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American Journal of Botany | Page 2

Frida I Piper, Michael J Gundale, Tomás Fuenzalida, Alex Fajardo
PREMISE: Two fundamental hypotheses on herbivore resistance and leaf habit are the resource availability hypothesis (RAH) and the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis (CNBH). The RAH predicts higher constitutive resistance by evergreens, and the CNBH predicts higher induced resistance by deciduous species. Although support for these hypotheses is mixed, they have rarely been examined in congeneric species. METHODS: We compared leaf constitutive and induced resistance (as leaf polyphenol and tannin concentrations, and as damage level in non-choice experiments) and leaf traits associated with herbivory of coexisting Nothofagus species using (1) a defoliation experiment and (2) natural defoliation caused by an outbreak of a common defoliator of Nothofagus species...
May 26, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Akira S Hirao, Yoshiko Shimono, Kenji Narita, Naoya Wada, Gaku Kudo
PREMISE: Divergent selection due to environmental heterogeneity can lead to local adaptation. However, the ecological and evolutionary processes of local adaptation that occurs across multiple regions are often unknown. Our previous studies reported on the ecotypic divergence within a local area of variation of Potentilla matsumurae, an alpine herb adapted to the fellfield-snowbed environment. Here we investigated large-scale geographic patterns of ecotypic differentiation in this species to infer local adaptation and selective forces across multiple regions...
May 23, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Elizabeth L Spriggs, Caroline Schlutius, Deren A Eaton, Brian Park, Patrick W Sweeney, Erika J Edwards, Michael J Donoghue
PREMISE: We take an integrative approach in assessing how introgression and Pleistocene climate fluctuations have shaped the diversification of the core Lentago clade of Viburnum, a group of five interfertile species with broad areas of sympatry. We specifically tested whether flowering time plays a role in maintaining species isolation. METHODS: RAD-seq data for 103 individuals were used to infer the species relationships and the genetic structure within each species...
May 23, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Cody Coyotee Howard, Ryan A Folk, Jeremy M Beaulieu, Nico Cellinese
PREMISE: Geophytes-plants that typically possess a bulb, corm, tuber, and/or rhizome-have long captured the attention of hobbyists and researchers. However, despite the economic and evolutionary importance of these traits, the potential drivers of their morphological diversity remain unknown. Using a comprehensive phylogeny of monocots, we test for correlations between climate and geophyte growth form to better understand why we observe such a diversity of underground traits in geophytes...
May 20, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Shelley A Sianta, Kathleen M Kay
PREMISE: Adaptation to harsh edaphic substrates has repeatedly led to the evolution of edaphic specialists and generalists. Yet, it is unclear what factors promote specialization versus generalization. Here, we search for habitat use patterns associated with serpentine endemics (specialists) and serpentine tolerators (generalists) to indirectly test the hypothesis that trade-offs associated with serpentine adaptation promote specialization. We predict that (1) endemics have adapted to chemically harsher and more bare serpentine habitats than tolerators, and (2) edaphic endemics show more habitat divergence from their sister species than tolerators do among on- and off-serpentine populations...
May 9, 2019: American Journal of Botany
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Julia Dupin, Stacey D Smith
PREMISE: The distributions of plant clades are shaped by abiotic and biotic factors as well as historical aspects such as center of origin. Dispersals between distant areas may lead to niche evolution when lineages are established in new environments. Alternatively, dispersing lineages may exhibit niche conservatism, moving between areas with similar environmental conditions. Here we test these contrasting hypotheses in the Datureae clade (Solanaceae). METHODS: We used maximum likelihood methods to estimate the ancestral range of Datureae along with the history of biogeographic events...
May 6, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Thomas N Buckley, Lawren Sack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Jeremy M Beaulieu, Brian C O'Meara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Jacob M Heiling, Daniel Cook, Stephen T Lee, Rebecca E Irwin
PREMISE: Optimal defense theory predicts that selection should drive plants to disproportionally allocate resources for herbivore defense to tissues with high fitness values. Because pollen's primary role is the transport of gametes, plants may be expected to defend it from herbivory. However, for many animal-pollinated plants, pollen serves a secondary role as a pollinator reward. These dual roles may present a conflict between selection to defend pollen from herbivores and selection to reward pollinators...
May 2, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Jill S Miller, Caitlin M Blank, Rachel A Levin
PREMISE: As Baker's law suggests, the successful colonization of oceanic islands is often associated with uniparental reproduction (self-fertility), but the high incidence of dimorphism (dioecy, gynodioecy) on islands complicates this idea. Lycium carolinianum is widespread, occurring on the North American mainland and the Hawaiian Islands. We examined Baker's ideas for mainland and island populations of L. carolinianum and examined inbreeding depression as a possible contributor to the evolution of gynodioecy on Maui...
