREMISE: Understanding how environmental stress affects the strength of mutualisms is critically important given observed and projected environmental changes. In particular, the frequency and duration of drought have been increasing worldwide. We investigated how water availability affects plant traits that mediate a pollination mutualism. METHODS: For butterfly-pollinated Phlox drummondii, we determined how moisture availability affects flower size, nectar volume, and nectar sugar amount...
February 20, 2020: American Journal of Botany
Jennifer Blake-Mahmud, Lena Struwe
PREMISE: Environmental sex determination (ESD) is a rare sex determination system in which individuals may switch sex expression throughout their lifetimes in response to environmental factors. In sexually stable species, individuals usually bear more female flowers if the plants are larger, have greater access to limiting resources, or are in better condition. Research regarding sexually plastic species with ESD and how resources correlate with sex expression is limited. Furthermore, most research investigates resources at the population level, failing to account for resources available to individuals for growth, maintenance, or reproduction...
February 20, 2020: American Journal of Botany
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