May 1, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Kyra A Prats, Craig R Brodersen, Mark S Ashton
PREMISE: Water deficit and drought conditions are increasing in intensity, frequency, and duration in the Iberian Peninsula. We observed natural variation in leaf traits across the range of Quercus suber L. (cork oak), an ecologically important species within this region. Stomatal traits (e.g., pore length, maximum aperture) and carbon isotope composition (δ13 C) provide an opportunity to examine the integrative effects of drought and dry-season intensity on leaf development, maximum stomatal conductance, and adaptation to precipitation regimes...
April 29, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Chang-Qiu Liu, Yun-Dong Gao, Yang Niu, Ying-Ze Xiong, Hang Sun
PREMISE: Evolutionary transitions among floral morphologies, many of which provide evidence for adaptation to novel pollinators, are common. Some trumpet-shaped flowers are among the largest flowers in angiosperms, occurring in different lineages. Our goal was to investigate the role of pollinators in the evolution of these flowers using Lilium. METHODS: We investigated floral traits and pollinators of L. primulinum var. ochraceum and L. brownii var. viridulum and reviewed reports of visitors to huge trumpet-shaped flowers...
April 25, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Susan J Mazer, Joseph P Chellew, Kristen Peach
PREMISE: Strong correlations between traits can obscure their independent effects on components of reproduction. Style length (SL) and petal area (PA) vary within species, for example, but their independent effects on the opportunity for selection among pollen genotypes are poorly understood. Previous work in Clarkia detected a positive effect of SL on pollen receipt, potentially intensifying selection. However, this apparent effect of SL may be influenced by a correlated trait, such as PA...
April 25, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Laura P Lagomarsino, Nathan Muchhala
PREMISE: Closely related plant species with overlapping ranges often experience competition for pollination services. Such competition can select for divergence in floral traits that attract pollinators or determine pollen placement. While most species in Centropogon (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae) have flowers that suggest adaptation to bat or hummingbird pollination, actual pollinators are rarely documented, and a few species have a mix of traits from both pollination syndromes. We studied the pollination biology of a "mixed-syndrome" species and its co-occurring congeners to examine the relationship between floral traits and visitation patterns for Centropogon...
April 25, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Wilnelia Recart, Brittany Ottoson, Diane R Campbell
PREMISE: Outcrossing species depend on pollen from conspecific individuals that may not be exposed to the same abiotic conditions as maternal plants. Additionally, many flowers receive heterospecific pollen, which can also influence seed production. Studies aimed to understand how abiotic conditions influence seed production tend to focus on maternal conditions and leave unexplored the effect of abiotic conditions experienced by pollen donors. We tested how water availability to pollen donors, both conspecific and heterospecific, influenced the seed production of recipient plants exposed to different water availability regimes...
April 19, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Dylan O Burge, V Thomas Parker, Margaret Mulligan, Victoria L Sork
PREMISE: In plant groups with limited intrinsic barriers to gene flow, it is thought that environmental conditions can modulate interspecific genetic exchange. Oaks are known for limited barriers to gene flow among closely related species. Here, we use Quercus as a living laboratory in which to pursue a fundamental question in plant evolution: Do environmental gradients restrict or promote genetic exchange between species? METHODS: We focused on two North American oaks, the rare Quercus dumosa and the widespread Q...
June 2019: American Journal of Botany
Natalie Cusimano, Susanne S Renner
PREMISE: Parasitic plants with large geographic ranges, and different hosts in parts of their range, may acquire horizontally transferred genes (HGTs), which might sometimes leave a footprint of gradual host and range expansion. Cynomorium coccineum, the only member of the Saxifragales family Cynomoriaceae, is a root holoparasite that occurs in water-stressed habitats from western China to the Canary Islands. It parasitizes at least 10 angiosperm families from different orders, some of them only in parts of its range...
May 2019: American Journal of Botany
Taylor M Crow, Jenn M Yost, Michelle S Huang, Matthew K Ritter
PREMISE: Monardella villosa is an evolutionarily young species complex distributed across a large geographic range. Our goal was to determine whether the phenotypic difference between two subspecies of M. villosa was heritable and whether the alternative phenotypes were adaptive to their respective local habitats. METHODS: We collected seeds from 25 populations of M. villosa, 14 from subspecies franciscana, which grows closer to the coast, and 11 from subspecies villosa, which has a larger and more inland geographic distribution...
May 2019: American Journal of Botany
Guillaume G Cossard, John R Pannell
PREMISE: Plants with separate sexes often show "inconstant" or "leaky" sex expression, with females or males producing a few flowers of the opposite sex. The frequency and degree of such inconstancy may reflect residual hermaphroditic sex allocation after an evolutionary transition from combined to separate sexes. Sex inconstancy also represents a possible first step in the breakdown of dioecy back to hermaphroditism. In the Mercurialis annua (Euphorbiaceae) species complex, monoecy and androdioecy have evolved from dioecy in polyploid populations...
May 2019: American Journal of Botany
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